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Csa policy coordination in eac cop21-paris final


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Climate Smart Agriculture (CSA) Policy Framework and Coordination in EAC:
Role of Regional Economic Communities

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Csa policy coordination in eac cop21-paris final

  1. 1. Climate Smart Agriculture (CSA) Policy Framework and Coordination in EAC: Role of Regional Economic Communities 4 December, 2015 Africa Pavilion at COP21/CMP11 Le Bourget Paris, France Hon. Jesca Eriyo Deputy Secretary General, East African Community Vision: a prosperous, competitive, secure and politically united East Africa
  2. 2. Agriculture in a Changing Climate  Regional IGO of the Republic of Burundi, Republic of Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda established by the EAC Treaty in 1999.  Overall objective: to develop policies and programmes to widen & deepen economic, social and cultural, political, research and technology, defence, security and legal and judicial affairs for mutual benefits of the Partner States.  Key economic sectors (agriculture and environment inclusive) that contribute to GDP but are adversely affected by climate change.  The EAC has potential and capacity to produce enough food to meet the region’s food demand + surplus for export.  Poor agricultural productivity can be attributed to several factors including: 2
  3. 3. Agriculture and Climate Change  Increasing frequency and intensity of droughts and flooding.  Projections of global warming, climate change may reduce crop yields in most parts of Africa by between 10 and 20%.  By 2050, 3% of Africa’s land will no longer be suitable for growing maize, a major staple crop for over 200 million people in ESA  Droughts, flooding, and shifts in rainfall will render distort crop seasons resulting in food insecurity  1.5°C-2°C warming will contribute to loss of agricultural productivity by 40-80% of crop land conducive to growing maize, millet, and sorghum by the 2030s-2040s due to drought and aridity  Worst case scenario of a 4°C warmer world, around the 2080s, annual precipitation may decrease by up to 30% in S. Africa, parts E. Africa will observe more rainfall and othe parts of Africa will be very dry.  Ecosystems will change to pastoral lands, there will be shift from grassland to woodland savannahs due to rising CO2 levels, hence reduce in fodder for grazing, caking of soil, no water etc. 3
  4. 4. Kilimo Trust 5 - 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 Bananas Sweet Potatoes Beef Cassava Irish Potatoes Dairy Beans Maize Rice EAC formal Cross-border Trade as % of Production by Value 52 51 43 77 70 37 23 50 54 0 20 40 60 80 100 Sweet potatoes Rice Maize Irish potato Dairy Cassava Beef Beans Banana Percentage of produce sold by the producers Extent (%) to which Farming HHs Sell what they Produce – EAC Average for Key Staple Foods Suppressed Regional Trade in Food  Structural failures in market access, transport infrastructure and trade barriers leading to inadequate food supply chains and poor distribution of food commodities from areas with surpluses to those with deficits
  5. 5. Case for Climate Smart Agriculture  Food security under a changing climate a major challenge facing Africa.  Competition for land, water and energy will intensify in an attempt to meet the need for food, fuel and fibre  Globalization may further expose the food system to the vagaries of economic, demographic and political pressures  Global food production must increase by 70-100% by 2050 to meet the increasing food demand. Climate-Smart agriculture is agric that sustainably increases productivity, resilience (adaptation), reduces or removes GHGs (mitigation), and enhances achievement of national food security and development goals. (FAO, 2010) 6
  6. 6. EAC Climate Smart Agriculture Policy Framework  EAC CSA policy objectives addresses both adaptation and mitigation  Develop a framework for adaptation in agriculture aimed at improving agricultural productivity;  Enhance food security and promote sustainable agricultural practices with agricultural based emission reduction through land management, planning and optimal utilization of agricultural resources.  EAC Climate Smart Agriculture Policy Instruments  EAC Climate Change Policy (2011); Climate Change strategy (2011/12- 2015/16) and Climate Change Master Plan (2033)  EAC Agriculture and Rural Development Strategy (2005-2030)  EAC Food Security Action Plan (2011-2015);  EAC Sanitary and Phyto-Sanitary (SPS) Protocol;  EAC CAADP Compact;  EAC Food Balance Sheet;  EAC Heads of States Summit Declaration on Food Security & Climate Change (2010). 7
  7. 7. Challenges and Gaps in Up-Scaling CSA  Regional and national institutional frameworks/structures and arrangements  Legal inadequacies  Market access and development  Value chain development and competitiveness  Use of traditional, local and indigenous knowledge systems  Lack of sustainable technical capacities and information sharing and collaborative partnership  Collapsed extension and field services at community level  Climate data capture and climate information services  Multi-stakeholder participation, Public-Private Partnerships and learning platforms  Strategic, sustainable and innovative funding and investments options  Limited budgetary allocation to agriculture and climate change sectors  Challenges to accessing climate finance  Lack of a regional catalytic facility to support investments in national climate smart agriculture programmes in ESA
  8. 8. Existing and Emerging Opportunities  Attempts to integrate climate change resilience into national agricultural development plans will help enhance readiness to address the climate related shocks.  National climate change policies, strategies, action plans and putting in place legislative frameworks.  Developing green growth and low carbon strategies that aim to integrate climate change into national development.  Embracing CSA approach 9
