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ninth edition
STEPHEN P. ROBBINS
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc.© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc.
All rights reserved.All rights reser...
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights
reserved. 14–2
L E A R N I N G O U T L I N EL E A R N I N G O U T L I N E
Follow thi...
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights
reserved. 14–3
L E A R N I N G O U T L I N E (cont’d)L E A R N I N G O U T L I N E (...
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights
reserved. 14–4
L E A R N I N G O U T L I N E (cont’d)L E A R N I N G O U T L I N E (...
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights
reserved. 14–5
L E A R N I N G O U T L I N E (cont’d)L E A R N I N G O U T L I N E (...
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights
reserved. 14–6
Why Look at Individual Behavior?Why Look at Individual Behavior?
• Or...
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights
reserved. 14–7
Exhibit 14.1Exhibit 14.1 The Organization as an IcebergThe Organizati...
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights
reserved. 14–8
Important Employee BehaviorsImportant Employee Behaviors
• Employee P...
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights
reserved. 14–9
Important Employee Behaviors (cont’d)Important Employee Behaviors (co...
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights
reserved. 14–10
Important Employee Behaviors (cont’d)Important Employee Behaviors (c...
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights
reserved. 14–11
Psychological Factors AffectingPsychological Factors Affecting
Emplo...
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights
reserved. 14–12
Psychological FactorsPsychological Factors
• AttitudesAttitudes
 Ev...
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights
reserved. 14–13
Psychological Factors (cont’d)Psychological Factors (cont’d)
• Job S...
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights
reserved. 14–14
Psychological Factors (cont’d)Psychological Factors (cont’d)
• Job S...
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights
reserved. 14–15
Psychological Factors (cont’d)Psychological Factors (cont’d)
• Job S...
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights
reserved. 14–16
Psychological Factors (cont’d)Psychological Factors (cont’d)
• Job S...
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights
reserved. 14–17
Psychological Factors (cont’d)Psychological Factors (cont’d)
• Job I...
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights
reserved. 14–18
Psychological Factors (cont’d)Psychological Factors (cont’d)
• Organ...
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights
reserved. 14–19
Psychological Factors (cont’d)Psychological Factors (cont’d)
• Perce...
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights
reserved. 14–20
Attitudes and ConsistencyAttitudes and Consistency
• People seek con...
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights
reserved. 14–21
Cognitive Dissonance TheoryCognitive Dissonance Theory
• Cognitive D...
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights
reserved. 14–22
Attitude SurveysAttitude Surveys
• Attitude SurveysAttitude Surveys
...
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights
reserved. 14–23
Exhibit 14.2Exhibit 14.2 Sample Attitude SurveySample Attitude Surve...
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights
reserved. 14–24
The Importance of AttitudesThe Importance of Attitudes
• Implication...
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights
reserved. 14–25
PersonalityPersonality
• PersonalityPersonality
 The unique combina...
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights
reserved. 14–26
Classifying Personality TraitsClassifying Personality Traits
• Myers...
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights
reserved. 14–27
Exhibit 14.3Exhibit 14.3 Examples of MBTIExamples of MBTI®®
TypesTyp...
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights
reserved. 14–28
The Big-Five ModelThe Big-Five Model
• ExtraversionExtraversion
 So...
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights
reserved. 14–29
Other Personality InsightsOther Personality Insights
• Locus of Cont...
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights
reserved. 14–30
Other Personality Insights (cont’d)Other Personality Insights (cont’...
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights
reserved. 14–31
Other Personality Insights (cont’d)Other Personality Insights (cont’...
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights
reserved. 14–32
Other Personality Insights (cont’d)Other Personality Insights (cont’...
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights
reserved. 14–33
EmotionsEmotions
• EmotionsEmotions
 Intense feelings (reactions) t...
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights
reserved. 14–34
Emotional IntelligenceEmotional Intelligence
• Emotional Intelligenc...
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights
reserved. 14–35
Implications for ManagersImplications for Managers
• Employee select...
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights
reserved. 14–36
Understanding Personality DifferencesUnderstanding Personality Diffe...
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights
reserved. 14–37
Exhibit 14.4Exhibit 14.4 Holland’s Typology of Personality and Sampl...
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights
reserved. 14–38
PerceptionPerception
• PerceptionPerception
 A process by which ind...
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights
reserved. 14–39
Exhibit 14.5Exhibit 14.5 Perception Challenges: What Do You See?Perc...
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights
reserved. 14–40
How We Perceive PeopleHow We Perceive People
• Attribution TheoryAtt...
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights
reserved. 14–41
Exhibit 14.6Exhibit 14.6 Attribution TheoryAttribution Theory
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights
reserved. 14–42
How We Perceive People (cont’d)How We Perceive People (cont’d)
• Att...
