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Neurotransmitters

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Neurotransmitters

  1. 1. 2/18/2015 ANCY I MSc.
  2. 2. NEUROTRANSMITTERS By Ancy Kurian I MSc.(N) 2/18/2015 2ANCY KURIAN IMSc. Neurotransmitters
  3. 3. OVERVIEW • Definition & Life-cycle of a neurotransmitter • Mechanism of Neurotransmitter Action • Classification Of Neurotransmitters • Factors influencing - Deficiency/ imbalance/ Malfunctioning • Neurotransmitters and probable Implications on Mental Health • Diagnosis Of Neurotransmitter imbalance • PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY How does drugs alter Neurotransmission Mechanism of Action Of Drugs Drugs interfering with Neurotransmission Drugs that increase/ decrease /mimic Neurotransmitters. • NURSES CONCERN IN NEUROTRANSMITTER IMBALANCE 2/18/2015 3ANCY KURIAN IMSc. Neurotransmitters
  4. 4. DEFINITION • A chemical released from a nerve ending that transmits impulses from one neuron (nerve cell) to another neuron, or to a muscle cell 2/18/2015 4ANCY KURIAN IMSc. Neurotransmitters
  5. 5. Neurotransmitters (contd…) • Act as both neurotransmitters and hormones • Most neurons make two or more neurotransmitters • 50 or more neurotransmitters have been identified. • 9 low molecular weight amines that serves as neurotransmitters egs.Glutamate ,the major fast excitatory transmitter in mammalian CNS , Acetycholine- the excitatory transmitter at the vertebral junction, GABA and Glycine ,the major fast inhibitory transmitters in brain & spinal cord. • Central nervous system, the peripheral nervous system has only two: acetylcholine and norepinephrine 2/18/2015 5ANCY KURIAN IMSc. Neurotransmitters
  6. 6. neuron 2/18/2015 ANCY KURIAN IMSc. Neurotransmitters 6
  7. 7. TYPICAL CHEMICAL SYNAPSE - STRUCTURE 2/18/2015 7ANCY KURIAN IMSc. Neurotransmitters
  8. 8. 2/18/2015 ANCY KURIAN IMSc. Neurotransmitters 8
  9. 9. Life Cycle of a Neurotransmitter 1) Synthesis of the transmitter 2) Packaging and storage in Synaptic vesicles 3) If necessary, transport from the site of synthesis to the site of release from the nerve terminal 4) Release in response to an action potential 5) Binding to postsynaptic receptor proteins 6) Termination of action by diffusion,destruction, or reuptake into cells 2/18/2015 ANCY KURIAN IMSc. Neurotransmitters 9
  10. 10. MECHANISM OF NEUROTRANSMITTER ACTION 2/18/2015 ANCY KURIAN IMSc. Neurotransmitters 10
  11. 11. Chemical Classification of Neurotransmitters: Cholinergics - Acetylcholine Biogenic Amines (modified amino acids) ,involved in slow synaptic transmission. • Catecholamines: Dopamine, Norepinephrine (NE), and Epinephrine • Indolamines • Serotonin and Histamine (5-Hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT) Amino Acids - involved in fast synaptic transmission and are inhibitory and excitatory in action. • GABA—Gamma ()-aminobutyric acid • Glycine , Aspartate ,Glutamate 2/18/2015 ANCY KURIAN IMSc. Neurotransmitters 11
  12. 12. Chemical Classification of Neurotransmitters:  Neuropeptides • formed by short chained peptides , slow acting synaptic transmitters. • Egs are Substance P , Endorphins and Enkephalins , Somatostatin, gastrin, cholecystokinin, oxytocin, vasopressin, Leutinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH)  Purines • Adenosine • ATP  Gases and Lipids • Nitric Oxide (NO) • Carbonmonooxide (CO) • Cannabinoids 2/18/2015 ANCY KURIAN IMSc. Neurotransmitters 12
  13. 13. Functional Classification • Excitatory Neurotransmitter- eg; Glutamate,Aspartate,Adrenaline and Noradrenaline,Histamine,Nitric Oxide andAcetycholine • Inhibitory Neurotransmitter– eg:GABA,Glycine,Adrenaline and Noradrenaline,Dopamine and Serotonin. 2/18/2015 ANCY KURIAN IMSc. Neurotransmitters 13
