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America In The Beginning Who were the first Americans? How and why did they come here? 30,000 years ago During a period of low temperatures called an ___ice age_______ The world was covered in __glaciers_______ or sheets of ice. This caused ocean levels to _____drop___ and expose ______land____. In the Bering straight a __________land bridge_____ appeared connecting ___siberia ___america_________& _______________ This land bridge is known as ____BERINGIA______. Animals like mammoths crossed the bridge or ____PATH_______ to the America's.
What happened when they came to America? How did they meet their new needs? America In The Beginning Hunter's in Asia who moved from place to place to find food or ______nomads_______ followed the mammoths and spread out or __________migrate_ to the America's The ice age ended ________warming____ up glaciers causing water levels to _______rise___ covering up the _______land__ _bridge_______. Some animals died off like _____mammals_______. Living in many different parts of the Americas the Natives needed to adjust or __adapt_______ to every thing in the new surrounds that made up each of their own ________envirment_____ in order to survive__________.
America In The Beginning How did Native Americans adjust to the new environments? What did they have in common? Living in many different parts of the Americas the Natives used the different natural _resources__________ in their own different environments for food, clothing, and shelter. Different groups in different environments developed their own beliefs and ways of life or _culture______________. Groups in the same environments adapted similar life styles, and language creating _cultural______ regoin_________. Many Native American have these things in common. 1. Nature has a spirit________. 2. No one can own _land_________. 4. Only use what is _needed_________. 5. _trade_________ was important to most societies
8 Cultural Regions North West Coast California Plateau Great Basin South West Great Plains Eastern Woodlands South East North West Coast California South West South East Easternwoodlands
8 Cultural Regions
North West Coast W eather: long cold winters cool summers heavy rainfall Na tural Resources: ocean/beaches thick forests of fir, spruce, and cedar rugged mountains seafood/salmon deer, moose, bear, elk, beaver, mountain goats Used cedar canoes to hunt Fenced in salmon laying eggs used cedar to make rope, mats and baskets shell needles used wedges, sledge hammers, drills, and knifes to carve wooden masks Clothing: Cedar water proof clothing like capes with decorative shell buttons Shelter: lived near the coast Cedar Long Houses with cedar bark roofs Used cedar canoes to hunt Fenced in salmon laying eggs used cedar to make rope, mats and baskets shell needles used wedges, sledge hammers, drills, and knifes to carve wooden masks Clothing: Cedar water proof clothing like capes with decorative shell buttons Shelter: lived near the coast Cedar Long Houses with cedar bark roofs
California W eather: rainy winters hot dry summers Na tural Resources: ocean/coast foothills valley's deserts mountains acorns, oak trees grass, and plants redwood trees salmon/seafood/shellfish deer, rabbits, ducks, roots berries, pine nuts Used Bows& arrows, snares, and nets, used cooking stones to heat acorn meal tools from antlers Clothing:grass/leather aprons and skirts Shelter: Cone shaped made of redwood bark, pole, and reeds woven into mats
Great Basin W eather: little rain h ot during the day cold at night Natural Resources: mostly dessert low areas surrounded by mountains at the edges with valleys that had seasonal lakes and streams plants that need little water like grasses, sagebrush, pinon trees, at the outer edges pine trees, and willow small animals rabbits, lizards, grasshoppers, snakes sometimes ducks , duck eggs during certain seasons seeds,berries pine nuts, roots, cattail Tools: water baskets sealed with tree sap Floating duck decoys, nets, sharp sticks, flat baskets for catching seeds Clothing: rabbit robes in winter Shelter: Nomadic temporary cone shelters of willow, brush and reeds
Plateau W eather: long cold winters comfortable summers Na tural Resources: mountains with dense forests in areas flatter in the center with drier grass lands rivers driftwood, mud, dirt, grass and sage brush fish, antelope, deer, seeds onions, carrots, camas roots, salmon Tools: woven baskets, willow digging sticks, wooden fishing platforms, nets, and spears for salmon Clothing: antelope and deer hides leggings, dresses and skirts, woven hats, seed and shell designs Shelter: near rivers, partly under ground out of driftwood, mud, sap, and reeds
Great Plains W eather: cold winters hot summers Na tural Resources: mountains surrounding edges treeless grasslands in the center east more water and softer soil west drier dense grass Buffalo and smaller animals Culture: Tools: bow made of buffalo tendon, arrows, V shaped stone trap, fire, bone knives, shields, Clothing: Buffalo robes and hides Shelter: Houses called tipis
South West W eather: high temperatures little rain dry/arid Na tural Resources: mountains, canyons desserts, flat top mesas rivers, little water clay, brightly colored plants, cotton corn, beans, squash, peppers, rabbits Large thick walled houses made of bricks of adobe(sun baked clay). Up to 4 stories and had hundreds of rooms. Clothes were made of cotton that they grew. Using plants and minerals, they dyed the fabric Lived near naturally flooded areas. Men dug irrigation ditches, and also built dams to hold summer rain. Women spend most the day grinding corn kernels into cornmeal. They used clay pots to cook stews
Eastern Woodlands W eather: s nowy winters , rain Natural Resources: rivers, ocean/coast lots of lakes and streams Forests, plants, maple trees, elm, deer, bears, beavers, birds, fish corn, sunflowers, tobacco, vegetables, nuts, berries Long House: Sturdy, log-framed houses covered with elm bark, about 20 feet wide and over 100 feet long. Several related families live in sections of the house. Skirts, capes, and moccasins were made out of deer skins. Women ground corn with wooden sticks . Men often paddled on the rivers and streams in log and bark canoes . They trapped beavers, hunted deer, bear, caught birds, and speared fish. For farming land, men burnt small sections of trees and underbrush. Women did the hoeing and planting. They planted many different types of corn, beans and squash. Made maple syrup and wooden storage canisters.
South East W eather: l ong warm humid summers mild winters Natural Resources: rivers, ocean/coast Fertile coastal plains mountains, swamps Trees, clay, shells, corn, beans, squash, pumpkins, sunflowers, sweet potatoes squirrels, rabbits, turkeys, deer, alligators, turtles, wild rice, persimmons Houses were made from strips of young trees woven into a rectangular frame, then plastered with clay. These houses had pointed roofs made of leaves. Towns included many mounds, first mounds were burial sights, but others were larger, and used as platforms for temples. It took many months, even years, to build these mounds, because they moved the dirt 1 basket full at a time. Simple clothing was made of deer skin. Jewelry made of stones, shells, feathers, pearls, bones, and clay. Women used hoes made of stone, shell or animal shoulder blades. Men hunted using small blow guns, and bows and arrows.