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights
reserved. 14–43
Shortcuts Used in Judging OthersShortcuts Used in Judging Others
• A...
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights
reserved. 14–44
Implications for ManagersImplications for Managers
• Employees react...
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights
reserved. 14–45
LearningLearning
• LearningLearning
 Any relatively permanent chang...
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights
reserved. 14–46
Learning (cont’d)Learning (cont’d)
• Operant Conditioning (B.F. Skin...
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights
reserved. 14–47
Learning (cont’d)Learning (cont’d)
• Social LearningSocial Learning
...
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights
reserved. 14–48
Shaping: A Managerial ToolShaping: A Managerial Tool
• Shaping Behav...
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights
reserved. 14–49
Contemporary Issues in OBContemporary Issues in OB
• Managing Genera...
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights
reserved. 14–50
Exhibit 14.7Exhibit 14.7 Gen Y WorkersGen Y Workers
Source: Bruce Tu...
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights
reserved. 14–51
Contemporary Issues in OBContemporary Issues in OB
• Managing Negati...
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights
reserved. 14–52
Terms to KnowTerms to Know
• behaviorbehavior
• organizational behav...
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights
reserved. 14–53
Terms to Know (cont’d)Terms to Know (cont’d)
• self-esteemself-estee...
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  1. 1. ninth edition STEPHEN P. ROBBINS © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc.© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.All rights reserved. PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie CookPowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook The University of West AlabamaThe University of West Alabama MARY COULTER FoundationsFoundations of Behaviorof Behavior ChapterChapter 1414
  2. 2. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 14–2 L E A R N I N G O U T L I N EL E A R N I N G O U T L I N E Follow this Learning Outline as you read and study this chapter.Follow this Learning Outline as you read and study this chapter. Why Look at Individual Behavior?Why Look at Individual Behavior? • Explain why the concept of an organization as an icebergExplain why the concept of an organization as an iceberg is important to understanding organizational behavior.is important to understanding organizational behavior. • Describe the focus and the goals of organizationalDescribe the focus and the goals of organizational behavior.behavior. • Define the six important employee behaviors thatDefine the six important employee behaviors that managers want to explain, predict, and influence.managers want to explain, predict, and influence. AttitudesAttitudes • Describe the three components of an attitude.Describe the three components of an attitude. • Discuss three job-related attitudes.Discuss three job-related attitudes. • Describe the impact job satisfaction has on employeeDescribe the impact job satisfaction has on employee behavior.behavior.
  3. 3. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 14–3 L E A R N I N G O U T L I N E (cont’d)L E A R N I N G O U T L I N E (cont’d) Follow this Learning Outline as you read and study this chapter.Follow this Learning Outline as you read and study this chapter. Attitudes (cont’d)Attitudes (cont’d) • Explain how individuals reconcile inconsistenciesExplain how individuals reconcile inconsistencies between attitudes and behavior.between attitudes and behavior. •PersonalityPersonality • Contrast the MBTI and the big-five model of personality.Contrast the MBTI and the big-five model of personality. • Describe the five personality traits that have proved to beDescribe the five personality traits that have proved to be most powerful in explaining individual behavior inmost powerful in explaining individual behavior in organizations.organizations. • Explain how emotions and emotional intelligence impactExplain how emotions and emotional intelligence impact behavior.behavior.
  4. 4. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 14–4 L E A R N I N G O U T L I N E (cont’d)L E A R N I N G O U T L I N E (cont’d) Follow this Learning Outline as you read and study this chapter.Follow this Learning Outline as you read and study this chapter. PerceptionPerception • Explain how an understanding of perception can helpExplain how an understanding of perception can help managers.managers. • Describe the key elements of attribution theory.Describe the key elements of attribution theory. • Discuss how the fundamental attribution error and self-Discuss how the fundamental attribution error and self- serving bias can distort attributions.serving bias can distort attributions. • Name three shortcuts used in judging others.Name three shortcuts used in judging others. LearningLearning • Explain how operant conditioning helps managersExplain how operant conditioning helps managers understand, predict, and influence behavior.understand, predict, and influence behavior. • Describe the implications of social learning theory forDescribe the implications of social learning theory for managing people at work.managing people at work.
  5. 5. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 14–5 L E A R N I N G O U T L I N E (cont’d)L E A R N I N G O U T L I N E (cont’d) Follow this Learning Outline as you read and study this chapter.Follow this Learning Outline as you read and study this chapter. Learning (cont’d)Learning (cont’d) • Discuss how managers can shape behavior.Discuss how managers can shape behavior. Contemporary OB IssuesContemporary OB Issues • Describe the challenges managers face in managing GenDescribe the challenges managers face in managing Gen Y workers.Y workers. • Explain what managers can do to deal with workplaceExplain what managers can do to deal with workplace misbehavior.misbehavior.
