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Sustainable Tourism
The Philippine Context
By: Carmela “Cheenee” Otarra, MTour
Ateneo Development Field School | 26 June 2...
Afghanistan
Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ngrRfp8hbfg
• Is sustainable tourism development
possible?
• How can sustainable tourism development
be achieved?
• Who are responsibl...
Be critical to
Tourism.
How can we be critical travelers
and look at tourism with the lens
of a development professional?
Objectives:
At the end of this session, we should be able
to:
• Analyze the relationship of the macro and
micro contexts o...
Outline
I. The Tourism Industry
II. Classic Tourism Development Theories
III. Ideal Sustainable Tourism Development
IV. Is...
THE TOURISM INDUSTRY
Source: Murphy, P.E. (1985) Tourism: A Community Approach. Ney York:
Source: World Travel and Tourism Council
Tourist
Manila
Heritage
Tour
Farmers
provide
food Aluminium
smelter
Fertilizer
company
Bus builder
Mining
Corporatio
n
For...
Global Tourism
Source: United Nations World Tourism Organization (2015)
Long-term Outlook
• International tourist arrivals worldwide are
expected to increase by 3.3% a year between
2010 and 2030...
Implications?
Tourism in the Philippines
Source: Department of Tourism
0
500,000
1,000,000
1,500,000
2,000,000
2,500,000
3,000,000
3,500,000
4,000,000
4,500,000
1960
1962
1964
1966
1968
1970
19...
Local Level?
“Local people’s perception on the impacts and
importance of ecotourism in Sabang, Palawan,
Philippines” by Je...
Local Level: Sabang, Palawan
• Site: Puerto Princesa Subterranean River
National Park (PPSRNP)
• Objectives: To examine th...
Results
• Tourism industry:
– source of income for most household
– seen as beneficial
– led to change of livelihood
– hig...
Tourism Planning in the Philippines
• Process
– Government-led (ex: CamSur)
– Private sector led (ex: El Nido hotels)
• St...
Government-Led
• Local government – local product
development, legislation (Tourism Code),
budget, investment generation
–...
Government-Led
Examples:
1. Aloguinsan: Bojo River Cruise
2. Palompon: Kalanggaman
Island
Private-Led
• Private accommodation establishments,
tour operators, travel agencies
• Association of hotels, tour operator...
CLASSIC TOURISM
DEVELOPMENT THEORIES
Butler’s Tourism Area Life Cycle
Doxey’s Irritation Index
Level of Irritation Destination Responses to Tourism
Euphoria • Sense of excitement and anticipat...
IDEAL SUSTAINABLE TOURISM
DEVELOPMENT
“Sustainable tourism development meets the
needs of present tourists and host regions while
protecting and enhancing touri...
Economic
Impact
• Tourism income
• Employment
• Multiplier effect
• Post-disaster or
post-conflict
economic driver
• From 816,000 visitors in 2011 to more than
one million in 2012
• 67% increase in tourism earnings from 2011
($319 millio...
Socio-cultural
Impact
• Increased pride in
indigenous cultural
practices and values
• Improved social
indicators brought
a...
Botswana
Village Tourism enabled
women to become
independent economically
from husbands.
I have heard a Setswana adage that ‘gadi
etelelwe ke manamagadi,’ [women cannot
lead], but here I am working as a woman. I...
Environmental
Impact
• Conserves and
protects natural
resources
• Promotes efficient
energy
consumption and
proper waste
m...
Sydney
• New building
technologies and
techniques became
mainstream.
• Cleanup of Homebush
Bay, a site
contaminated by
ind...
Honduras
Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9zSyElD2fuk
Bali Case Study
What are the economic, socio-
cultural, and environmental
impacts of ecotourism?
Video: https://www.youtub...
ISSUES IN TOURISM
DEVELOPMENT
Economic Issues
• Leakage: the money that goes out of a
destination due to imported raw materials,
souvenirs, furniture, l...
Economic Issues
• Lack of inclusive growth
– Who are the ones that gain from tourism?
– Do the locals really benefit from ...
Economic Issues
• Economic dependence on tourism
– Lack of economic diversification: risky
– Maldives: 83% of workforce de...
Venice
Video:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-
81c4q9_9LQ
Socio-cultural Issues
• Change or loss of indigenous identity and
values (cultural erosion)
– Factors: tourists’ behavior,...
Socio-cultural Issues
• Tension between locals and tourists on the
use of resources
– Should the distribution of energy or...
