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Eleva Tus Restricciones Hasta Romperlas

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La Teoría de Restricciones aplicada logra transformar empresas.

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Eleva Tus Restricciones Hasta Romperlas

  1. 1. Eleva tus restricciones hasta romperlas! Seminario de Competitividad
  2. 2. El mundo está cambiando… <ul><li>Cambios en factores externos e internos requieren adaptación </li></ul><ul><li>Proceso de cambio solo tiene éxito si la visión del mismo es compartida </li></ul><ul><li>Es necesario encontrar un punto de apalancamiento  Identificar le restricción de la empresa </li></ul>
  3. 3. Enfoque tradicional... <ul><li>Reductionism vs. Systems Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Tendencia de partir los problemas en partes y sub-partes administrables (centros de costos, áreas funcionales, etc.) no funciona </li></ul><ul><li>Costos no obedecen la regla aditiva en un sistema dinámico </li></ul><ul><li>Enfoque tradicional fomenta conflictos </li></ul>Ventas Compras Distribución
  4. 4. Óptimos locales Estrategia Reingeniería TQM ERP Unificación Capacitación
  5. 5. Punto de apalancamiento <ul><li>Encontrar punto de apalancamiento (mercado, distribución, operaciones, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Una cadena es tan fuerte como el más débil de sus eslabones </li></ul><ul><li>Hay que enfocarse en el eslabón más débil para aumentar el desempeño integral del sistema </li></ul><ul><li>Mientras más complejo el problema, más sencilla tiene que ser su solución </li></ul>Marco de referencia
  6. 6. ¿Cómo medir el éxito? <ul><li>Las métricas tradicionales no tienen un enfoque integral </li></ul><ul><li>Cada métrica es parte de una cadena de vínculos entre causa y efecto </li></ul><ul><li>Todas las métricas eventualmente vinculan resultados organizacionales </li></ul><ul><li>Existe un balance entre métricas de resultado (financieras, cliente) y manejadores de desempeño (proposición de valor, procesos internos, aprendizaje y crecimiento) </li></ul>Métricas
  7. 7. ¿Cómo medir el éxito? <ul><li>Parámetros que definen el desempeño del sistema: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Truput o “Taza a la cual es sistema genera efectivo” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inversiones (inmuebles, maquinaria, materia prima, sistemas de información, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gastos operativos (salarios, depreciación, arrendamiento, manufactura, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Utilidades = Truput – Gastos Operativos </li></ul><ul><li>Retorno sobre inversión = Utilidades / Inversión </li></ul><ul><li>Productividad = Truput / Gastos Operativos </li></ul><ul><li>Rotación = Truput / Inventario </li></ul>Métricas que funcionan
  8. 8. Mejoramiento continuo <ul><li>El proceso de mejoramiento organizacional incluye cinco pasos y áreas claves: </li></ul>Proceso de mejoramiento Identificación de la restricción Elevación de la restricción Si la restricción quebró – regresar al primer paso Explotar la restricción Subordinación de todos los demás procesos / áreas <ul><li>Ver el sistema de forma integral </li></ul><ul><li>Inversiones – solo si produce beneficios tangibles o ahorros reales </li></ul><ul><li>Centros de utilidades – sistema de medición que permita identificarlos </li></ul><ul><li>Hacer o compara </li></ul><ul><li>Costo y ganancia de productos </li></ul><ul><li>Cuidado con la inercia </li></ul>
  9. 9. ¿Cómo se comportan los clientes? Mercadeo „ Marketing – Spreading the corn so the ducks will want to come to your field. Sales – Taking a gun and shooting the sitting ducks. If the ducks are not sitting in your field, don‘t blame sales!“* *G. Kendall; Viable Vision
  10. 10. Granos con demanda … <ul><li>La mayoría de empresas tiene su restricción en el mercado </li></ul><ul><li>Mercadeo tiene que incrementar la percepción de valor </li></ul><ul><li>El precio de un producto se tiene que ajustar a dicho valor </li></ul><ul><li>Formular una oferta irresistible (cambios en políticas y prácticas) </li></ul><ul><li>Comunicación de la oferta – capacitación de vendedores </li></ul><ul><li>Segmentación de mercados y no de recursos </li></ul>Mercadeo
  11. 11. ¿Incentivos adecuados? <ul><li>„ Tell me how you measure me and I will tell you how I will behave. If my measurements are not clear, no one can predict how I will behave – not even me!“* </li></ul>Operaciones *G. Kendall; Viable Vision