  6. 6. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 14–6 Why Look at Individual Behavior?Why Look at Individual Behavior? • Organizational Behavior (OB)Organizational Behavior (OB)  The actions of people at workThe actions of people at work • Focus of Organizational BehaviorFocus of Organizational Behavior  Individual behaviorIndividual behavior  Attitudes, personality, perception, learning, and motivationAttitudes, personality, perception, learning, and motivation  Group behaviorGroup behavior  Norms, roles, team building, leadership, and conflictNorms, roles, team building, leadership, and conflict • Goals of Organizational BehaviorGoals of Organizational Behavior  To explain, predict and influence behavior.To explain, predict and influence behavior.
  7. 7. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 14–7 Exhibit 14.1Exhibit 14.1 The Organization as an IcebergThe Organization as an Iceberg
  8. 8. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 14–8 Important Employee BehaviorsImportant Employee Behaviors • Employee ProductivityEmployee Productivity  A performance measure of both efficiency andA performance measure of both efficiency and effectivenesseffectiveness • AbsenteeismAbsenteeism  The failure to report to work when expectedThe failure to report to work when expected • TurnoverTurnover  The voluntary and involuntaryThe voluntary and involuntary permanent withdrawal frompermanent withdrawal from an organizationan organization
  9. 9. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 14–9 Important Employee Behaviors (cont’d)Important Employee Behaviors (cont’d) • Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB)Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB)  Discretionary behavior that is not a part of anDiscretionary behavior that is not a part of an employee’s formal job requirements, but whichemployee’s formal job requirements, but which promotes the effective functioning of the organization.promotes the effective functioning of the organization. • Job SatisfactionJob Satisfaction  The individual’s general attitudeThe individual’s general attitude toward his or her jobtoward his or her job
  10. 10. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 14–10 Important Employee Behaviors (cont’d)Important Employee Behaviors (cont’d) • Workplace MisbehaviorWorkplace Misbehavior  Any intentional employee behavior that has negativeAny intentional employee behavior that has negative consequences for the organization or individualsconsequences for the organization or individuals within the organization.within the organization.  Types of MisbehaviorTypes of Misbehavior  DevianceDeviance  AggressionAggression  Antisocial behaviorAntisocial behavior  ViolenceViolence
  11. 11. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 14–11 Psychological Factors AffectingPsychological Factors Affecting Employee BehaviorEmployee Behavior • AttitudesAttitudes • PersonalityPersonality • PerceptionPerception • LearningLearning • AttitudesAttitudes • PersonalityPersonality • PerceptionPerception • LearningLearning • EmployeeEmployee ProductivityProductivity • AbsenteeismAbsenteeism • TurnoverTurnover • OrganizationalOrganizational CitizenshipCitizenship • Job SatisfactionJob Satisfaction • WorkplaceWorkplace MisbehaviorMisbehavior • EmployeeEmployee ProductivityProductivity • AbsenteeismAbsenteeism • TurnoverTurnover • OrganizationalOrganizational CitizenshipCitizenship • Job SatisfactionJob Satisfaction • WorkplaceWorkplace MisbehaviorMisbehavior
  12. 12. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 14–12 Psychological FactorsPsychological Factors • AttitudesAttitudes  Evaluative statementsEvaluative statements—either favorable or—either favorable or unfavorable—concerning objects, people, or events.unfavorable—concerning objects, people, or events. • Components Of An AttitudeComponents Of An Attitude  Cognitive component:Cognitive component: the beliefs, opinions,the beliefs, opinions, knowledge, or information held by a person.knowledge, or information held by a person.  Affective component:Affective component: the emotional or feeling partthe emotional or feeling part of an attitude.of an attitude.  Behavioral component:Behavioral component: the intention to behave in athe intention to behave in a certain way.certain way.
  13. 13. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 14–13 Psychological Factors (cont’d)Psychological Factors (cont’d) • Job SatisfactionJob Satisfaction  Job satisfaction is affected by level of income earnedJob satisfaction is affected by level of income earned and by the type of job a worker does.and by the type of job a worker does. • Job Satisfaction and ProductivityJob Satisfaction and Productivity  For individuals, productivity appears to lead to jobFor individuals, productivity appears to lead to job satisfaction.satisfaction.  For organizations, those with more satisfiedFor organizations, those with more satisfied employees are more effective than those with lessemployees are more effective than those with less satisfied employees.satisfied employees.