  14. 14. CAUSES ( Deficiency, Imbalance / Malfunctioning) 2/18/2015 ANCY KURIAN IMSc. Neurotransmitters 14 Food allergies & sensitivities Chronic stress Environmental Toxins Genetics Candida Overgrowth Nutritional DeficienciesAlcohol, Drugs, Nicotine Diet
  15. 15. Neurotransmitter levels and Emotional Health • Emotional health - combination of attitudes, personality, support systems, and our brain’s neurotransmitter levels • Recognizing changes - important part of treatment and returning to normal and reducing our stress. 2/18/2015 ANCY KURIAN IMSc. Neurotransmitters 15
  16. 16. NEUROTRANSMITTERS IN THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM Neurotransmitter Location Possible Implications for Mental illness I. Cholinergics A. Acetycholine ANS-Sympathetic and parasympathetic presynaptic nerve terminals; parasympathetic post-synaptic nerve terminals. CNS- Cerebral cortex ,hippocampus ,limbic structures, and basal ganglia. Functions : Sleep, arousal,pain,perception,movement,memory Increased levels: Depression Decreased levels : Alzheimer’s Disease, Huntington’s disease, Parkinson’s Disease I. Monoamines A. Norepinephrine ANS - Sympathetic post-synaptic nerve terminals. CNS – Thalamus, hypothalamus ,limbic system ,hippocampus, cerebellum ,cerebral cortex. Functions: Mood, cognition ,perception ,locomotion ,cardiovascular functioning and sleep and arousal. Decreased levels : Depression Increased levels : Mania, Anxiety states, Schizophrenia 2/18/2015 ANCY KURIAN IMSc. Neurotransmitters 16
  17. 17. A. Dopamine Frontal cortex, limbic system ,basal ganglia, thalamus ,posterior pituitary and spinal cord. Functions : Movement and coordination, emotions ,voluntary judgment ,release of prolactin. Decreased Levels : Parkinson’s disease and Depression Increased levels : Mania and Schizophrenia A. Serotonin Hypothalamus ,thalamus, limbic system, cerebral cortex, cerebellum, spinal cord Function : Sleep and arousal, libido, appetite, mood ,aggression ,pain, perception, coordination, judgement. Increased levels : Anxiety states Decreased levels : Depression A. Histamine Hypothalamus Functions : Wakefulness,pain,sensation and inflammatory response Decreased levels - Depression 2/18/2015 ANCY KURIAN IMSc. Neurotransmitters 17 NEUROTRANSMITTERS IN THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (contd…)
  18. 18. I. Amino Acids A. Gamma-amino-butyric acid(GABA) Hypothalamus, hippocampus, cortex, cerebellum ,basal ganglia, spinal cord, retina Functions: Slowdown of body activity Decreased levels : Huntington’s disease, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, and various forms of epilepsy A. Glycine Spinal cord and brain stem Functions : Recurrent inhibition of motor neurons Toxic levels :”glycine encephalopathy”, decreased levels are correlated with spastic motor movements. C. Glutamate and Asparate Pyramidal cells of the cortex, cerebellum and the primary sensory afferent systems ,hippocampus. thalamus, hypothalamus, spinal cord Functions: Relay of sensory information and in the regulation of various motor and spinal reflexes Increased levels : Huntington’s disease, temporal lobe epilepsy, spinal cerebellar degeneration. 2/18/2015 ANCY KURIAN IMSc. Neurotransmitters 18 NEUROTRANSMITTERS IN THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (contd…)
