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Shaft

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discription about shaft and its utollity

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Shaft

  1. 1. Introduction to the Shaft:- • A shaft is a rotating member, usually of circular cross section, used to transmit power or motion. • It provides the axis of rotation, or oscillation, of elements such as gears, pulleys, flywheels, cranks, sprockets, and the like and controls the geometry of their motion. • Carbon steels of grade 40C8, 45C8, 50C4, 50C12 are normally used as shaft materials. Shaft Sizing • Stress Analysis – In design it is usually possible to locate the critical areas, size these to meet the strength requirements, and then size the rest of the shaft to meet the requirements of the shaft-supported elements. • Deflection and Slope – They are a function of inertia. Inertia is a function of Geometry. For this reason, shaft design allows a consideration of stress first. Then, after tentative values for the shaft dimensions have been established, the determination of the deflections and slopes can be made. Shaft Materials:- • A good practice for material selection: – Start with an inexpensive, low or medium carbon steel for the first time through the design calculations. If strength considerations turn out to dominate over deflection, then a higher strength material should be tried, allowing the shaft sizes to be reduced until excess deflection becomes an issue. The cost of the material and its processing must be weighed against the need for smaller shaft diameters. Material properties  It should have high strength  It should have good machinability.  It should have low notch sensitivity factor.  It should have good heat treatment properties.
  2. 2.  It should have high wear resistance. Manufacturing of Shafts • For low production, turning is the usual primary shaping process. An economic viewpoint may require removing the least material. • High production may permit a volume conservative shaping method (hot or cold forming, casting), and minimum material in the shaft can become a design goal. Shaft Layout • In most cases, Only two bearings should be used in most cases. • Load bearing components should be placed next to the bearings to minimize the bending due to large forces. • Shafts should be kept short to minimize bending and deflection. • Shoulder • It allows precise positioning • Support to minimize deflection. • In cases where the loads are small, positioning is not very important, shoulders can be eliminated.
  3. 3. TYPES OF SHAFT:- Transmission shaft:  These shafts transmit power between the source and machines absorbing power. The counter shafts, line shafts, overhead shafts all shafts are transmission shafts. Machine shafts:  These shafts from an integral part of the machine itself. DESIGN OF SHAFTS The shaft may be designed on the basis of 1. Strength 2. Rigidity and stiffness In designing shaft on the basis of strength the following cases may be consider 1. Shafts subjected to twisting moment only. 2. Shaft subjected to bending moment only. 3. Shaft subjected to combined twisting moment and bending moment. 4. Shaft subjected to fluctuating loads. Shaft Design for Stress • It is not necessary to evaluate the stresses in a shaft at every point; a few potentially critical locations will suffice. Critical locations will usually be on the outer surface. • Possible Critical Locations, axial locations where: 1- The bending moment is large and/or 2- The torque is present, and/or 3- Stress concentrations exist. DESIGN OF HOLLOW SHAFTS Explanation The shaft may be designed on the basis of 1. Strength 2. Rigidity and stiffness
  4. 4. In designing shaft on the basis of strength the following cases may be consider 1. Shafts subjected to twisting moment only 2. Shaft subjected to bending moment only 3. Shaft subjected to combined twisting moment and bending moment 4. Shaft subjected to fluctuating loads Solid and Hollow shaft When the shaft is subjected to combined twisting moment ad bending moment then the shaft must be designed on the basic of two moments simultaneously. DESIGN OF SHAFT FOR RIGIDITY: In many cases the shaft is to be designed from rigidity point of view. We should consider torsional rigidity as well as lateral rigidity. (‘ I) Tensional rigidity: The angle of twist in radians for a solid circular shaft of uniform diameter chi and length L is given by Where, T — Torque on the shaft
  5. 5. Torsional rigidity:- Explanation DESIGN OF SHAFT FOR RIGIDITY:- In many cases the shaft is to be designed from rigidity point of view. We should consider Torsional rigidity as well as lateral rigidity. (‘I) Tensional rigidity: The angle of twist in radians for a solid circular shaft of uniform diameter chi and length L is given by Where, T — Torque on the shaft KEY:- A key is a piece of mild steel inserted between the shaft and hub or boss of the pulley to connect these together in order to prevent relative motion between them. Design for key:- • The length of the coupling key = length of the sleeve ( i.e. . 3.5d ). • The coupling key is usually made into two parts • length of the key in each shaft l= L/2=3.5d/2 • After fixing the length of key in each shaft, the induced shearing and crushing stresses may be checked. We know that torque transmitted. • T = l× w×τ ×(d /2) (Considering shearing of the key) • T = l × t/2 × σC × (d /2) (Considering crushing of the key TYPES OF KEYS:- 1. Sunk key, 2.Saddle key, 3.Tangent key. SUNK KEYS:- The sunk keys are provided half in the keyway of the shaft and half in the keyway of the hub or boss of the pulley.