  14. 14. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 14–14 Psychological Factors (cont’d)Psychological Factors (cont’d) • Job Satisfaction and AbsenteeismJob Satisfaction and Absenteeism  Satisfied employees tend to have lower levels ofSatisfied employees tend to have lower levels of absenteeism.absenteeism. • Job Satisfaction and TurnoverJob Satisfaction and Turnover  Satisfied employees have lower levels of turnover;Satisfied employees have lower levels of turnover; dissatisfied employees have higher levels of turnover.dissatisfied employees have higher levels of turnover.  Turnover is affected by the level of employeeTurnover is affected by the level of employee performance.performance.  The preferential treatment afforded superior employeesThe preferential treatment afforded superior employees makes satisfaction less important in predicting their turnovermakes satisfaction less important in predicting their turnover decisions.decisions.
  15. 15. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 14–15 Psychological Factors (cont’d)Psychological Factors (cont’d) • Job Satisfaction and Customer SatisfactionJob Satisfaction and Customer Satisfaction  The level of job satisfaction for frontline employees isThe level of job satisfaction for frontline employees is related to increased customer satisfaction and loyalty.related to increased customer satisfaction and loyalty.  Interaction with dissatisfied customers can increaseInteraction with dissatisfied customers can increase an employee’s job dissatisfaction.an employee’s job dissatisfaction.  Actions to increase job satisfaction for customerActions to increase job satisfaction for customer service workers:service workers:  Hire upbeat and friendly employees.Hire upbeat and friendly employees.  Reward superior customer service.Reward superior customer service.  Provide a positive work climate.Provide a positive work climate.  Use attitude surveys to track employee satisfaction.Use attitude surveys to track employee satisfaction.
  16. 16. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 14–16 Psychological Factors (cont’d)Psychological Factors (cont’d) • Job Satisfaction and Workplace MisbehaviorJob Satisfaction and Workplace Misbehavior  Dissatisfied employees will respond somehowDissatisfied employees will respond somehow  Not easy to predict exactly how they’ll respondNot easy to predict exactly how they’ll respond
  17. 17. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 14–17 Psychological Factors (cont’d)Psychological Factors (cont’d) • Job InvolvementJob Involvement  The degree to which an employee identifies with hisThe degree to which an employee identifies with his or her job, actively participates in it, and considers hisor her job, actively participates in it, and considers his or her performance to be important to his or her self-or her performance to be important to his or her self- worth.worth.  High levels of commitment are related to fewer absences andHigh levels of commitment are related to fewer absences and lower resignation rates.lower resignation rates.
  18. 18. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 14–18 Psychological Factors (cont’d)Psychological Factors (cont’d) • Organizational CommitmentOrganizational Commitment  Is the degree to which an employee identifies with aIs the degree to which an employee identifies with a particular organization and its goals and wishes toparticular organization and its goals and wishes to maintain membership in the organization.maintain membership in the organization.  Leads to lower levels of both absenteeism andLeads to lower levels of both absenteeism and turnover.turnover.  Could be becoming an outmoded measure as theCould be becoming an outmoded measure as the number of workers who change employers increases.number of workers who change employers increases.
  19. 19. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 14–19 Psychological Factors (cont’d)Psychological Factors (cont’d) • Perceived Organizational SupportPerceived Organizational Support  Is the general belief of employees that theirIs the general belief of employees that their organization values their contribution and cares aboutorganization values their contribution and cares about their well-being.their well-being.  Represents the commitment of the organization to theRepresents the commitment of the organization to the employee.employee.  Providing high levels of support increases jobProviding high levels of support increases job satisfaction and lower turnover.satisfaction and lower turnover.
  20. 20. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 14–20 Attitudes and ConsistencyAttitudes and Consistency • People seek consistency in two ways:People seek consistency in two ways:  Consistency among their attitudes.Consistency among their attitudes.  Consistency between their attitudes and behaviors.Consistency between their attitudes and behaviors. • If an inconsistency arises, individuals:If an inconsistency arises, individuals:  Alter their attitudesAlter their attitudes oror  Alter their behaviorAlter their behavior oror  Develop a rationalization for the inconsistencyDevelop a rationalization for the inconsistency
  21. 21. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 14–21 Cognitive Dissonance TheoryCognitive Dissonance Theory • Cognitive DissonanceCognitive Dissonance  Any incompatibility or inconsistency between attitudesAny incompatibility or inconsistency between attitudes or between behavior and attitudes.or between behavior and attitudes.  Any form of inconsistency is uncomfortable and individualsAny form of inconsistency is uncomfortable and individuals will try to reduce the dissonance.will try to reduce the dissonance.  The intensity of the desire to reduce the dissonance isThe intensity of the desire to reduce the dissonance is influenced by:influenced by:  The importance of the factors creating the dissonance.The importance of the factors creating the dissonance.  The degree to which an individual believes that the factorsThe degree to which an individual believes that the factors causing the dissonance are controllable.causing the dissonance are controllable.  Rewards available to compensate for the dissonance.Rewards available to compensate for the dissonance.
