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Office Automation:
These are labour saving devices. All factories have offices.
The offices concentrate on mental work. It...
Objectives of Introducing Machines:
 Machineries do work at ``` great speed.
 Mechanization involves capital
 Machines ...
3.Idle time is reduced.
4.Standardisation is possible.
5. The information stored and produced by machines are accurate.
6....
Disadvantages:
1. Mechanization will lead to termination of employment.
2. Machines are not flexible
3. Machines have to p...
Factors to consider before purchasing a machine:
1. Cost – an investment decision is always based on cost-benefit
analysis...
6. Size of the machine- big sized machineries will occupy more space
leading to congestion.
7. Life of the machine- the li...
 OFFICE EQUIPMENT LEASES:
Advantages of Leasing
1. Efficient use of funds- leasing arrangement allow the lessee to
acquir...
4. Tax benefit – the extent of benefit that would be derived by
owning an asset.
5. Guards against obsolescence- always po...
Machines used in an office:
A. Machines for Communication
 Typewriter - most common machines used by offices in India.
1....
Device for oral communication:
1. Telephone – it facilitate direct communication, company and
costumer can talk directly
2...
4 Types of Dictating machines:
1. Electronic type
2. Disc type
3. Cylinder type
4. Acoustic cylinder type
Dictaphones requ...
8. Telephone with voicemail- a special arrangement is made to the
telephone. Whenever the receiver of the message is away ...
C. Duplicating Machines
When more than one copy of letter or document is required duplicating
machines are used.
Types of ...
3. Electronic stencil duplicator- is the latest innovation, the master
sheets are electronically scanned.
4. Photocopying ...
3. Bookkeeping machine – with the help of books, machines, account
books and final accounts are prepared. There are no mis...
4. Fake note detector- it is a box like machine. It is used to detect good
notes from fake currency notes.
5. Currency Sor...
Three type of addressing machine:
 Metal plate machine – the addresses are stenciled or embossed on a
metal process.
 Fi...
3. Franking machine- these are used to affix stamps on the envelops.
Where there are hundreds of outgoing letters, frankin...
Computers :
Computers have also replaced many types of machinery hitherto used
in offices such as calculators, adding mach...
2. Paper tray capacity – a capacity of up to 250 pages in one tray is
adequate for some and not for others.
3. Black and w...
 Uninterruptible Power Supplies (UPS)
This device contains a large battery and circuitry.
When the circuitry detects a su...
2. Electronic Data Interchange(EDI)
A worldwide movement, is the computer-to-computer exchange of
business information.
3....
5. High speed digital duplicators
This new Risograph offers proprietary technologies to achieve
outstanding results with t...
8. Signature imprinting machines- is an automatic signature printing
machine used for signing cheques, documents etc. when...
11. Digital electronic safe
Safety lockers can be kept as table top.
Ideal for storage of cas, documents etc..
Electronica...
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Office automation

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Office automation refers to the varied computer machinery and software used to digitally create, collect, store, manipulate, and relay office information needed for accomplishing basic tasks.

Published in: Technology
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Office automation

  1. 1. Office Automation: These are labour saving devices. All factories have offices. The offices concentrate on mental work. It is an age of mechanisation. Nowadays, machineries have replaced workmen in factories. Advantages of employing machines in an office 1. They are labour saving devices 2. They work at a great speed with little error.
  2. 2. Objectives of Introducing Machines:  Machineries do work at ``` great speed.  Mechanization involves capital  Machines wont complain of fatigue. Work that is complained as monotonous by workers can be carried Work that is complained as monotonous by workers can be carried out well by machines.  There is accuracy. Advantages: 1. Work can be done at a greater speed 2. It is labour saving thus labour cost saving.
  3. 3. 3.Idle time is reduced. 4.Standardisation is possible. 5. The information stored and produced by machines are accurate. 6. The computer records enormous information in discs. 7. No overtime pages have to paid. 8. Quality of work is also enhanced. 9. It is easy to control machines than controlling men. 10. It is said that a machine will replace three men
  4. 4. Disadvantages: 1. Mechanization will lead to termination of employment. 2. Machines are not flexible 3. Machines have to properly maintained involving overheads3. Machines have to properly maintained involving overheads 4. Office machine may not be used to its fullest 5. When machineries are big they need extra space 6. Machines cannot adopt itself to changes.