Socio-cultural Issues
• Displacement or forced migration for locals
– Factors: real estate development, rising real
estate...
Costa Rica
Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=54W12VbXvNg
Environmental
Issues
• Decreased
biodiversity,
environmental
degradation,
endangered wildlife
– Factors: Tourist
activity,...
Environmental
Issues
• Global warming and
climate change
– Carbon emissions
from air transport and
other modes of
transpor...
Gringo Trails
SOME POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS
Economic
• Legislation that supports the creation of
tourism enterprises (e.g. Tourism Code,
LIIC)
• Support local industr...
Socio-cultural
• Stakeholder Management - Consider local
opinion & knowledge; address conflict
between migrants & locals
•...
Environmental
• Carrying Capacity
• Limits of Acceptable Change
• Site hardening
• Ex: Kenya; Kalanggaman Island;
Aloguins...
CONCLUSION
• Is sustainable tourism development
possible? How?
• Who is responsible for sustainable tourism
development in the Philip...
Objectives:
At the end of this session, we should be able
to:
• Analyze the relationship of the macro and
micro contexts o...
What is your proposed
sustainable tourism
development solution/strategy?
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Sustainable Tourism (Field School Lecture)

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Published on

1. The Tourism Industry
2. Classic Tourism Development Theories
3. Ideal Sustainable Tourism Development
4. Issues in Tourism Development
5. Some Possible Solutions

Published in: Government & Nonprofit
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Sustainable Tourism (Field School Lecture)

  1. 1. Sustainable Tourism The Philippine Context By: Carmela “Cheenee” Otarra, MTour Ateneo Development Field School | 26 June 2015
  2. 2. Afghanistan Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ngrRfp8hbfg
  3. 3. • Is sustainable tourism development possible? • How can sustainable tourism development be achieved? • Who are responsible (stakeholders) for sustainable tourism development?
  4. 4. Be critical to Tourism.
  5. 5. How can we be critical travelers and look at tourism with the lens of a development professional?
  6. 6. Objectives: At the end of this session, we should be able to: • Analyze the relationship of the macro and micro contexts of the tourism industry • Determine key challenges to sustainable tourism development • Consider possible solutions to address the challenges to sustainable tourism development
  7. 7. Outline I. The Tourism Industry II. Classic Tourism Development Theories III. Ideal Sustainable Tourism Development IV. Issues in Tourism Development V. Some Possible Solutions VI. Conclusion
  8. 8. THE TOURISM INDUSTRY
  9. 9. Source: Murphy, P.E. (1985) Tourism: A Community Approach. Ney York:
  10. 10. Source: World Travel and Tourism Council
  11. 11. Tourist Manila Heritage Tour Farmers provide food Aluminium smelter Fertilizer company Bus builder Mining Corporatio n Foreign exchange input Leakage (Imported) multipliers Multipliers, Leakage & Supply Chains Aluminium sheet Adapted from: Gary Lacey (2013)
  12. 12. Global Tourism Source: United Nations World Tourism Organization (2015)
  13. 13. Long-term Outlook • International tourist arrivals worldwide are expected to increase by 3.3% a year between 2010 and 2030 to reach 1.8 billion by 2030, according to UNWTO’s long term forecast Tourism Towards 2030. • Between 2010 and 2030, arrivals in emerging destinations (+4.4% a year) are expected to increase at twice the rate of those in advanced economies (+2.2% a year). • The market share of emerging economies increased from 30% in 1980 to 45% in 2014, and is expected to reach 57% by 2030, equivalent to over 1 billion international tourist arrivals Source: United Nations World Tourism Organization (2015)
  14. 14. Implications?
  15. 15. Tourism in the Philippines Source: Department of Tourism
  16. 16. 0 500,000 1,000,000 1,500,000 2,000,000 2,500,000 3,000,000 3,500,000 4,000,000 4,500,000 1960 1962 1964 1966 1968 1970 1972 1974 1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 International Visitor Arrivals to the Philippines (1960- 2012) Sources: NSCB and UNWTO
  17. 17. Local Level? “Local people’s perception on the impacts and importance of ecotourism in Sabang, Palawan, Philippines” by Jeffrey O. Jalani
  18. 18. Local Level: Sabang, Palawan • Site: Puerto Princesa Subterranean River National Park (PPSRNP) • Objectives: To examine the… – effects of ecotourism to the local community in terms of livelihood generation and influx of people – views of the local community on the impact of ecotourism and importance of natural resource to the tourism industry • Methodology: Survey and Key Informant Interview
  19. 19. Results • Tourism industry: – source of income for most household – seen as beneficial – led to change of livelihood – high influx of people because of work opportunity • Environmental protection: seen as least positive impact against work opportunity & city development • High level of awareness and involvement among locals in the protection of the environment • Most respondents oblivious that the environment is the key tourism resource.