  22. 22. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 14–22 Attitude SurveysAttitude Surveys • Attitude SurveysAttitude Surveys  A instrument/document that presents employees withA instrument/document that presents employees with a set of statements or questions eliciting how theya set of statements or questions eliciting how they feel about their jobs, work groups, supervisors, orfeel about their jobs, work groups, supervisors, or their organization.their organization.  Provide management with feedback on employeeProvide management with feedback on employee perceptions of the organization and their jobs.perceptions of the organization and their jobs.
  23. 23. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 14–23 Exhibit 14.2Exhibit 14.2 Sample Attitude SurveySample Attitude Survey Source: Based on T. Lammers, “The Essential Employee Survey,” Inc., December 1992, pp. 159–161.
  24. 24. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 14–24 The Importance of AttitudesThe Importance of Attitudes • Implication for ManagersImplication for Managers  Attitudes warn of potential behavioral problems:Attitudes warn of potential behavioral problems:  Managers should do things that generate the positiveManagers should do things that generate the positive attitudes that reduce absenteeism and turnover.attitudes that reduce absenteeism and turnover.  Attitudes influence behaviors of employees:Attitudes influence behaviors of employees:  Managers should focus on helping employees become moreManagers should focus on helping employees become more productive to increase job satisfaction.productive to increase job satisfaction.  Employees will try to reduce dissonance unless:Employees will try to reduce dissonance unless:  Managers identify the external sources of dissonance.Managers identify the external sources of dissonance.  Managers provide rewards compensating for the dissonance.Managers provide rewards compensating for the dissonance.
  25. 25. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 14–25 PersonalityPersonality • PersonalityPersonality  The unique combination of psychologicalThe unique combination of psychological characteristics (measurable traits) that affect how acharacteristics (measurable traits) that affect how a person reacts and interacts with others.person reacts and interacts with others.
  26. 26. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 14–26 Classifying Personality TraitsClassifying Personality Traits • Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTIMyers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI®® ))  A general personality assessment tool thatA general personality assessment tool that measures the personality of an individual using fourmeasures the personality of an individual using four categories:categories:  Social interaction: Extrovert or Introvert (E or I)Social interaction: Extrovert or Introvert (E or I)  Preference for gathering data: Sensing or Intuitive (S or N)Preference for gathering data: Sensing or Intuitive (S or N)  Preference for decision making: Feeling or Thinking (F or T)Preference for decision making: Feeling or Thinking (F or T)  Style of decision making: Perceptive or Judgmental (P or J)Style of decision making: Perceptive or Judgmental (P or J)
  27. 27. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 14–27 Exhibit 14.3Exhibit 14.3 Examples of MBTIExamples of MBTI®® TypesTypes TypeType DescriptionDescription INFJ (introvert, intuitive,INFJ (introvert, intuitive, feeling, judgmental)feeling, judgmental) Quietly forceful, conscientious, and concerned for others. SuchQuietly forceful, conscientious, and concerned for others. Such people succeed by perseverance, originality, and the desire topeople succeed by perseverance, originality, and the desire to do whatever is needed or wanted. They are often highlydo whatever is needed or wanted. They are often highly respected for their uncompromising principles.respected for their uncompromising principles. ESTP (extrovert,ESTP (extrovert, sensing, thinking,sensing, thinking, perceptive)perceptive) Blunt and sometimes insensitive. Such people are matter-of-factBlunt and sometimes insensitive. Such people are matter-of-fact and do notand do not worry or hurry. They enjoy whatever comes along. They workworry or hurry. They enjoy whatever comes along. They work best with real things that can be assembled or disassembled.best with real things that can be assembled or disassembled. ISFP (introvert, sensing,ISFP (introvert, sensing, feeling, perceptive)feeling, perceptive) Sensitive, kind, modest, shy, and quietly friendly. Such peopleSensitive, kind, modest, shy, and quietly friendly. Such people strongly dislikestrongly dislike disagreements and will avoid them. They are loyal followers anddisagreements and will avoid them. They are loyal followers and quite often are relaxed about getting things done.quite often are relaxed about getting things done. ENTJ (extrovert,ENTJ (extrovert, intuitive, thinking,intuitive, thinking, judgmental)judgmental) Warm, friendly, candid, and decisive; also usually skilled inWarm, friendly, candid, and decisive; also usually skilled in anything that requires reasoning and intelligent talk, but mayanything that requires reasoning and intelligent talk, but may sometimes overestimate what they are capable of doing.sometimes overestimate what they are capable of doing. Source: Based on I. Briggs-Myers, Introduction to Type (Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press, 1980), pp. 7–8.
