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Plagiarism and Techniques to Avoid Plagiarism

Scientific integrity calls for some basic originality. Plagiarism can destroy this original creativity and ideation. This presentation defines plagiarism (stealing from others' works) and some of the creative and systematic remedies.

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Plagiarism and Techniques to Avoid Plagiarism

  1. 1. Plagiarism and Techniques to Avoid Plagiarism Dr. Bhaswat S. Chakraborty Emeritus Professor, Institute of Pharmacy, Nirma University Former Senior VP & Chair, R&D Core Committee, Cadila Pharma Former Senior Reviewer, TPD Health Canada (Canadian FDA)
  2. 2. Can there be Two (or >2) Originals of the Same Idea? 2
  3. 3. 3Mail Online, Saturday, Jun 2nd 2018
  4. 4. 4https://www.nasa.gov/vision/universe/starsgalaxies/28mar_gamma.html
  5. 5. • “The secret to creativity is knowing how to hide your sources • Creativity is knowing how to hide your sources • The key to originality is hiding your sources” Popularly attributed to Albert Einstein 5
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  7. 7. PART 1: Problem and the Vulnerables 7
  8. 8. ”Plagiarism” according to Mariam-Webster • Plgiarize • transitive verb • to steal and pass off (the ideas or words of another) as one's own : use (another's production) without crediting the source • intransitive verb • to commit literary theft : present as new and original an idea or product derived from an existing source • Etymology • Plagiarize (and plagiarism) comes from the Latin plagiarius “kidnapper” • Derived from the Latin plaga (“a net used by hunters to catch game”), extended its meaning in Latin to include a person who stole the words, rather than the children, of another • A SERIOUS offence-- isn't it? 8
  9. 9. Middle Tennessee State University Judicial Affairs • “The adoption or reproduction of ideas, words, statements, images, or works of another person as one’s own without proper acknowledgment.” • Copying another’s entire paper and claiming it as one’s own. • Copying a part of another’s paper and claiming it as one’s own. • Copying information from a source and pretending that information is one’s own. • Copying information from a source word for word without putting quotes around those words— whether or not the source is cited there in the paper or on the bibliography page. • Copying information from a source but changing the words around without providing an in- text citation—whether or not the source is cited on the bibliography page. • Copying information incorrectly, putting quotation marks around it, including a proper in-text citation, and citing it properly on the bibliography page. • Copying information correctly with quotation marks, including a proper in-text citation, but nocitation on the bibliography page. • .. 9
  10. 10. Middle Tennessee State University Judicial Affairs.. • Copying information correctly with quotation marks, but including an improper in-text citation,while providing a correct citation on the bibliography page. • Copying information correctly with quotation marks, including a proper in-text citation, butproviding an incorrect citation on the bibliography page. • Paraphrasing information incorrectly, including a proper in-text citation, and citing it properly on the bibliography page. • Paraphrasing information correctly, including a proper in-text citation, but no citation on the bibliography page. • Paraphrasing information correctly, but including an improper in-text citation, while providing a correct citation on the bibliography page. • Paraphrasing information correctly, including a proper in-text citation, but providing an incorrect citation on the bibliography page. • Changing the spelling of a word, changing a letter from upper to lower case, or changing the verb tense in an exact quotation without indicating it as such with brackets or ellipses. 10
  11. 11. Example: Original Paper 11
  12. 12. Example: Plagiarized Paper 12
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  14. 14. Plagiarizing Words vs. Data • Don't misunderstand -- both are evil, but a common perception among many scientists is that Data plagiarism is worse • Probably because of harsher consequenses and • Word plagiarism can be unintentional and even accidental but data plagirism is always deliberately intentional • Stealing ideas, fake and cooked data are also data plagiarizing • There are some un-nerving examples of datplagiarism on ORI website • https://ori.hhs.gov/ • https://ori.hhs.gov/content/case_summary/ • Stay away from both! 14
  15. 15. Patchwriting • Original: • “[Patchwriting is] copying from a source text and then deleting some words, altering grammatical structures, or plugging in onesynonym for another.” • Patchwriting: • A student who patchwrites copies from a source and then deletes words, altersgrammatical structures, or uses one synonym for another. Kraft, Diane B., (2014). Law Faculty Popular Media. 9. https://uknowledge.uky.edu/law_facpub_pop/9 15