  6. 6. TYPES OF SUNK KEYS 1. Rectangular sunk key 2. Square sunk key The only difference from the rectangular sunk key is the width and thickness is equal 3. Parallel sunk key The parallel sunk key may be of rectangular or square cross section. The cross section is uniform in width and thickness throughout length. DESIGN OF COUPLING Shaft couplings are used in machinery for several purposes 1. To provide for connection of shaft of units those are manufactured separately. 2. To provide for misalignment of the shaft or to introduce mechanical flexibility. 3. To reduce the transmission of shock loads from one shaft to another. 4. To introduce protection against over loads. REQUIREMENT OF A GOOD SHAFT COUPLING 1. It should be easy to connect or disconnect. 2. It should transmit the full power from one shaft to the other shaft without losses. 3. It should hold the shaft in perfect alignment. 4. It should have no projecting parts. 5. To provide for the connection of shafts of units that are manufactured separately such as a motor and generator and to provide for disconnection for repairs or alternations. 6. To provide for misalignment of the shafts or to introduce mechanical flexibility. 7. To reduce the transmission of shock loads from one shaft to another.
  7. 7. TYPES OF SHAFT COUPLINGS:- 1. Rigid coupling  It is used to connect two shafts which are perfectly aligned. The types are  Sleeve (or) muff coupling  Clamp (or) split muff (or) compression coupling  Flange coupling 2. Flexible coupling It is used to connect two shafts having lateral and angular misalignments. The types are  Bushed pin type coupling  Universal coupling  Oldham coupling SLEEVE (or) MUFF COUPLING It is made of cast iron. It consists of a hollow cylinder whose inner diameter is that same as that of the shaft. It is fitted over the ends of two shafts by means of a gib head key. The power transmitted from one shaft two other shafts by means of a key and a sleeve. Outer diameter of sleeve D=2d+13mm Length of sleeve L=3.5d D= diameter of shaft • The sleeve is designed by considering it as a hollow shaft.
  8. 8.  T= Torque transmitted by coupling.  τc =Permissible shear stress for the material of the sleeve which is cast rion. • Torque transmitted by a hollow section T = (π/16)×τc×(D4-d4)/D = (π/16)×τc×D3(1-K4) ... (∵k = d / D) • From this expression, the induced shear stress in the sleeve may be checked FLANGE COUPLING A flange coupling usually applied to a coupling having two separate cast iron flanges. Each flange is mounted on the shaft and keyed to it. The faces are turned up at right angle to the axis of the shaft. One of the flange has a projected portion and the other flange has a corresponding recess. This helps to bring the shaft into line and to maintain alignment. The two flanges are coupled together by means of bolt and nuts.