  28. 28. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 14–28 The Big-Five ModelThe Big-Five Model • ExtraversionExtraversion  Sociable, talkative, andSociable, talkative, and assertiveassertive • AgreeablenessAgreeableness  Good-natured,Good-natured, cooperative, and trustingcooperative, and trusting • ConscientiousnessConscientiousness  Responsible, dependable,Responsible, dependable, persistent, andpersistent, and achievement orientedachievement oriented • Emotional StabilityEmotional Stability  Calm, enthusiastic, andCalm, enthusiastic, and secure or tense, nervous,secure or tense, nervous, and insecureand insecure • Openness to ExperienceOpenness to Experience  Imaginative, artisticallyImaginative, artistically sensitive, and intellectualsensitive, and intellectual
  29. 29. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 14–29 Other Personality InsightsOther Personality Insights • Locus of ControlLocus of Control  Internal locus:Internal locus: persons who believe that they controlpersons who believe that they control their own destiny.their own destiny.  External locus:External locus: persons who believe that whatpersons who believe that what happens to them is due to luck or chance (thehappens to them is due to luck or chance (the uncontrollable effects of outside forces) .uncontrollable effects of outside forces) . • Machiavellianism (Mach)Machiavellianism (Mach)  The degree to which an individual is pragmatic,The degree to which an individual is pragmatic, maintains emotional distance, and seeks to gain andmaintains emotional distance, and seeks to gain and manipulate powermanipulate power—ends can justify means.—ends can justify means.
  30. 30. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 14–30 Other Personality Insights (cont’d)Other Personality Insights (cont’d) • Self-Esteem (SE)Self-Esteem (SE)  The degree to which people like or dislike themselvesThe degree to which people like or dislike themselves  High SEsHigh SEs  Believe in themselves and expect success.Believe in themselves and expect success.  Take more risks and use unconventional approaches.Take more risks and use unconventional approaches.  Are more satisfied with their jobs than Low SEs.Are more satisfied with their jobs than Low SEs.  Low SEsLow SEs  Are more susceptible to external influences.Are more susceptible to external influences.  Depend on positive evaluations from others.Depend on positive evaluations from others.  Are more prone to conform than high SEs.Are more prone to conform than high SEs.
  31. 31. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 14–31 Other Personality Insights (cont’d)Other Personality Insights (cont’d) • Self-MonitoringSelf-Monitoring  An individual’s ability to adjust his or her behavior toAn individual’s ability to adjust his or her behavior to external, situational factors.external, situational factors.  High self-monitors:High self-monitors:  Are sensitive to external cues and behave differently inAre sensitive to external cues and behave differently in different situations.different situations.  Can present contradictory public persona and private selvesCan present contradictory public persona and private selves —impression management.—impression management.  Low self-monitorsLow self-monitors  Do not adjust their behavior to the situation.Do not adjust their behavior to the situation.  Are behaviorally consistent in public and private.Are behaviorally consistent in public and private.
  32. 32. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 14–32 Other Personality Insights (cont’d)Other Personality Insights (cont’d) • Risk-TakingRisk-Taking  The propensity (or willingness) to take risks.The propensity (or willingness) to take risks.  High risk-takers take less time and require less informationHigh risk-takers take less time and require less information than low risk-takers when making a decision.than low risk-takers when making a decision.  Organizational effectiveness is maximized when theOrganizational effectiveness is maximized when the risk-taking propensity of a manager is aligned withrisk-taking propensity of a manager is aligned with the specific demands of the job assigned to thethe specific demands of the job assigned to the manager.manager.
  33. 33. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 14–33 EmotionsEmotions • EmotionsEmotions  Intense feelings (reactions) that are directed atIntense feelings (reactions) that are directed at specific objects (someone or something)specific objects (someone or something)  Universal emotions:Universal emotions:  AngerAnger  FearFear  SadnessSadness  HappinessHappiness  DisgustDisgust  SurpriseSurprise
  34. 34. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 14–34 Emotional IntelligenceEmotional Intelligence • Emotional Intelligence (EI)Emotional Intelligence (EI)  An assortment of noncognitive skills, capabilities, andAn assortment of noncognitive skills, capabilities, and competencies that influence a person’s ability tocompetencies that influence a person’s ability to succeed in coping with environmental demands andsucceed in coping with environmental demands and pressures.pressures.  Dimensions of EI:Dimensions of EI:  Self-awareness: knowing what you’re feelingSelf-awareness: knowing what you’re feeling  Self-management: managing emotions and impulsesSelf-management: managing emotions and impulses  Self-motivation: persisting despite setbacks and failuresSelf-motivation: persisting despite setbacks and failures  Empathy: sensing how others are feelingEmpathy: sensing how others are feeling  Social skills: handling the emotions of othersSocial skills: handling the emotions of others
  35. 35. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 14–35 Implications for ManagersImplications for Managers • Employee selectionEmployee selection • Helps in understanding employee behavior(s)Helps in understanding employee behavior(s) • By understanding others’ behavior(s), can workBy understanding others’ behavior(s), can work better with thembetter with them
  36. 36. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 14–36 Understanding Personality DifferencesUnderstanding Personality Differences • Personality-Job Fit Theory (Holland)Personality-Job Fit Theory (Holland)  An employee’s job satisfaction and likelihood ofAn employee’s job satisfaction and likelihood of turnover depends on the compatibility of theturnover depends on the compatibility of the employee’s personality and occupation.employee’s personality and occupation.  Key points of the theory:Key points of the theory:  There are differences in personalities.There are differences in personalities.  There are different types of jobs.There are different types of jobs.  Job satisfaction and turnover are related to the matchJob satisfaction and turnover are related to the match between personality and job for an individual.between personality and job for an individual.