  5. 5. Factors to consider before purchasing a machine: 1. Cost – an investment decision is always based on cost-benefit analysis. 2. Utility of machinery- the office shall never purchase a machinery which it can never be use. 3. Availability of spare parts – it has to be seen that the spare parts3. Availability of spare parts – it has to be seen that the spare parts must be available in the local market. 4. Operating cost – machine cost should be minimum 5. Electricity consumption- electricity consumption / hour must also be minimum.
  6. 6. 6. Size of the machine- big sized machineries will occupy more space leading to congestion. 7. Life of the machine- the life of the machinery is also to be considered. It must be durable 8. Easy to handle- the machinery shall not involve more complex operation. 9. Appearance – the style of the machinery also adds beauty to an9. Appearance – the style of the machinery also adds beauty to an office.
  7. 7.  OFFICE EQUIPMENT LEASES: Advantages of Leasing 1. Efficient use of funds- leasing arrangement allow the lessee to acquire the use of the asset without having to own it. 2. Cheaper source- leasing as a mode of financing for the use of office machines/equipments, is found to be less expensive asoffice machines/equipments, is found to be less expensive as compared to other modes such as the buying option. 3. Enhanced borrowing capacity- leasing is considered advantageous to the lessee since it helps enhance the ability to borrow in a diversified way.
  8. 8. 4. Tax benefit – the extent of benefit that would be derived by owning an asset. 5. Guards against obsolescence- always possible for the lessee to terminate the existing lease arrangement anytime. Disadvantages of LeasingDisadvantages of Leasing 1. Unfavorable terms 2. Rental money on outdated equipment 3. Poor quality
  9. 9. Machines used in an office: A. Machines for Communication  Typewriter - most common machines used by offices in India. 1. Electronic typewriter- it is leather touch. The operator need not1. Electronic typewriter- it is leather touch. The operator need not type hard 2. Variables type machines- the style, size of the letters can be adjusted like that of in a computer 3. Silent typewriter- noise proof 4. Portable typewriter- light in weight and portable like personal computers.
  10. 10. Device for oral communication: 1. Telephone – it facilitate direct communication, company and costumer can talk directly 2. Headsets- it must be compatible with the company current phone system. 3. Cellular phones- cell phones are now used everywhere by everyone3. Cellular phones- cell phones are now used everywhere by everyone 4. Private branch exchange- system fills the needs of the largest companies. 5. Intercom- it is also a telephone with extension to various department. 6. Dictaphones – these are dictating machines
  11. 11. 4 Types of Dictating machines: 1. Electronic type 2. Disc type 3. Cylinder type 4. Acoustic cylinder type Dictaphones require two machine 1. Dictating machines 2. Transcription machine 7. Recording and digital equipment- tape machines now come with special features such as capability to screen out background noises.
  12. 12. 8. Telephone with voicemail- a special arrangement is made to the telephone. Whenever the receiver of the message is away the telephone will record the message and the telephone number of the caller to be heard later by the receiver of the message.caller to be heard later by the receiver of the message. 9. Projectors – computers can produced amazing presentation with colours, graphics, sounds and animation.
  13. 13. C. Duplicating Machines When more than one copy of letter or document is required duplicating machines are used. Types of Duplicating Machines 1. Spirit duplicator (Hectograph)- make copies of matter typewritten and handwritten including drawingsand handwritten including drawings 2. Stencil duplicator or Mimeograph-a stencil is a cut on typewriter or by hand. Special stencil sheet and pen are used for cutting the stencil by hand. The pen creates impression of the letters on the paper.
  14. 14. 3. Electronic stencil duplicator- is the latest innovation, the master sheets are electronically scanned. 4. Photocopying machine- it is used when exact copy of any material printed/written is required. D. Machines for Accounting MethodD. Machines for Accounting Method 1. Calculator – useful for adding, subtracting, multiplying, dividing or doing arithmetical operations. 2. Accounting machines- these are like typewriters. They are used for posting accounts.
  15. 15. 3. Bookkeeping machine – with the help of books, machines, account books and final accounts are prepared. There are no mistake such as error of omission. Commission etc. E. Machines for Handling Cash 1. Cash register-it is a device for recording and checking cash receipts1. Cash register-it is a device for recording and checking cash receipts 2. Coin Counter- this machine counts the coin. 3. Cheque protector-cheque writing machines- the machine writes the amount , does crossing etc… on the surface of the cheque.
