Materials of Door Construction
Types of door movement
Types of doors
Locks and Latches
Materials of Door Construction
Widely used for the construction of doors
Most of the people prefer timber because of its appearance.
Doors can be constructed with solid planks or timber pieces.
To increase the lifetime of doors
o various preservatives are added
o Timber is seasoned
Plywood is very useful, for flush doors.
It takes good polish and provides smooth and plain appearance.
Glass pieces are fixed in door panels to admit light inside the
Large openings in doors fitted with thick glass panels impart a
The glass may be of various types
o frosted glass
o beaded glass
o ribbed glass
Steel and aluminum framed doors are widely used due to the
If properly maintained, their life is very long.
Hollow metal doors fabricated of a metal frame, covered with
metal sheet are selected for greater strength, life and fire-
Reinforced cement concrete frames are used in areas where
doors are exposed to vermin, fungus, white ants etc.
Type of door movements
1. Swinging Doors
This type of doors is very popular in residential buildings.
There are two types.
o single swinging
o double swinging
Single swinging Double swinging
2. Revolving Doors
This type of door hangs on a central pivot and can rotate.
It is useful at places where frequent opening and closing of a door
is to be avoided
Also there are Single and double shutter revolving doors.
The door revolves about one side of the shutter and is closed
automatically whenever pushed and left.
03. Sliding Doors
In case of such doors, the shutters can slide either sideways, or
upwards or downwards.
It provides more clear space for movement.
It is more suitable for shops, garages workshops, go down, etc.
4. Rolling shutter doors.
They do not require more space. This type of door is useful for shops,
railway stations, ware houses etc
5. Folding doors
These doors are fabricated from steel or timber
Dimensions of doors
Should have sufficient space to take required large objects to
Minimum widths recommended for public building, external
o 1.20 m
o 1.00 m
o 0.90 m
The width of door leading to bath rooms should be around
Height of the door should be
o Height = Width + 0.9 to 1.1 meter
The doors of garage should be
o 2.5*2.2 meters
Factors to consider
Strength and stability
Easy for the maintenance
Sound proof ability
Environmental friendly materials
1. Frame - It is a combination of several wooden members to
support the door
2. Style - Style is an external vertical member of the shutter.
3. Top rail - It is the topmost horizontal member of the shutter
4. Lock rail - It is the central horizontal member of the shutter
where locking attachments are fixed.
5. Bottom rail - It is the lowest horizontal member of the
6. Shutter - The complete assembly of the styles panels and
rails is known as a shutter.
7. Panel - It is the enclosed area between the rails.
8. Sash - It is a frame made of light sections and is used iron
fixing the glass in the panels.
9. Mullion - It is a vertical member running through a shutter or
10. Louver - Louver is a timber piece which is attached in
inclined position within a frame.
11.Horn - It is a horizontal projection of head or sill beyond the
face of the door or window frame. Generally horn is
15 cm long.
12.Hold-fasts - These are provided on vertical sides of the
vertical door frames to keep the frame in required
position. They are made of mild steel flat bars
about 3 cm wide, 6 cm thick and 20 to 25 cm long.
13. Sill - It is the bottom most horizontal member forming the
14. Jamb - It is the vertical face of a door or windows opening
which supports the frame.
15. Transom - It is a horizontal member which divides the door
or window frame into several panels.
16. Rebate - It is a depression cut in the frame to accommodate
Types of doors
• Ledged door
• Ledged and braced door
• Ledged and framed door
• Ledged, Braced and Framed door
• Frame and paneled door
• Glazed or sash door
• Louvered door
• Flush door
• Revolving door
• Collapsible door
• Sliding door
• Rolling steel door
• Automated door
• Made up of timber boards known as battens
• Battens are placed vertically and fixed by horizontal ledges
• Two or Three ledges are provided in a door
15 cm wide and 25mm thick10-20 cm wide and 30mm thick
(To Fix the shutter In the frame)
Ledged and Braced Door
• Diagonal timber members are used – Braces
• These types of doors are more rigid
• Can be used as wide openings
10-15 cm wide and 30mm thick
Ledged Door Ledged and Braced Door
Ledged and Framed Door
• Framework for the shutter is provided
• Strong and has a good appearance
10 cm wide and 4cm thick
Ledged Braced and Framed Door
• Similar to ledged and framed door
• Braces are provided in between the two ledges
• This type of door is more strong and durable
Frame and paneled Door
• The number of panels depends upon
The size of the door
• Minimum width of
Style – 10 cm
Lock rail/ Bottom rail – 15 cm
• Allows sufficient amount of ventilation
• Maintains privacy as well
• Louvers are arranged such that
upper back edge of any louver is
above or lower front edge of the next higher louver
The shutter is provided with a
fixed louver or a movable louver
• Very strong and it is sound proof to a great extent
• Has a smooth and clean surface
• Both the faces of the framework are covered by 0.6 cm
• Used to regulate the entry of persons in
big hotels, banks, theaters,
hospitals Central supporting shaft
• Made of thin mild steel sections
• Used in shops, go downs, schools, workshops, public buildings
16-20 mm width Spacing 10-12 cm 16-20 mm wide bracing
• The shutter slides with the aid of runners and guide
• Commonly used in shops, show rooms, go downs etc
Rolling steel Door
• Commonly used for show windows, shops, store, offices etc.