  9. 9. • Flange coupling are • 1.Unprotected type flange coupling • 2. Protected type flange coupling • 3. Marine type flange coupling. Unprotected type flange coupling • In an unprotected type flange coupling each shaft is keyed to the boss of a flange with a counter sunk key and the flanges are coupled together by means of bolts. • Generally, three, four or six bolts are used Design of Unprotected type Flange Coupling • The usual proportions for an unprotected type cast iron flange couplings – d = diameter of the shaft or inner diameter of the hub – D= Outside diameter of hub D=2d – Length of hub, L= 1.5d • Pitch circle diameter of bolts, D1=3d • Outside diameter of flange, D2= D1+ ( D1– D) = 2 D1– D= 4d • Thickness of flange tf =0.5d • Number of bolts =3, ford upto 40 mm =4, for d upto 100 mm
  10. 10. =6, for d upto 180 mm – d =Diameter of shaft or inner diameter of hub, – τs =Allowable shear stress for shaft, – D=Outer diameter of hub, – tf =Thickness of flange – τc=Allowable shear stress for the flange material – d 1=Nominal or outside diameter of bolt, – D1 =Diameter of bolt circle, – n=Number of bolts, – τb= Allowable shear stress for bolt – σ cb,, =Allowable crushing stress for bolt – τk= Allowable shear stress for key material – σ ck= key material 1. Design for hub • The hub is designed by considering it as a hollow shaft, • transmitting the same torque (T ) as that of a solid shaft T= T = (π/16)×τc×(D4-d4)/D The outer diameter of hub is usually taken as twice the diameter of shaft. • The length of hub ( L ) = 1.5d 2. Design for key The material of key is usually the same as that of shaft. The length of key is taken equal to the length of hub l=L • T = l× w×τ ×(d /2) (Considering shearing of the key) • T = l × t/2 × σC × (d /2) (Considering crushing of the key 3. Design for flange The flange at the junction of the hub is under shear while transmitting the torque. • T =Circumference of hub × Thickness of flange × Shear stress of flange × Radius of hub • T= π D × tf × τc × D/2 T= π × tf × τc × D2/2 The thickness of flange is usually taken as half the diameter of shaft. 4. Design for bolts
  11. 11. • Load on each bolt (F)= 2 ) (τb) (π/4) (d 1 • Total load on all the bolts (F) = 2 ) (τb)(n) (π/4) (d 1 • The bolts are subjected to shear stress due to the torque transmitted (T)= (π/4) (d 2 1 ) (τb)(n) (D1/2) From this equation, the diameter of bolt (d 1 ) may be obtained.  We know that area resisting crushing of all the bolts = n× d 1 × tf  crushing strength of all the bolts = n× d 1 × tf × σCb  ∴Torque = n× d 1 × tf × σCb × (D1/2)  From this equation, the induced crushing stress in the bolts may be checked Protected type flange coupling • the protruding bolts and nuts are protected by flanges on the two halves of the coupling, in order to avoid danger to the workman (tp ) =0.25d The design of unprotective type is same process of protective type
  12. 12. Marine type flange coupling • In a marine type flange coupling, the flanges are forged integral with the shafts . • The flanges are held together by means of tapered head less bolts. • numbering from four to twelve depending upon the diameter of shaft. • Shaft diameter No. of bolts 35 to 55 4 56 to 150 6 151 to 230 8 231 to 390 10 Above 390 12 • The other proportions for the marine type flange coupling • Thickness of flange =d / 3 • Taper of bolt= 1 in 20 to 1 in 40 • Pitch circle diameter of bolts, D1= 1.6d • Outside diameter of flange, D2= 2.2d Bushed-pin Flexible Coupling
  13. 13. • a modification of the rigid type of flange coupling. • The coupling bolts are known as pins. The rubber or leather bushes are used over the pins. • The two halves of the coupling are dissimilar in construction. • A clearance of 5 mm is left between the face of the two halves of the coupling • the proportions of the rigid type flange coupling • the bearing pressure on the rubber or leather bushes and it should not exceed 0.5 N/mm2 Pin and bush design – l=Length of bush in the flange, – d 2=Diameter of bush, – pb=Bearing pressure on the bush or pin, – n=Number of pins, – D1=Diameter of pitch circle of the pins • bearing load acting on each pin, – W = pb×d 2×l • ∴Total bearing load on the bush or pins – W × n= pb×d 2×l ×n • torque transmitted by the coupling= T= W × n × (D1 /2) T= pb×d 2×l ×n × (D1 /2)
  14. 14. • Direct shear stress due to pure torsion in the coupling halve 2 )] – τ=W/[ (π/4) (d 1 • maximum bending moment on the pin – M =W (l/2 +5mm) • bending stress σ= M / Z = W (l/2 +5mm)/ (π/32) (d 1 3) • Maximum principal stress = 1/2[σ +(σ+4τ2 ) 1/2] • maximum shear stress on the pin = 1/2(σ+4τ2 ) 1/2 • The value of maximum principal stress varies from 28 to 42 MPa .

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