  16. 16. 4. Fake note detector- it is a box like machine. It is used to detect good notes from fake currency notes. 5. Currency Sorting Machines- multifunctional parallel working desktop banknote processing system for counting and sorting of mixed bundles of notes by currency, denomination, orientation and suspected counterfeits.suspected counterfeits. Other Office Machines 1. Addressing Machine –it is used to print the address on envelopes, labels, postcards, wage sheet, invoices, notices, dividends and warrants etc.
  17. 17. Three type of addressing machine:  Metal plate machine – the addresses are stenciled or embossed on a metal process.  Film stencil machine – film stencil machine uses a film stencil mounted in a cardboard frame.  Spirit master process addressing machine- these machine work on the same principle as the spirit duplicators 2. Letter openers It is a machine having a revolving knife edge which can cut open envelop at a great speed.
  18. 18. 3. Franking machine- these are used to affix stamps on the envelops. Where there are hundreds of outgoing letters, franking machines are used. 4. Paper folding machine- these are used by large business houses to fold papers, circulars, documents, etc.. 5. envelope-sealing machine- this machine automatically seals the5. envelope-sealing machine- this machine automatically seals the envelope. 6. Time recording clock- it records the time of entry or exit of worker by inserting a card in the machine. 7. Card punching machine- they are used in invoicing, calculating wages, stocks control, budgeting etc.
  19. 19. Computers : Computers have also replaced many types of machinery hitherto used in offices such as calculators, adding machine, punched card machines etc.. Printers : Given the amount of documentation created in business, a printer is theGiven the amount of documentation created in business, a printer is the most necessary piece of equipment needed next to the computer. Following points are to be considered before choosing a printer 1. Printing speed- this is the number of pages the printer can print out per minute.
  20. 20. 2. Paper tray capacity – a capacity of up to 250 pages in one tray is adequate for some and not for others. 3. Black and white versus colour – graphic artist and people involved in marketing communications probably have a regular need for colour printing.printing. Scanner: A scanner is a device that can read text and graphics. A copy of the scanned image is stored on magnetic media as it simultaneously reproduces on a monitor.
  21. 21.  Uninterruptible Power Supplies (UPS) This device contains a large battery and circuitry. When the circuitry detects a surge or spike, it switches the computer from AC to DC power. Value added data communication servicesValue added data communication services The communications software handles logging on and off the communications network, dialing, saving messages and sending or receiving information from a central computer. 1. E-mail- is becoming a necessity for many of todays businesses.
  22. 22. 2. Electronic Data Interchange(EDI) A worldwide movement, is the computer-to-computer exchange of business information. 3. Fax machines- are installed with telephone connections at both end (sending end and receiving end)the document paper is inserted(sending end and receiving end)the document paper is inserted into the machine. 4. Telex- it is an improved version of the electro-mechanical teleprinter. Telex machines have to be registered with the public telex exchange operated by Telecommunications Department.
  23. 23. 5. High speed digital duplicators This new Risograph offers proprietary technologies to achieve outstanding results with the speed and ease. 6. Cheque encoders Specially designed for high volume cheque processingSpecially designed for high volume cheque processing 7. Table top reader sorter Reading and sorting of all encoded bank items Processing of medical prescriptions
  24. 24. 8. Signature imprinting machines- is an automatic signature printing machine used for signing cheques, documents etc. when the volume is high. 9. Table top cheque scanner- designed for banking documents processing MICR, OCR, barcode reading, endorsing , front and rear scanningscanning 10. Network document scanner for cheque processing- on board image compression for a faster transmission to the computer system.
  25. 25. 11. Digital electronic safe Safety lockers can be kept as table top. Ideal for storage of cas, documents etc.. Electronically operated with master code and password. 12. Multitier storage- these systems are highly versatile and modular in nature and can be configured anytime to your changing needs.in nature and can be configured anytime to your changing needs. 13. Drawing file cabinet- designed specifically to store A1 to A5 sized safely and systematically. 14. Vertical drawing storage- designed specifically for filing & storing architectural plans, construction drawings, blueprints, engineering drawings, charts, maps, arts graphics and other organized sheets.

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