  9. 9. Existing and Emerging Opportunities  CAADP (the Comprehensive African Agricultural Development Programme) and the CAADP Results Framework for results based monitoring in agriculture  AU Assembly Maputo Declaration (2003)  African governments are committed to raise agricultural productivity by at least 6% and to maintain the annual growth rate in agricultural production at the same level by 2015.  African governments have also agreed to increase public investment in agriculture to 10% of national budgets per year (AU, 2003).  Coordinated by the African Union Commission (AUC) through the New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD). 10
  10. 10. Existing and Emerging Opportunities  CAADP is structured around four key Pillars for agricultural improvement and investment in Africa which are:  Sustainable Land and Water Management;  Rural Infrastructure and Trade-Related Capacities for Improved Market Access;  Food Supply and Hunger Eradication; and  Agricultural Research, Technology Dissemination and Adoption.  Within the context of key NEPAD-CAADP principles and values, CAADP aims to stimulate and rally resource (technical, financial, etc) support to country and regional efforts in realizing agricultural driven higher path of economic growth. 11
  11. 11. Agriculture in the Climate Change Negotiations and Key COP Decisions 12 Agriculture is considered under cooperative sectoral approaches and sector-specific actions to enhance the implementation of Article 4, paragraph 1(c), of the Climate Change Convention.
  12. 12. Role of Regional Economic Communities  The 31st African Union Summit (Malabo, June 2014) further committed to rally political, technical and financial resources and action to support the empowerment of farmers and local communities and related state and non-state institutions, to ensure the necessary capacity to adapt to and/or mitigate the effects of climate change.  Within the context of CAADP and the overarching AU-NEPAD Framework on Agriculture-Climate Change, the AU Summit endorsed the African Union Vision – aiming to support at least 25 million farm households in practicing CSA by 2025.  Supporting and contributing to the Africa Climate Smart Agriculture Alliance (ACSA) goal and objective. 13
  13. 13. Role of Regional Economic Communities: EAC  EAC recognizes that CAADP is at the heart of efforts by African governments under the AU/NEPAD initiative to accelerate growth and eliminate poverty and hunger among African countries.  EAC is committed to adopt the continental CAADP Results Framework at the regional and national levels as part of the CAADP implementation agenda.  The EAC CAADP Results Framework will ensure complementarity between national and regional interventions as well as harmony and coherence in implementation of national and regional CAADP Compacts.  Coordinating the implementation of EAC CAADP Compact in view of National CAADP Compacts  Coordinating and facilitating the harmonization of National CAADP Compacts and support Partner States in mobilization of resources. 14
  14. 14. Role of Regional Economic Communities: EAC  EAC CAADP Compact Development Stocktaking Report  Draft EAC CAADP Compact  Constitution of a Regional Multi-Stakeholder Technical Team to provide technical and advisory guidance towards development and implementation of EAC Regional CAADP Compact and Investment Plan.  Supporting Partner States in the implementation of decisions of international climate change policy negotiations  Identification of key issues relating to agriculture with a view to preparing a common position for SBSTA’s and further inform the COP pursuant to Decision 1/CP17 in collaboration with CCAFS  Establishment of National CSA Task Forces with to provide technical oversight in the implementation of the CSA pilot projects and promoting national CSA policy and practices in collaboration with FAO  Development of Climate Smart Agriculture Investment Frameworks to mobilize additional resources for up-scaling CSA activities in the Partner States 15
  15. 15. Role of Regional Economic Communities  Development and coordination of regional programmes and projects  Programme on Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation in Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA-EAC-SADC) Region aimed at increasing investments in climate resilient and carbon efficient agriculture and its linkages to forestry, land use and energy practices in the COMESA-EAC-SADC countries by 2016. (EUC, Norway and DfID/UK-Aid funded)  Planning for Resilience in East Africa through Policy, Adaptation, Research, and Economic Development (PREPARED) aimed at strengthening the resiliency and sustainability of East African economies, trans-boundary freshwater ecosystems and communities (funded by US government through USAID)  Development of National Climate Smart Agriculture Programmes16
  16. 16. Key Messages  Need to explore existing and new opportunities to support climate smart agriculture programming from national budgets and other regional donor supported projects  Need to strengthen linkage between CSA and CAADP  Need to strengthen/ enhance collaboration and partnerships in CSA programming in accordance with the EAC Treaty, EAC Comprehensive Dialogue Framework- SG’s Forum for CSOs and Private Sector  Technical and financial support to the Partner States in implementation of CSA activities (facilitating CSA Task Forces, supporting pilots, CSA investment frameworks)  Supporting implementation of National Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMA) and Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDCs) for Agriculture sector incorporates adaptation and mitigation measures enabled by internationally supported technology development and transfer, capacity building and finance 17
  17. 17. Key Messages  EAC Consultative Dialogue Framework- SG’s Forum for CSOs and Private Sectors Enhancing the capacity of national and regional research organizations  There is a need for multi-sectoral approaches in responding to the adverse impacts of Climate Change in agriculture and food security through sectoral adaptation and mitigation measures and policies.  Supporting Regional CSA Knowledge Centres and international programme for knowledge transfer on CSA such as CADRESA, ASARECA, ACT, CCAFS etc  Strengthen Research 18
  18. 18. Thank You 19