• The door shutter moves up and down in steel guides
• The weight of the door is counter balanced by helical spring
provided in the drum
• A steel cover is provided to protect the drum from weathering
A window is a transparent or a translucent opening in
a wall or door that allows the passage of light and, if not closed or
sealed, air and sound.
Windows are held in place by frames, which prevent them from
• Admits light
• Provides fresh air and ventilation
• Adds detail, balance, interest
• Visually enlarges interior space
Main factors to consider when selecting windows and it’s
Strength – To take maximum space for windows strength of
the walls should be considered
Ventilation - Selected window sizes should be large enough to
satisfy the required ventilation conditions
Types of Windows
• Casement window
• Sash or glazed window
• Double-hung window
• Louvered window
• Pivoted window
• Sliding window
• Circular window
• French window
• Corner window
• Bay window
• Dormer window
• Sky light
• Metal window
Hinged at the side and swing outward at the turn of a
This type is recommended for maximum ventilation
Sash or glazed window
In this type of windows panels are fully glazed
The frame consist of stiles, top rail and a bottom rail.
The space between top and bottom rail is divided into
number of panels with small timber members called, sash
bars or glazing bars.
Glass panels are fixed to sash bars by timber beads
Double-hung windows are the most common type.
They consist of two sashes that are guided by a metal or
These are easy to clean
Louvered windows are used to provide more ventilation. The
windows provide light and ventilation even if closed.
Privacy is also well maintained
Such windows are recommended for bath, WC, workshops
etc., where privacy is more important.
The louvers are usually fixed at 45ᶲ inclination sloping
downward to the outside to run-off the rain water.
• The shutters are sided on roller bearings , either vertically or
• Cavities are provided in walls to accommodate the window
shutters when it is opened
• Used in railway trains and buses
• It is a pivoted window of circular shape.
• It is commonly used in workshops and factories
• Commonly used in modern houses
• Allow more light to enter
• Add an aesthetic value to the building
• It is constructed in the corner of a
building and admits lights and air from
• It is a window in the building which is projected beyond the
walls of the room.
• It is provided to improve the architectural appearance of the
• Additional space is obtained to allow light and air in room
• Such types of windows are provided on the inclined roofs of
• They provide air and light to the room constructed within the
space of the roof slopes
• This type of window is fixed on the sloping surface of an
• It is meant to admit light into the room and generally fixed
glass pans to cover it.
• Reinforced or ribbed glass is preferred.
• A curb frame is provided with the common rafter to support
• More popular in modern age.
• They are fabricated from light rolled steel sections which
forms window frame.
• The glass pans are fixed in to the frame. The glazed shutter
may be hinged at top, bottom, and side or pivoted to rotate in
• Double hung type window may also be fabricated with the
metal frames. The frame is attached to the masonry wall in
grooves with cement grout.
• Sometimes the timber frame and sill are used to fix up the
steel shutter. It looks elegant.
Hinges are devices used to attach doors, windows and gates to
Materials used for hinges
o Cast iron
o Nylon with metal pins
Hinges are classified based on
o Their function
o Length of flap
o Material used
o Method of manufacture
Types of hinges
Steel butt hinge
o Most common type in general use
Steel double flap butt hinge
o similar to the steel butt hinge but is made from two steel strips to
give extra strength.
Rising butt hinge
o used to make the door level rise as it is opened to clear carpets and
similar floor coverings.
o a form of butt hinge with a projecting knuckle and pin enabling the
door to swing through 1800 to clear architraves and narrow reveals.
o These hinges are used mainly for hanging match boarded doors
where the weight is distributed over a large area.
installed in residential situations on exterior doors
Sometimes used as the primary source of security for doors.
Lever handle locks
used for inner doors in commercial settings.
They are easier to open than knob locks as they have a large push down
Rim / Mortise Locks
found on commercial doors, entry glass doors, and some apartment doors.
Have a long metal piece extending out the rear of the lock that runs
through the door into a locking mechanism on the opposite side of the
Rim Latch Locks
A rim latch lock has a standard or custom rim cylinder on one side and a
surface mount latch lock on the other.
Rim latch locks can auto lock the door behind you and are popular in some
Doors with modern technology
• Standalone electronic door lock
• No hard wiring necessary - battery operated
• Easy programming with audible feedback
• Easy installation
• This feature provides a quick lockout feature in case of a
Master Lock Electronic Deadbolt Lock
• Single cylinder thumb turn on the inside
• Mechanical key overridden option
• Available in Polished Brass, Antique Brass and Satin Nickel
• As bio - metrics become more and more prominent as a
recognized means of positive identification, their use in
security systems increases.
• Some new electronic locks take advantage of technologies
o fingerprint scanning,
o retinal scanning
o iris scanning
o voice print identification