  37. 37. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 14–37 Exhibit 14.4Exhibit 14.4 Holland’s Typology of Personality and Sample OccupationsHolland’s Typology of Personality and Sample Occupations Source: Based on J. L. Holland, Making Vocational Choices: A Theory of Vocational Personalities and Work Environments (Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources, 1997).
  38. 38. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 14–38 PerceptionPerception • PerceptionPerception  A process by which individuals give meaning (reality)A process by which individuals give meaning (reality) to their environment by organizing and interpretingto their environment by organizing and interpreting their sensory impressions.their sensory impressions. • Factors influencing perception:Factors influencing perception:  The perceiver’s personal characteristicsThe perceiver’s personal characteristics—interests,—interests, biases and expectationsbiases and expectations  The target’s characteristicsThe target’s characteristics——distinctiveness, contrast,distinctiveness, contrast, and similarity)and similarity)  The situation (context) factorsThe situation (context) factors——place, time, locationplace, time, location ——draw attention or distract from the targetdraw attention or distract from the target
  39. 39. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 14–39 Exhibit 14.5Exhibit 14.5 Perception Challenges: What Do You See?Perception Challenges: What Do You See?
  40. 40. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 14–40 How We Perceive PeopleHow We Perceive People • Attribution TheoryAttribution Theory  How the actions of individuals are perceived by othersHow the actions of individuals are perceived by others depends on what meaning (causation) we attribute todepends on what meaning (causation) we attribute to a given behavior.a given behavior.  Internally caused behavior: under the individual’s controlInternally caused behavior: under the individual’s control  Externally caused behavior: due to outside factorsExternally caused behavior: due to outside factors  Determining the source of behaviors:Determining the source of behaviors:  Distinctiveness: different behaviors in different situationsDistinctiveness: different behaviors in different situations  Consensus: behaviors similar to others in same situationConsensus: behaviors similar to others in same situation  Consistency: regularity of the same behavior over timeConsistency: regularity of the same behavior over time
  41. 41. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 14–41 Exhibit 14.6Exhibit 14.6 Attribution TheoryAttribution Theory
  42. 42. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 14–42 How We Perceive People (cont’d)How We Perceive People (cont’d) • Attribution Theory – errors and biases (cont’d)Attribution Theory – errors and biases (cont’d)  Fundamental attribution errorFundamental attribution error  The tendency to underestimate the influence of externalThe tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and to overestimate the influence of internal orfactors and to overestimate the influence of internal or personal factors.personal factors.  Self-serving biasSelf-serving bias  The tendency of individuals to attribute their successes toThe tendency of individuals to attribute their successes to internal factors while blaming personal failures on externalinternal factors while blaming personal failures on external factors.factors.
  43. 43. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 14–43 Shortcuts Used in Judging OthersShortcuts Used in Judging Others • Assumed SimilarityAssumed Similarity  Assuming that others are more like us than theyAssuming that others are more like us than they actually are.actually are. • StereotypingStereotyping  Judging someone on the basis of our perception of aJudging someone on the basis of our perception of a group he or she is a part of.group he or she is a part of. • Halo EffectHalo Effect  Forming a general impression of a person on theForming a general impression of a person on the basis of a single characteristic of that personbasis of a single characteristic of that person
  44. 44. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 14–44 Implications for ManagersImplications for Managers • Employees react to perceptionsEmployees react to perceptions • Pay close attention to how employees perceivePay close attention to how employees perceive their jobs and management actionstheir jobs and management actions
  45. 45. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 14–45 LearningLearning • LearningLearning  Any relatively permanent change in behavior thatAny relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience.occurs as a result of experience.  Almost all complex behavior is learned.Almost all complex behavior is learned.  Learning is a continuous, life-long process.Learning is a continuous, life-long process.  The principles of learning can be used to shape behaviorThe principles of learning can be used to shape behavior • Theories of learning:Theories of learning:  Operant conditioningOperant conditioning  Social learningSocial learning
  46. 46. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 14–46 Learning (cont’d)Learning (cont’d) • Operant Conditioning (B.F. Skinner)Operant Conditioning (B.F. Skinner)  The theory that behavior is a function of itsThe theory that behavior is a function of its consequences and is learned through experience.consequences and is learned through experience.  Operant behavior: voluntary or learned behaviorsOperant behavior: voluntary or learned behaviors  Behaviors are learned by making rewards contingent toBehaviors are learned by making rewards contingent to behaviors.behaviors.  Behavior that is rewarded (positively reinforced) is likely to beBehavior that is rewarded (positively reinforced) is likely to be repeated.repeated.  Behavior that is punished or ignored is less likely to beBehavior that is punished or ignored is less likely to be repeated.repeated.