  12. 12. Marco general <ul><li>Operaciones describe la secuencia e interacción de procesos directamente relacionados a la producción de un producto o servicio </li></ul><ul><li>Operaciones tiene tres metas generales: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Entrega a tiempo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tiempo de entrega competitivo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Producto o servicio competitivo </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cada empresa tiene un límite de capacidad y simultáneamente excesos de capacidad </li></ul><ul><li>Restricciones no son identificadas ni explotadas </li></ul>Operaciones
  13. 13. Marco general <ul><li>Gestión de operaciones en base a la eficiente utilización de los recursos </li></ul><ul><li>Sistemas contables favoreces estas operaciones  Inventario se contabiliza como activo </li></ul><ul><li>Consecuencias: Incremento de inventario, gastos operativos  decremento del “truput” </li></ul><ul><li>Solución: 5 pasos – DBR (Drum Buffer Rope) </li></ul>1 2 3 5 6 Buffer Rope Drum – 100% Paradigma
  14. 14. Marco general <ul><li>Las nuevas reglas para operaciones son: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No enfocarse en eficiencias locales – excepto en la restricción </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reportes y procesos para coordinar y establecer el flujo de materiales hacia la restricción y determinar sus respectivas prioridades </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determinar el inventario protectivo mediante diversas metodologías de análisis estadístico (fluctuaciones) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitorear tiempos de entrega y productos en procesamiento – elaborar sistema de medición y mejoramiento </li></ul></ul>Operaciones
  15. 15. Sobrepasando la distancia.. <ul><li>„ McDonald‘s has so many inventory turns, there is a high probability that the hamburger you are eating was mooing yesterday“* </li></ul>Distribución *G. Kendall; Viable Vision
  16. 16. Malas prácticas <ul><li>Productores fuerzan el inventario a través de la cadena. </li></ul><ul><li>Sistemas de medición (rotación de inventario, contabilidad de costos, etc.) lo favorecen. </li></ul><ul><li>Sistema de mínimos y máximos no es favorable </li></ul><ul><li>Consecuencia: Exceso en inventario, pérdida de clientes, promociones no adecuadas, tendencias no visibles, etc. </li></ul>Distribución
  17. 17. Marco general <ul><li>Las nuevas reglas para la distribución son: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Almacenamiento del inventario donde haya mayor previsibilidad (usualmente a nivel macro) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abastecimiento basado en la demanda </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reducción de los tiempos de abastecimiento por medio de sistemas informáticos que automáticamente generan pedidos en base a las ventas. </li></ul></ul>P I I D I R I R I D P I I D I R I R I D Distribución P: Producer D: Distributor R: Retailer I: Inventory Enfoque Tradicional Enfoque con TOC
  18. 18. Un gran hito.. <ul><li>„ Projects follow the two cubed (2 3 ) rule. They take two times as long as planned, cost two times as much, and promise two times what they actaully deliver!“* </li></ul>Administración de proyectos *G. Kendall; Viable Vision
  19. 19. Marco general <ul><li>Nuevo marco de referencia: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No transformar estimaciones en compromisos </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evitar el síndrome del estudiante, usar estimaciones reales </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enfoque en la fecha límite del proyecto, no de la tarea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Definir la cadena más larga de eventos interrelacionados, tomando en consideración dependencias en tareas y recursos </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ejecutar tareas críticas lo más rápido posible (subordinación) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establecer tiempo extra / de seguridad al final del proyecto – no después de cada tarea </li></ul></ul>Administración de proyectos
  20. 20. Enfoque integral <ul><li>„ The purpose of measurement is to motivate the parts to do what is good for the supply chain as a whole“ </li></ul>Cadena de Abastecimiento *G. Kendall; Viable Vision
  21. 21. Marco general <ul><li>Es necesario medir el desempeño de la cadena de forma integral </li></ul><ul><li>No hay venta, si el consumidor final no ha comprado! </li></ul><ul><li>El sistema de medición tiene que tomar en cuenta a todos los miembros y alinearlos: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pérdida de truput debido a tardanzas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Costo de la materia prima que se encuentra en la cadena multiplicado por la cantidad de días que permanece en la cadena. </li></ul></ul>Cadena de Abastecimiento
  22. 22. „ Implementing new computer systems changes nothing, unless you diminish a limitation that is blocking the goal of your organization.“ *G. Kendall; Viable Vision

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