Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
TOPIC 4: DOMESTIC SOURCES OF FOREIGN
POLICY
JOU 103
(Updated on April 1, 2008)
FOREIGN POLICY [1]
 If you are a statesmen/foreign minister, how do you
consider the foreign policies of your country?
 ...
FOREIGN POLICY [2]
Concepts:
1. Policy: as a program that serves
a guide of behavior in order to
realize the goals that an...
FOREIGN POLICY [3]
3. National interests and priorities
 Secure the state’s position in the global power
 Maximize the s...
FOREIGN POLICY [4]
FOREIGN POLICY
Capitalists
Manufacturers
(Military
industries, IT)
Military
Nationalists/
patriots
Bure...
FACTORS SHAPING THE MAKING OF FOREIGN
POLICY (IN A DEMOCRATIC STATE)
1. Societal influences
 openness and accountability ...
SOCIETAL INFLUENCES ON FP [1]
1. The ability of specific social groups to communicate
their needs and demands to governmen...
SOCIETAL INFLUENCES ON FP [2]
2. Political leaders need to seek societal support/the approval
of public opinion in order t...
U.S. SENATE BACKS TROOP WITHDRAWAL FROM IRAQ
BY RICHARD COWAN
WASHINGTON (Reuters) - The Senate on Tuesday endorsed a
Marc...
SOCIETAL INFLUENCES ON FP [3]
3. The common experiences and selective
memories of citizens provides the basic
structure of...
CHINA’S PEACEFUL RISE
Origins
 The term itself was first used in a speech given by the former
Vice Principal of the
Centr...
FEATURES (OFFICIAL VIEWS)
1. economic construction: China will not see political
confrontation as its target, nor develop ...
SOCIETAL INFLUENCES ON FP [4]
4. Who exactly affects the FP?
 Radical view: power elite, including
government, business a...
ELITE OPINION (FEATURES)
 opinion leaders: party politicians, business and labor
union executives, senior civil servants,...
MASS PUBLIC OPINION
 Public views are fluctuated and unpredictable
because of the changing circumstances
 Gender gap: me...
NATIONAL LEADER [1]
 Personality, character, experience and leadership style
matter in determining what choices a leader ...
NATIONAL LEADER [2]
 But it is certain that the ability of a leader to shape
public opinion and thus to gain support in a...
CONCLUSION
 Who governs (influences)?
 Not the mass or its leaders but both together
 “The national leader makes use of...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Domestic politics & IR making

