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  1. 1. University of Rizal System- Cainta Ms. Gina Rose S Mercadejas BEE-SPED 4B Asssessment of Learning 2 Arranged by Mr. Eddie T. Abug BSE-TLE Professor: Dr. Rebecca Amagsila Ph. Chapter 2 PROCESS-ORIENTED PERFORMANCE -BASED ASSESSMENT Chapter 3 PRODUCT-ORIENTED PERFORMANCE-BASED ASSESSMENT Chapter 5 PORTFOLIO ASSESSMEN T METHODS
  4. 4. This chapter is concerned with process-oriented performance based assessment. Assessment is not an end in itself but a vehicle for educational improvement. Assessment is most effective when it reflects an understanding of learning as multidimensional, integrated, and revealed in performance over time.
  5. 5. 2.1 Process-Oriented Learning Competencies Information about outcome is of high importance; where students “ends up” matters greatly. But to improve outcomes, we need to know about students experience along the way about the curricula, teaching, and kind of students effort that lead to a particular outcomes.
  6. 6. • 2.1.1 Learning Competencies. • The learning objectives in process-oriented performance based assessment are stated in directly observable behaviors of the students. • Competencies • Defined as group or clusters of skills/ abilities for needed for a particular task. • Objectives generally focus on those behaviors which exemplify a “best practice” for the particular task. Such behaviors range from a “beginner” or novice level up to the level of an expert.
  7. 7. Ex. of learning competencies Task: recite a poem by Edgar Allan Poe, “The Raven”. Objectives: The activity aims to anable the students to recite a poem entitled “The Raven” by Edgar Allan Poe. Specifically: 1. Recite the poem from memory without referring to notes; 2. Use appropriate hand body gestures in delivering the piece; 3. Maintain eye contact with the audience while reciting the poem.
  8. 8. • 4. Create the ambiance of the poem through appropriate rising and falling intonation; • 5. Pronounce the words clearly and with proper diction. • The following are simple competencies: • 1. Speak with a well-modulated voice; • 2. Draw a straight line from one point to another point; • 3. Color a leaf with a green crayon.
  9. 9. The following are complex competencies: 1. Recite a poem with feeling using appropriate voice quality, facial expressions and hand gestures; 2. Construct an equilateral triangle given three non-collinear points; 3. Draw and color a leaf with green crayon.
  10. 10. • 2.2 Task Designing • Learning tasks need to be carefully planned. Some generally accepted standards for designing a task include: • 1. Identifying an activity that would highlight the competencies to be evaluated e.g. Reciting a poem, writing an essay, manipulating the microscope. • 2. Identfying an activity that entail more or less the same competencies. • 3. Finding task that would be interesting and enjoyable for the students.
  11. 11. 2.3 Scoring Rubrics Rubric is a scale used to assess students performance along a task-specific set of criteria. Authentic assessments typically are criterion-referenced measures, that is, a student’s aptitude on task is determined by matching the student’s performance against a set of criteria to determine the degree to which the student’s performance meets the criteria for the task.
  12. 12. Recitation Rubric Criteria 1 2 3 Number of Appropriate Hand Gestures x1 1-4 5-9 10-12 Appropriate Facial Expression x1 Lots of inappropriate Facial expression Few inappropriate facial expression No apparent inappropriate facial expression Voice Inflection x2 Monotone voice used Can vary Voice inflection with difficulty Can easily vary voice inflection Incorporate proper ambiance through feelings in the voice x3 Recitation contains very little feelings Recitation has some feelings Recitation fully captures ambiance through feelings in the voice
  13. 13. Based on the example, a rubric is comprised of two components: criteria and levels of performance. The full criteria are statements of performance such as “include a sufficient number of hand gestures” and “recitation captures the ambiance through appropriate feelings and tone in the voice”. Descriptors • tell students more precisely what performance look like at each level and how their work may be distinguised from the work of others for each criterion.
  14. 14. Why include levels of performance ? Clear expectations It is very useful for the students and the teacher if the cruteria are udentified and communicated prior to completion of the task. Students know what is expected of them and teachers know what to look for in student performance. More consistent and objective assessment In addition to better communicating teacher expectations, levels of performance permit the teacher to more consistently and objectively distinguish between good and bad performance.
  15. 15. Better feedback • Furthermore, identifying specific levels of student performance allows the teacher to provide more detailed feedback to students. Analytic Versus Holistic Rubrics Analytic rubric articulates levels of performance for each criterion so the teacher can assess student performance on each criterion. Using the recitation rubric, a could assess whether a student has done a poor, good or excellent job of “creating ambiance” and distinguish that from how well the student did on “voice inflection.”