  16. 16. Perspective on the Scale of the Problem • “The New Plagiarism requires little effort and is geometrically more powerful. While the pre-modem student might misappropriate a dozen ideas from a handful of thinkers, the post-modem student can download and save hundreds of pages per hour. We have moved from the horse and buggy days of plagiarism to the Space Age without stopping for the horseless carriage.” McKenzie (1998),The Educational Technology Journal, vol. 7, no. 8, online at http://www.fno.org/may98/cov98may.html (last accessed 31 May 2018).16
  17. 17. 17RICHARD PÉREZ-PEÑA and JESS BIDGOOD,The New York Times AUG. 30, 2012
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  19. 19. US ORI Case Study 1 • Misconduct A previous notice of research misconduct findings based on Respondent’s prior admission (Fed. Reg. 82(117):28078- 28079, 2017 July 20) included eleven (11) figures in PLoS One 11 10):e0164378, 2016 in research supported by the National Institute of Environmental and Health Sciences (NIEHS), NIH, and the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), NIH. The Respondent has signed a statement confirming that she committed no additional instances of data manipulation. ORI found that Respondent engaged in research misconduct by falsifying data that were included in the first submission of a manuscript to ACS Chem. Biol. (hereafter referred to as the “Manuscript”) and in the final published version: Baughman, B.M., Pattenden, S.G., Norris, J.L., James, L.I., & Frye, S.V. “The L3MBTL3 methyl-lysine reader domain functions as a dimer.” ACS Chem. Biol. 11:722-728, 2016 (hereafter referred to as “ACS 2016”). The paper was retracted in: ACS Chem. Biol. 13(1):281, 2018 Jan 19. • Consequence Because Dr. Baughman knew when she signed the 2017 Agreement with ORI that there was an additional paper with falsified figures, she agreed to exclude herself voluntarily from any contracting or subcontracting with any agency of the United States Government and from eligibility or involvement in nonprocurement programs of the United States Government referred to as “covered transactions” pursuant to HHS’ Implementation (2 C.F.R. Part 376) of OMB Guidelines to Agencies on Governmentwide Debarment and Suspension, 2 C.F.R. Part 180 (collectively the “Debarment Regulations”); this Agreement supersedes the terms of the previous supervision Agreement that included three (3) years of research supervision, which began on May 17, 2017; and Dr. Baughman agreed to exclude herself voluntarily from serving in any advisory capacity to the U.S. Public Health Service (PHS) including, but not limited to, service on any PHS advisory committee, board, and/or peer review committee, or as a consultant. https://ori.hhs.gov/case-summary-baughman-brandi-m19
  20. 20. US ORI Case Study 2 • Misconduct ORI found that Respondent engaged in research misconduct by intentionally and knowingly falsifying and/or fabricating data that were included in the following two (2) published papers and two (2) grant progress reports submitted to NIDCR, NIH: PLoS One 10(6):e0128753, 2015 Jun 2 (hereafter referred to as “PLoS One 2015”) Cancer 121(14):2367-74, 2015 Jul 15 (hereafter referred to as “Cancer 2015”) Retracted in: Cancer 124(4):869, 2018 Specifically, ORI found that Respondent engaged in research misconduct by recording dates and providing her own blood samples to cause these samples to be falsely labeled as samples from ninety-eight (98) study subjects in a cancer genetics study ... This resulted in the reporting of false data in Tables 1, 2, 3, and 4 in PLoS One 2015, in Figure 1 and Tables 1, 2, 3, and 4 in Cancer 2015, and in the Results sections of Project 2 progress reports for NIDCR, NIH, grants 5 U01 DE019765-04 and 5 U01 DE019765-05. • Consequence (1) to have her research supervised for a period of three (3) years; Respondent agreed to ensure that ... the institution employing her must submit a plan for supervision of Respondent’s duties to ORI for approval; ... (2) that for a period of three (3) years, any institution employing her must submit, in conjunction with each application for PHS funds, or report, manuscript, or abstract involving PHS-supported research in which Respondent is involved, a certification to ORI that the data provided by Respondent are based on actual experiments ... (3) if no supervisory plan is provided to ORI, to provide certification to ORI on an annual basis for a period of three (3) years ... (4) to exclude herself voluntarily from serving in any advisory capacity to PHS ... (5) to the correction or retraction of PLoS One 10(6):e0128753, 2015 Jun 2. https://ori.hhs.gov/case-summary-elqutub-maria-cristina-miron20
