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Renal clearance
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Clearance and renal excretion

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Clearance and renal excretion

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Clearance and renal excretion

  1. 1. Clearance and Renal Excretion Dr. Basavaraj K. Nanjwade M. Pharm., Ph. D Department of Pharmaceutics Faculty of Pharmacy Omer Al-Mukhtar University Tobruk, Libya. E-mail: nanjwadebk@gmail.com 2014/05/10 1 Faculty of Pharmacy, Omer Al-Mukhtar University, Tobruk, Libya.
  2. 2. CONTENT 1. Concept and definition of clearance. 2. Mechanism of renal clearance. 3. Determination of clearance. 4. References. 2014/05/10 2 Faculty of Pharmacy, Omer Al-Mukhtar University, Tobruk, Libya.
  3. 3. • The clearance concept was first introduced to describe renal excretion of endogenous compounds in order to measure the kidney function. • The term is now applied to all organs involved in drug elimination such as liver, lungs, the biliary system, etc. and referred to as hepatic clearance, pulmonary clearance, biliary clearance and so on. • The sum of individual clearances by all eliminating organs is called as total body clearance or total systemic clearance. • It is sometimes expressed as a sum of renal clearance and nonrenal clearance. 2014/05/10 Faculty of Pharmacy, Omer Al-Mukhtar University, Tobruk, Libya. 3 Concept clearance
  4. 4. Definition of clearance • Clearance is defined as the hypothetical volume of body fluids containing drug from which the drug is removed or cleared completely in a specific period of time. • It is expressed in ml/min and is a constant for any given plasma drug concentration. Elimination Clearance (Cl) = --------------------------------------- Plasma drug concentration 2014/05/10 Faculty of Pharmacy, Omer Al-Mukhtar University, Tobruk, Libya. 4
  5. 5. Mechanism of renal clearance • Renal Clearance (ClR): It can be defined as the volume of blood or plasma which is completely cleared of the unchanged drug by the kidney per unit. • It is expressed mathematically as: Rate of urinary excretion ClR= ------------------------------------------ Plasma drug concentration 2014/05/10 5 Faculty of Pharmacy, Omer Al-Mukhtar University, Tobruk, Libya.
  6. 6. • Physiologically speaking, renal clearance is the ratio of “sum of rate of glomerular filtration and active secretion minus rate of reabosrption” to “plasma drug concentration C”. Rate of filtration + Rate of secretion – Rate of reabsorption ClR= ---------------------------------------------------------- C ClR of drug Renal Clearance Ratio = ------------------------ ClR of certainine 2014/05/10 Faculty of Pharmacy, Omer Al-Mukhtar University, Tobruk, Libya. 6 Mechanism of renal clearance
  7. 7. Renal Clearance (ml/min) Renal Clearance Ratio Mechanism of Renal Clearance Example(s) 0 (least value) 0 Drug filtered and Reabsorbed completely Glucose < 130 Above 0, Below 1 Drug filtered and Reabsorbed partially Lipophilic drugs 130 (GFR) 1 Drug is filtered only Creatinine, Inulin > 130 > 1 Drug filtered as well as secreted actively Polar, ionic drugs 650 (Highest value) 5 Clearance equal to renal plasma flow rate Iodopyracet 2014/05/10 Faculty of Pharmacy, Omer Al-Mukhtar University, Tobruk, Libya. 7 Mechanism of renal clearance
  8. 8. Determination of clearance • One method of quantitatively describing the renal excretion of drugs is by means of the renal clearance value for the drug. • Renal clearance can be used to investigate the mechanism of drug excretion: A- If the drug is filtered but not secreted or reabsorbed the renal clearance will be about 120 ml/min in normal subjects. B- If the renal clearance is less than 120 ml/min then we can assume that at least two processes are in operation, glomerular filtration and tubular re-absorption. C- If the renal clearance is greater than 120 ml/min then tubular secretion must be contributing to the elimination process. 2014/05/10 8 Faculty of Pharmacy, Omer Al-Mukhtar University, Tobruk, Libya.
  9. 9. • Excretion is defined as the process whereby drugs and/or their metabolites are irreversibly transferred from internal to external environment. • Excretion of drug by kidneys is called as renal excretion. • Excretion of unchanged or intact drug is important in the termination of its pharmacological action. • The principal organs of excretion are kidneys. • Excretion by organs other than kidneys such as lungs, biliary system, intestine, salivary glands and swet glands is known as nonrenal excretion. 2014/05/10 Faculty of Pharmacy, Omer Al-Mukhtar University, Tobruk, Libya. 9 Renal excretion
  10. 10. Renal excretion The major organ for the excretion of drugs is the KIDNEY. The functional unit of the kidney is the nephron . 2014/05/10 Faculty of Pharmacy, Omer Al-Mukhtar University, Tobruk, Libya. 10
  11. 11. Renal excretion 2014/05/10 Faculty of Pharmacy, Omer Al-Mukhtar University, Tobruk, Libya. 11
  12. 12. Renal excretion 2014/05/10 Faculty of Pharmacy, Omer Al-Mukhtar University, Tobruk, Libya. 12
  13. 13. Renal excretion 2014/05/10 Faculty of Pharmacy, Omer Al-Mukhtar University, Tobruk, Libya. 13
  14. 14. 2014/05/10 14 Faculty of Pharmacy, Omer Al-Mukhtar University, Tobruk, Libya. THANK YOUE-mail: nanjwadebk@gmail.com
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Clearance and renal excretion

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