  16. 16. Holistic rubric in contrast, it does not list separate levels of performance for each criterion. For example, the analytic reseacrh rubric ca be turned into a holistic rubric: 3 – Excellent Speaker • Incuded 10-12 changes in hand gesture • No apprent inappropriate facial expressions • Utilizes proper voice inflection • Can create proper ambiance for the poem 2 – Good Speaker • Included 5-9 changes in hand gestures • Few inappropriate facial expressions • Have some inappropriate voice inflection changes • Almost creating proper anbiance 1 – Poor Speaker • Included 1-4 changes in hand gestures • Lots of inappropriate facial expressions • Uses monotones voice • Cannot crreate proper ambiance
  17. 17. When to choose an analytic rubric Analytic rubric are more common because teacher typically want to assess each criterion separately, particularly for assignments that invove a larger number of criteria. When to choose a holistic rubric Holistic rubric tend to be used when a quick or gross jugdement needs to be made.
  18. 18. Chapter 3 PRODUCT-ORIENTED PERFORMANCE-BASED ASSESSMENT University of Rizal System- Cainta Ms. Gina Rose S. Mercadejas BEE-SPED 4B Arranged by Mr. Eddie T. Abug BSE-TLE
  19. 19. The role of assessment in teaching happens to be a hot issue in education today. This led to an increasing interest in “performance-based education.” Performance-based education poses a challenge for teachers to design instruction that is task oriented. The trend is based on the premise that learning needs to be connected to the lives of the students through relevant task that focus on student’ ability to use their knowledge and skills in meaningful ways.
  20. 20. 3.1 Product-Oriented Learning Competencies • Student performances can be defined as targeted task that lead to a product or overall outcome. • Products can include a wide range of student works that target specific skills. • Some samples include communication skills such as those demonstrated in reading, writing, speaking, and listening, or psychomotor skills requiring physical abilities to perform a task. • Target tasks can also include behavior expectations targeting complex tasks that students are expected to achieve.
  21. 21. competencies associated with products or outputs are linked with an assessment of the level of “expertise” manifested by the product. Thus, product-oriented learning competencies target at least three (3) levels: • Level 1: Novice or Beginner’s Level Does the finished product or project illustrate the minimum expected parts or functions? Level 3: Expert Level Does the finished product contain the basic minimum parts and functions, have additional features on top of the minimum, and is aesthetically pleasing? • Level 2: Skilled Level Does the finished product or project contain additional parts and functions on top of the minimum requirements which tend to enhance the final output?
  22. 22. 3.2 Task Designing a. Complexity • The project needs to be within the range of ability of the students. • Projects that are too simple tent to be uninteresting for the students while projects that are too complicated will most likely frustrate them. b. Appeal • The project or activity must be appealing to the students. • It should be interesting enough so that students are encouraged to pursue the task to completion. • It should lead to self-discovery of information by the students.
  23. 23. • The project needs to encourage students to exercise creativity and divergent thinking. • It should lead the students into exploring the various possible ways of presenting the final output. c. Creativity • The project is produced in order to attain a learning objective. • Thus, projects are assigned to students not just for the sake of producing something but for the purpose of reinforcing learning. d. Goal- Based
  24. 24. 3.3 Scoring Rubrics Descriptive scoring schemes that are developed by teachers or other evaluators to guide the analysis of the products or processes of students' efforts (Brookhart, 1999).
  25. 25. Aesthetic s 3.3.1 Criteria Setting. The criteria for scoring rubrics are statements which identify “what really counts” in the final output. The following are the most often used major criteria for product assessment: Quality Creativity Comprehensivene ss Accuracy
  26. 26. The document can be easily followed. A combination of the following are apparent in the document: The document is clear and concise and appropriate grammar is used throughout. Example of a scoring rubric designed to evaluate college writing samples. -3- Most Adequate Meets Expectations for a first Draft of a Professional Report • 1. Effective transitions are used throughout, • 2. A professional format is used, • 3. The graphics are descriptive and clearly support the document’s purpose.
  27. 27. The document can be easily followed. A combination of the following are apparent in the document: -2- Adequate The document contains minimal distractions that appear in a combination of the following forms: 1. Flow in thought 2. Graphical presentations 3. Grammar/mechanics • 1. Basic transitions are used, • 2. A structured format is used, • 3. Some supporting graphics are provided, but are not clearly explained.
  28. 28. Organization of document is difficult to follow due to a combination of following: -1- Needs Improvement • The document contains numerous distractions that appear in the a combination of the following forms: 1. Flow in thought 2. Graphical presentations 3. Grammar/mechanics • 1. Inadequat e transition s • 2. Rambling format • 3. Insufficient or irrelevant information 4. Ambiguous graphics
  29. 29. -0- Inadequate • There appears to be no organization of the document’s contents. • Sentences are difficult to read and understand.