  19. 19. I. NEUROPEPTIDES A. Endorphins and Enkephalins Hypothalamus, thalamus ,limbic structures ,mid brain and brain stem; Enkephalins are also found in the gastro- intestinal tract Functions : Modulation of pain and reduced peristalsis (enkephalins) Modulation of dopamine activity by opoid neuropeptides may indicate some link to the symptoms of schizophrenia A. Substance P Hypothalamus, thalamus ,midbrain, brain stem, limbic structures ,basal ganglia and spinal cord ,also found in gastro-intestinal tract and salivary glands. Function: Regulation of pain. Increased levels : Depression Decreased levels : Huntington’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease A. Somatostatin Cerebral cortex, hippocampus ,thalamus ,basal ganglia, brain stem and spinal cord Function stimulates release of dopamine ,serotonin ,norepinephrine and acetylcholine, and inhibits release of norepinephrine, histamine and glutamate . Also acts as a neuromodulator for serotonin in the hypothalamus Increased levels : Huntington’s disease Decreased levels : Alzheimer's disease 2/18/2015 ANCY KURIAN IMSc. Neurotransmitters 19 NEUROTRANSMITTERS IN THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (contd…)
  20. 20. ALCOHOLISM & NEUROTRANSMITTERS 2/18/2015 ANCY KURIAN IMSc. Neurotransmitters 20
  21. 21. DIAGNOSIS OF NEUROTRANSMITTER IMBALANCE • Identify the causes • Identify the symptoms Symptoms of Neurotransmitter Imbalances or Neurotransmitter Deficiency • Diagnostic tests  Neurotransmitter Testing and Screening using urine samples Urine test that measures the actual levels of neurotransmitters in the urine.  Brain Scans  Live Studies  Brain Tissue Assays 2/18/2015 ANCY KURIAN IMSc. Neurotransmitters 21
  22. 22. DRUGS ALTER NEUROTRANSMISSION • Agonist: A drug that facilitates the effects of a particular neurotransmitter on the postsynaptic cell. • Ways that drugs can agonize • block auto-receptors • inhibition of reuptake • inhibition of deactivation • precursor to neurotransmitter • stimulate release • receptor binding etc. 2/18/2015 ANCY KURIAN IMSc. Neurotransmitters 22
  23. 23. DRUGS ALTER NEUROTRANSMISSION • Antagonist: A drug that opposes or inhibits the effects of a particular neurotransmitter on the postsynaptic cell. • Ways that drugs can antagonize • prevent synthesis • prevents storage • block release • receptor blocker • stimulates autoreceptors • Binds at same site neurotransmitter would. • Binds at different site. 2/18/2015 ANCY KURIAN IMSc. Neurotransmitters 23
  24. 24. 2/18/2015 ANCY KURIAN IMSc. Neurotransmitters 24
  25. 25. (1)DRUGS THAT INTERFER WITH NEUROTRANSMITTERS (pdf) (2)DRUGS THAT INCREASE /DECREASE/MIMIC NEUROTRANSMITTERS (pdf) 2/18/2015 ANCY KURIAN IMSc. Neurotransmitters 25
  26. 26. NURSES’ CONCERN IN NEUROTRANSMITTER IMBALANCE • Assessment • Identify the markers showing adverse effects due to prolonged use of medications • Replenishing neurotransmitters  Diet  Aminoacid therapy  Health education  Rehabilitation 2/18/2015 ANCY KURIAN IMSc. Neurotransmitters 26
  27. 27. NURSING DIAGNOSIS • Risk for injury related to accelerated motor activity • Disturbed thought process related to impaired judgement associated with manic behaviour • Self-care deficit (unkempt appearance) related to hyperactivity • Impaired verbal communication –flight of ideas related to accelerated thinking • Ineffective coping related to elated expressive mood • Disturbed thought process –grandiosity related to elevated mood • Ineffective coping related to emotional liability associated with manic behaviour • Disturbed thought process –related to delusion of grandeur 2/18/2015 ANCY KURIAN IMSc. Neurotransmitters 27
  28. 28. RESEARCH STUDIES • A 1999 study at Duke University and published in the Archives of Internal Medicine found that regular exercise was effective in decreasing symptoms of major depressive disorder.. • "Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience," - exercise also increases serotonin levels in your brain, leading to improved mood • And " exposure to the great outdoors, even on a cloudy day, can provide enough natural light to raise your serotonin levels. 2/18/2015 ANCY KURIAN IMSc. Neurotransmitters 28
  29. 29. CONCLUSION 2/18/2015 ANCY KURIAN IMSc. Neurotransmitters 29
  30. 30. THANKYOU 2/18/2015 ANCY KURIAN IMSc. Neurotransmitters 30

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