  21. 21. US ORI Case Study 3 • Misconduct ...(Respondent), former Research Associate Professor, Department of Vision Sciences, UAB, committed research misconduct in research supported by PHS grants, specifically NIAID, NIH, grants R01 AI051615, R01 AI032078, and R01 AI045623; NHLBI, NIH, grants P01 HL034343 and R01 HL064272; and NIDDK, NIH, grant R01 DK046900. ..... intentionally, knowingly, or recklessly engaged in research misconduct by falsifying and/or fabricating X-ray crystallographic data for eleven (11) protein structures and falsely reporting them as experimentally derived from X-ray diffraction experiments in nine (9) publications and in twelve (12) deposits in the PDB. ORI found that Respondent intentionally, knowingly, or recklessly falsified and/or fabricated the PDB coordinate files deposited for all of the eleven (11) structures (PDB entries 2HR0, 1BEF, 1RID, 1Y8E, 2A01, 1CMW, 1G40, 1G44, 2OU1, 1L6L, 2QID, and 1DF9) and the X-ray diffraction data (structure factors) corresponding to six (6) of the eleven (11) structures (PDB entries 2HR0, 1BEF, 1RID, 1Y8E, 2A01, and 1CMW). • Consequence .. is debarred for a period of ten (10) years from eligibility for any contracting or subcontracting with any agency of the United States Government and from eligibility for or involvement in nonprocurement programs of the United States Government, referred to as “covered transactions,” pursuant to HHS’ Implementation (2 C.F.R. Part 376) of Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Guidelines to Agencies on Governmentwide Debarment and Suspension (2 C.F.R. Part 180); .. is prohibited from serving in any advisory capacity to PHS including, but not limited to, service on any PHS advisory committee, board, and/or peer review committee, or as a consultant for a period of ten (10) years; and ORI will send a notice to the pertinent journals of the following publications that require retraction or correction ... § 93.411(b): Cell 104:301-311, 2001 Biochem. 41:11681-11691, 2002 Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101:8924-8929, 2004 ... https://ori.hhs.gov/case-summary-murthy-krishna-hm21
  22. 22. Unintentional Plagiarism: when Native Language is not English • Believe it or not, “One of the most difficult tasks in writing in a second language is paraphrasing— putting someone else’s ideas into your own words.”1 • Plagiarism was not believed to be addressed in classrooms in Hong Kong and South Korea because teachers were not concerned about it.2 • In traditional Chinese rhetoric, 1,2 writers (second language writers) could combine their own ideas with those of others without attribution because it was understood that readers would be familiar with the sources.3 • However, there is no consensus that “culturaldifferences predispose writers to write in a way that is likely to be called plagiarism”4 1Kraft, Diane B., (2014). Law Faculty Popular Media. 9. https://uknowledge.uky.edu/law_facpub_pop/9.2Diane Pecorari, Teaching to Avoid Plagiarism 109 (2013). 3Joel Bloch, Plagiarism, Intellectual Property and the Teaching of L2 Writing 3, 19 (2012). 4Pecorari, supra note 2, at 111.22
  23. 23. PART 2: Solutions 23
  24. 24. Understanding Root Causes (Intrapersonal) • Dull unawareeness • No idea whatsoever about the issue or consequences • Disregard for consesquence • Somewhat aware but who cares • Intentful overconfidence • Knows but indulges in devilish over-courage • Intellectual or gross greed • Greed to be called “mine” overpowers the ability to paraphrase or summarize • Low self esteem • Does not know the loss of one's personal worth, reputation 24
  25. 25. Understanding Root Causes (Technical, Compulsive & Cultural) • Poor time management skills and an inability to cope with the workload • Lack of motivation to excel because of perception that the Professor of the class has little enthusiasm for the subject • Increased external pressure to succeed From parents are fears or for financial reasons • An innate desire to take on and test the system • Cultural differences in learning and presenting • in some setting it is considered normal custom and practice to quote the experts without citation William J., 2005,Plagiarism: Deterrence, Prevention and Detection,Universitas 21Global, p 725
  26. 26. Simple Strategies to Overcome Plagiarism • “Quotations • must be identical to the original, using a narrow segment of the source. They must match the source document word for word and must be attributed to the original author. Paraphrasing involves putting a passagefrom source material into your own words. A paraphrase must also be attributed to the originalsource. • Paraphrases • Paraphrased material is usually shorter than the original passage, taking a somewhat broader segment of the source and condensing it slightly. Summarizing involves putting the main idea(s) into your own words, including only the main point(s). Once again, it is necessary to attribute summarized ideas to the original source. • Summaries • are significantly shorter than the original and take a broad overview of the source material.” Source: Purdue OWL, “Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing” 26
  27. 27. The Writer’s Burden of Transparency • The writer should competently know: a) the identity of the text’s origins b) the language of the text c) the content of a source • Readers make a number of assumptions based on the principle of transparency; related to plagiarism include the following: 1. that language which is not signaled as quotation is original to the writer; 2. that if no citation is present, both the content and the form are original to the writer; 3. that the writer consulted the source which is cited. D. Pecorari, Journal of Second Language Writing 12 (2003) 317–34527