583 views

Published on

Domestic Sources of Foreign Policy

Published in: Government & Nonprofit
  • Login to see the comments

Domestic politics & IR making

  1. 1. TOPIC 4: DOMESTIC SOURCES OF FOREIGN POLICY JOU 103 (Updated on April 1, 2008)
  2. 2. FOREIGN POLICY [1]  If you are a statesmen/foreign minister, how do you consider the foreign policies of your country?  Henry Kissinger: 2 set of influences  Politics, power and actions of other states  Domestic constraints (public opinion, bureaucracy and governmental attitudes) 2
  3. 3. FOREIGN POLICY [2] Concepts: 1. Policy: as a program that serves a guide of behavior in order to realize the goals that an organization has set for itself 2. Foreign policy: a guide of actions taken beyond the boundaries of the state to further the goal of the state 3
  4. 4. FOREIGN POLICY [3] 3. National interests and priorities  Secure the state’s position in the global power  Maximize the state’s power  Different countries have different histories, cultures, and socioeconomic and political structures  domestic society shapes foreign policy preferences, objectives, and ultimate strategies  different individuals, groups and classes have different interests  E.g., factory workers and manufacturers support war because they can produce more weapons and earn more profits; but women (especially for wives) do not support war because male family members might die because of war 4
  5. 5. FOREIGN POLICY [4] FOREIGN POLICY Capitalists Manufacturers (Military industries, IT) Military Nationalists/ patriots Bureaucracy National statesmen Religious/social leaders The publicAcademics/ think-tanks Political parties NGOs5 GREAT POWERS
  6. 6. FACTORS SHAPING THE MAKING OF FOREIGN POLICY (IN A DEMOCRATIC STATE) 1. Societal influences  openness and accountability of the government  Support from the mass opinions/social groups in taking action  The perception of general public towards its national style  The role of power elite in shaping foreign policy 1. Public opinion  Changeable and inconsistent  Gender difference 1. National leader  How does he/she respond to public opinions?  Is he/she able to shape public opinion? How long? 6
  7. 7. SOCIETAL INFLUENCES ON FP [1] 1. The ability of specific social groups to communicate their needs and demands to government  Openness: the extent to which a government is subject to influences from society  Accountability to the public: the government must satisfy the people of its society; opposition groups can influence the government through formal channels (e.g., elections, legislature); and can present their positions to the public through a free press/media/campaigns  E.g., 7 Held the referendum in the presidential election
  8. 8. SOCIETAL INFLUENCES ON FP [2] 2. Political leaders need to seek societal support/the approval of public opinion in order to gain control of government, remain in office, and then implement their policies. So they must hear and respond to the demands and needs of society. E.g.,  Fixing high tariffs for protecting certain industries, establishing hard-line policies toward unpopular rulers  The government needs the public support while taking action  It tries to shape and control societal needs and demands  If the people are unwilling to act militarily, the government has no choice and has to give up the military intervention finally (e.g., The America’s military intervention and withdrawal in Iraq) 8
  9. 9. U.S. SENATE BACKS TROOP WITHDRAWAL FROM IRAQ BY RICHARD COWAN WASHINGTON (Reuters) - The Senate on Tuesday endorsed a March 31, 2008, target date for withdrawing American combat troops from Iraq, prompting the White House to threaten a veto and moving Congress a step closer to a showdown with President George W. Bush over the war. By a vote of 50-48, the Senate defeated an amendment that would have stricken the withdrawal language from a $121.6 billion bill that mostly would fund the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. 9
  10. 10. SOCIETAL INFLUENCES ON FP [3] 3. The common experiences and selective memories of citizens provides the basic structure of belief of which they view their place in the world  In some cases, dominant individuals, groups, and classes use their power to influence a belief system that will reinforce their power (e.g., capitalists, manufacturers and the military advocate war in order to fulfill their own interests)  Strategic culture: National styles in the conduct of foreign policy (e.g., the foreign policy of the PRC: peaceful rise  peaceful development) 10
  11. 11. CHINA’S PEACEFUL RISE Origins  The term itself was first used in a speech given by the former Vice Principal of the Central Party School of the Chinese Communist Party, Zheng Bijian, in late 2003 during the Boao Forum for Asia. It was then reiterated by PRC premier Wen Jiabao in an ASEAN meeting as well as during his visit to the United States. On some occasions, the term China's peaceful development (Zhōngguó hépíng fāzh n) is used instead.ǎ  In Zheng's speech he pointed out that in the past, a rise of a new power often resulted in drastic changes to global political structures, and even. Zheng stated that in today's new world, the PRC should instead develop peacefully, and in turn help to maintain a peaceful international environment. (Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/China 11
  12. 12. FEATURES (OFFICIAL VIEWS) 1. economic construction: China will not see political confrontation as its target, nor develop its economy through expansion or isolationism. 2. participate in economic globalization and compete with others in the world market to realize a win-win result. 3. persist in independent development: depend mainly on its own institutional innovation, structural adjustment, expansion of domestic demand and utilization of private capital at home. China will take advantage of world resources, but will not bring trouble to the world. 4. deepen reform and seek coordinated development in all areas. 5. play its due role as a big country in the international arena, but it has no intention to seek domination in dealing with international affairs. (Source: http://www.china.org.cn/english/2004/Apr/93730.htm, surfed on April 1, 2008) 12
  13. 13. SOCIETAL INFLUENCES ON FP [4] 4. Who exactly affects the FP?  Radical view: power elite, including government, business and the military  Pluralist view: plurality of elite groupings. Different elites tend to wide influence over different issues (e.g., education, defense, health). Also, views are diversified, fluctuated and unpredictable rather than consensual and predictable  E.g., the changing attitudes of the Americans towards the Iraq question (from active intervention after September 11 tragedy in 2001 to disagreement in the past 2 years) 13
  14. 14. ELITE OPINION (FEATURES)  opinion leaders: party politicians, business and labor union executives, senior civil servants, leaders of the mass media, leaders of economic, ethnic, religious, professional or other interest groups  Attentive public: highly educated, professional, upper- income  Higher social and economic status: tend to support official policy much more stronger/conservative  Knowledgeable about foreign affairs  Write, speak in public with extended audience 14
  15. 15. MASS PUBLIC OPINION  Public views are fluctuated and unpredictable because of the changing circumstances  Gender gap: men and women are different on the same issue (e.g., in terms of the outcome of the Gulf War, support for military action for September 11 terrorist attacks, women preferred not to take military actions)  Essential view: Aggression and violence are masculine characteristics VS forgiving and peace-loving for women  Liberal feminism: if women enjoyed the same socioeconomic opportunities than men, then gender gap would vanish (e.g., Margaret Thatcher [Britain], Indira Gandhi [India], ) Condoleezza Condi Rice [U.S.]) 15
  16. 16. NATIONAL LEADER [1]  Personality, character, experience and leadership style matter in determining what choices a leader makes  E.g., George W. Bush VS Jiang Jiemin  The influence of advisers and subordinates: provide information, help make decision and are responsible for implementation  2 different views on how a national leader deal with mass opinions:  Safely take: follow the general view of the public  The leader has great potential support among the public for any kind of foreign policy initiative 16
  17. 17. NATIONAL LEADER [2]  But it is certain that the ability of a leader to shape public opinion and thus to gain support in a crisis usually holds for the short term only in case of the absence of the favorable news  E.g., George W. Bush felt embarrassed and was under criticism due to the absence of the terrorist activities in Iraq. His military action led to his unpopularity despite the popular support at the beginning. 17
  18. 18. CONCLUSION  Who governs (influences)?  Not the mass or its leaders but both together  “The national leader makes use of the elite and the public, the elite and the public make use of the national leader, or both”?  The making and implementation of foreign policies can be a dynamic, interactive and bargaining process between state and society  Should note the influence of domestic and external circumstances in understanding the changing public opinions, especially in democratic nations 18

×