  30. 30. Chapter 5 PORFOLIO ASSESSMENT METHODS University of Rizal System- Cainta Ms. Gina Rose S. Mercadejas BEE-SPED 4B Arranged by Mr. Eddie T. Abug BSE-TLE
  31. 31. A portfolio is a purposeful collection of student work that exhibits the student's efforts, progress, and achievements in one or more areas of the curriculum. The collection must include the following: Student participation in selecting contents. Criteria for selection. Criteria for judging merits. Evidence of a student's self-reflection.
  32. 32. 5.1 Features and Principles of Portfolio Assessment 1. A portfolio is a form of assessment that students do together with their teacher. 2. A porfolio represents a selection of what the students believe are best included from among the possible collection of things related to the concept being studied. 3. Aporfolio provides samples of the student’s work which show growth over time. 4. The criteria for selecting and assessing the portfolio contents must be clear to the teacher and the students at the outset of the process.
  33. 33. 5.2 Purposes of Portfolio Assessment 1. Portfolio assessment matches assessment to teaching. 2. Portfolio assessment has clear goals. In fact, they are decided on at the beginning of instruction and are clear to teacher and students light. 3. Portfolio assessment gives a profile of learner abilities in terms of depth, breadth, and growth. 4. Portfolio assessment is a tool for assessing a variety of skills not normally testable in a single setting for traditional testing.
  34. 34. 5. Porfolio assessment develops awareness of own learning by the students. 6. Portfolio assessment caters to individuals in heterogeneous class. 8. Portfolio assessment develops independent and active learners. 9. Portfolio assessment can improve motivation for learning and thus achievement. 7. Portfolio assessment develops social skills. Students interact with other atudents in the development of their own portfolios. 10. Portfolio assessment provides opportunity for student teacher dialogue.
  35. 35. 5.3 Essential Elements of the Portfolio 1. Cover letter ‘‘about the author” and “what my porfolio shows about my progress as a learner” (written at the end, but put at the beginning). 2. Table of contents with numbered pages.. 4. Dates of all entries, to facilitate proof of growth over time.. 5. Drafts of aural/oral and written products and revised versions. 3. Entries both core (the students have to include) and optional (items of students choice). 6. Reflection can appear at different stages in the learning process.
  36. 36. 5.4 Stages in Implementing Portfolio Assessment Stage 1. Identifying teaching goals to assess through portfolio. Stage 2. Intoducing the idea of portfolio assessments to your class. Stage 4. Giving clear and detailed guidelines for portfolio presentation. Stage 5. Informing key school officials, parents and other stakeholders. Stage 3. Specification of portfolio content. Stage 6. Deveolopment of the portfolio.
  37. 37. Documentation Portfolio: This type is also know as the "working" portfolio. Specifically, this approach involves a collection of work over time showing growth and improvement reflecting students' learning of identified outcomes. Process Portfolio: This approach documents all facets or phases of the learning process. They are particularly useful in documenting students' overall learning process. It can show how students integrate specific knowledge or skills and progress towards both basic and advanced mastery. 5.5 Types of Portfolios
  38. 38. According to Paulson, Paulson and Meyer, (1991, p. 63): "Portfolios offer a way of assessing student learning that is different than traditional methods. Portfolio assessment provides the teacher and students an opportunity to observe students in a broader context: taking risks, developing creative solutions, and learning to make judgments about their own performances.". 5.6 Assessing and Evaluating the Portfolios
  39. 39. In order for thoughtful evaluation to take place, teachers must have multiple scoring strategies to evaluate students' progress. Criteria for a finished portfolio might include several of the following: Thoughtfulness (including evidence of students' monitoring of their own comprehension, metacognitive reflection, and productive habits of mind). Growth and development in relationship to key curriculum expectancies and indicators. Understanding and application of key processes.
  40. 40. Completeness, correctness, and appropriateness of products and processes presented in the portfolio. Diversity of entries (e.g., use of multiple formats to demonstrate achievement of designated performance standards).
  41. 41. SAMPLE OF RATING SCALE FOR COVER LETTER Grade Description 1-3 Shows limited awareness of portfolio goals Has difficulty understanding the process of revision Demonstrates little evidence of progress over time Limited explanation of choices made Has difficulty relating to self/peer assessment 4-7 Reflects awareness of some portfolio goals Understands the process of revision to a certain extent Demonstrates some evidence of progress over time Explais choices made in a relevant way Relates to self/peer assessment 8-10 Reflects awareness of portfolio goals Understands the process of revision Demonstrates evidence of progress over time Fully explains choices made Reaches high level of reliability in self/peer assessment Draws conclusion about his/her learning
  42. 42. 5.7 Student-Teacher Conferences The main philosophy embedded in potfolio assessment is “shared and active assessment”. Tothis end, the teacher should have short individual meeting with each pupil, in which progress is discussd and goals are set for a future meeting. Finally, student-teacher can also be used for summative evaluation purposes when the student presents his final portfolio product and where final gareds are determined together with the teacher.
  43. 43. Prepared by: Gina Rose S. Mercadejas 4B

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