  28. 28. Strategies that Institues Use to Minimize Plagiarism • Encouage and reinforce originality • Promoting and administering clear institution-wide policies for academic honesty • Using electronic detection tools (next slide) to find sources of plagiarized data orphrases • Teaching the proper use of sources by defining plagiarism and methods of citation • Designing unique assignments to minimize opportunity for plagiarism Adapted from Salmons J, Expect Originality, in Student Plagirism..., Information Science Reference,28-226 28
  29. 29. Teaching Originality at Institutes • Just absence of plagiarism is not enough; one can change the words and paraphrase well not to be detected by Turnitin • The real achievement is to write with some degree of originality and it can be taught! • Students can be taught and encuraged to: • Develop their own viewpoint; develop their own writing especially long hand writing • Discuss with peers what they have written • Not be afraid of making mistakes in writing • Never to consider plagiarism as an alternative • Have supervised group writing without access to intenet or hardcopy texts 29
  30. 30. Policies of Academic Honesty • Have a dedicated team for the purpose • Every Institute should carfully and stringently formulate policies for academic honesty and no plagiarism • Introduce them, display them, teach them and reinforce them • Implement warning, reprimand and punishments • Emulate the universities and institutes who have strong antiplagiarism policies and practice them • Of course Match the offence and punishment 30
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  32. 32. Online Websites to Catch Plagiarism • http://www.turnitin.com/ • http://www.ithenticate.com/ • http://www.duplichecker.com/ • http://smallseotools.com/plagiarism-checker/ • http://www.plagium.com/ • www.articlechecker.com/ • .... Various internet sources32
  33. 33. How to Cite Sources • plagiarism.org says: • When sources are very important to your ideas, mention the author & work in a sentence that introduces your citation; if making a minor point, use references, footnotes, or endnotes • There are also different forms of citation for different disciplines and journals • Quote when the original author expresses an idea is the most effective means of communicating the point • List References: the authors' names; titles of the works; journal or publisher; dates of publication and page numbers • Footnotes are often used to make an interesting comment to a sentence but the comment is not directly related to the argument of your paragraph • Annotated bibliography, used sometimes, where the bibliographic information is followed by a brief description of the content, quality, and usefulness http://www.plagiarism.org/article/how-do-i-cite-sources33
  34. 34. 34Dr.Davis Tobac, Texas AM University, http://slideplayer.com/slide/5210755/
  35. 35. • The secret to creativity is knowing how to cite your sources • Creativity is knowing how to cite your sources •The beauty of originality is knowing that cheating can kill your creativity and Pay tribute to Albert Einstein35
  36. 36. Designing Unique Assignments to Minimize Opportunity for Plagiarism • Prevent plagiarism by designing assignments that expect learners to respect others ideas and strive to create original work • Cognitive and Affective means of Bloom's Taxonomy or the authors' Taxonomy of Collaborative e-Learning can serve as conceptual frameworks for designing assignments that 1. Expect learners to present original work; 2. Provide opportunities for learners to develop new ideas through meaningful online interaction; and 3. Value learners ideas while respecting published authors intellectual property Adapted from Salmons J, Expect Originality, in Student Plagirism..., Information Science Reference,28-22636
  37. 37. Bloom's Taxonomy Bloom, B. S.; Engelhart, M. D.; Furst, E. J.; Hill, W. H.; Krathwohl, D. R. (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives: The classification of educational goals. Handbook I: Cognitive domain. New York: David McKay Company. 37
  38. 38. Concluding Remarks • Plagiarism is indeed a big problem in academia these days and has various types and levels • The scale of the problem is huge mainly because of the easy availability of internet sources • There areserious consequenes of plagiarism including harsh personal and career losses • An understanding of the root causes and writers' responsibilities is necessary • For preventing and minimizing plagiarism, institutescan use the following strategies: • Encouage and reinforce originality • Promoting and administering clear institution-wide policies for academic honesty • Using electronic detection tools to find sources of plagiarized data orphrases • Teaching the proper use of sources by defining plagiarism and methods of citation • Designing unique assignments to minimize opportunity for plagiarism 38
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  40. 40. “Thank you very much” Source?? 40

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