  47. 47. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 14–47 Learning (cont’d)Learning (cont’d) • Social LearningSocial Learning  The theory that individuals learn through theirThe theory that individuals learn through their observations of others and through their directobservations of others and through their direct experiences.experiences.  Attributes of models that influence learning:Attributes of models that influence learning:  Attentional:Attentional: the attractiveness or similarity of the modelthe attractiveness or similarity of the model  Retention:Retention: how well the model can be recalledhow well the model can be recalled  Motor reproduction:Motor reproduction: the reproducibility of the model’sthe reproducibility of the model’s actionsactions  Reinforcement:Reinforcement: the rewards associated with learning thethe rewards associated with learning the model behaviormodel behavior
  48. 48. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 14–48 Shaping: A Managerial ToolShaping: A Managerial Tool • Shaping BehaviorShaping Behavior  Attempting to “mold” individuals by guiding theirAttempting to “mold” individuals by guiding their learning in graduated steps such that they learn tolearning in graduated steps such that they learn to behave in ways that most benefit the organization.behave in ways that most benefit the organization.  Shaping methods:Shaping methods:  Positive reinforcement:Positive reinforcement: rewarding desired behaviors.rewarding desired behaviors.  Negative reinforcement:Negative reinforcement: removing an unpleasantremoving an unpleasant consequence once the desired behavior is exhibited.consequence once the desired behavior is exhibited.  Punishment:Punishment: penalizing an undesired behavior.penalizing an undesired behavior.  Extinction:Extinction: eliminating a reinforcement for an undesiredeliminating a reinforcement for an undesired behavior.behavior.
  49. 49. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 14–49 Contemporary Issues in OBContemporary Issues in OB • Managing Generational Differences in theManaging Generational Differences in the WorkplaceWorkplace  Gen Y: individuals born after 1978Gen Y: individuals born after 1978  Bring new attitudes to the workplace that reflect wide arraysBring new attitudes to the workplace that reflect wide arrays of experiences and opportunitiesof experiences and opportunities  Want to work, but don’t want work to be their lifeWant to work, but don’t want work to be their life  Challenge the status quoChallenge the status quo  Have grown up with technologyHave grown up with technology
  50. 50. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 14–50 Exhibit 14.7Exhibit 14.7 Gen Y WorkersGen Y Workers Source: Bruce Tulgan of Rainmaker Thinking. Used with permission.
  51. 51. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 14–51 Contemporary Issues in OBContemporary Issues in OB • Managing Negative Behavior in the WorkplaceManaging Negative Behavior in the Workplace  Tolerating negative behavior sends the wrongTolerating negative behavior sends the wrong message to other employeesmessage to other employees  Both preventive and responsive actions to negativeBoth preventive and responsive actions to negative behaviors are needed:behaviors are needed:  Screening potential employeesScreening potential employees  Responding immediately and decisively to unacceptableResponding immediately and decisively to unacceptable behaviorbehavior  Paying attention to employee attitudesPaying attention to employee attitudes
  52. 52. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 14–52 Terms to KnowTerms to Know • behaviorbehavior • organizational behaviororganizational behavior • employee productivityemployee productivity • absenteeismabsenteeism • turnoverturnover • organizational citizenshiporganizational citizenship behaviorbehavior • job satisfactionjob satisfaction • workplace misbehaviorworkplace misbehavior • attitudesattitudes • cognitive componentcognitive component • affective componentaffective component • behavioral componentbehavioral component • job involvementjob involvement • organizationalorganizational commitmentcommitment • perceived organizationalperceived organizational supportsupport • cognitive dissonancecognitive dissonance • attitude surveysattitude surveys • personalitypersonality • big-five modelbig-five model • locus of controllocus of control • MachiavellianismMachiavellianism
  53. 53. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 14–53 Terms to Know (cont’d)Terms to Know (cont’d) • self-esteemself-esteem • self-monitoringself-monitoring • impression managementimpression management • emotionsemotions • emotional intelligence (EI)emotional intelligence (EI) • perceptionperception • attribution theoryattribution theory • fundamental attributionfundamental attribution errorerror • self-serving biasself-serving bias • assumed similarityassumed similarity • stereotypingstereotyping • halo effecthalo effect • learninglearning • operant conditioningoperant conditioning • social learning theorysocial learning theory • shaping behaviorshaping behavior
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