  20. 20. Tourism Planning in the Philippines • Process – Government-led (ex: CamSur) – Private sector led (ex: El Nido hotels) • Stakeholders – Government (Mayor, Tourism Officer, MENRO) – Private sector (Hotels, Tour Operators, Transpo) – Tourism councils
  21. 21. Government-Led • Local government – local product development, legislation (Tourism Code), budget, investment generation – Municipal or Provincial Tourism Officers – Economic and Investment Officers – Environment and Natural Resources Officers – Tourism Council (public & private) • Department of Tourism – marketing, capacity building
  22. 22. Government-Led Examples: 1. Aloguinsan: Bojo River Cruise 2. Palompon: Kalanggaman Island
  23. 23. Private-Led • Private accommodation establishments, tour operators, travel agencies • Association of hotels, tour operators, travel agencies • Examples: – FlipTrip – Philippine Airlines: increased flights in Batanes
  24. 24. CLASSIC TOURISM DEVELOPMENT THEORIES
  25. 25. Butler’s Tourism Area Life Cycle
  26. 26. Doxey’s Irritation Index Level of Irritation Destination Responses to Tourism Euphoria • Sense of excitement and anticipation • Informal contact with tourists Apathy • More formal contact with tourists • Tourism seen as a source of income and investment Annoyance • Residents begin to show misgivings about tourism industry due to increasing numbers, external investment and infrastructure Antagonism • Irritations: expressed verbally and physically • Tourists: seen as cause of the problem
  27. 27. IDEAL SUSTAINABLE TOURISM DEVELOPMENT
  28. 28. “Sustainable tourism development meets the needs of present tourists and host regions while protecting and enhancing tourism for the future. It is envisioned as leading to management of all resources in such a way that economic, social and aesthetic needs can be fulfilled while maintaining cultural integrity, essential ecological processes, biological diversity and life support systems.” -WTO, 2001
  29. 29. Economic Impact • Tourism income • Employment • Multiplier effect • Post-disaster or post-conflict economic driver
  30. 30. • From 816,000 visitors in 2011 to more than one million in 2012 • 67% increase in tourism earnings from 2011 ($319 million) to 2012 ($534 million) Source: http://travel.cnn.com/myanmar-records-one-million- tourists-67-percent-increase-tourism-income-037441 Myanmar Tourism earnings contributed to the income of the country after the political crisis.
  31. 31. Socio-cultural Impact • Increased pride in indigenous cultural practices and values • Improved social indicators brought about by economic impact • Women empowerment
  32. 32. Botswana Village Tourism enabled women to become independent economically from husbands.
  33. 33. I have heard a Setswana adage that ‘gadi etelelwe ke manamagadi,’ [women cannot lead], but here I am working as a woman. I guide tourists and am the first woman to work as a guide in my community in Manyana. I feel very good about myself. Source: Moswete & Lacey
  34. 34. Environmental Impact • Conserves and protects natural resources • Promotes efficient energy consumption and proper waste management
  35. 35. Sydney • New building technologies and techniques became mainstream. • Cleanup of Homebush Bay, a site contaminated by industrial waste, for use as a venue. Source: Lacey
  36. 36. Honduras Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9zSyElD2fuk
  37. 37. Bali Case Study What are the economic, socio- cultural, and environmental impacts of ecotourism? Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rBXLmUAtbVA
  38. 38. ISSUES IN TOURISM DEVELOPMENT
  39. 39. Economic Issues • Leakage: the money that goes out of a destination due to imported raw materials, souvenirs, furniture, labor – Did tourism really benefit the locals or did it benefit suppliers or manufacturers from another country – Where did the ingredients come from? – Where did the souvenirs come from? – Where do employees live? Are they locals?
  40. 40. Economic Issues • Lack of inclusive growth – Who are the ones that gain from tourism? – Do the locals really benefit from employment or via the supply chain? – Tension between luxury (or enclave tourism) and community-based tourism • Increase in prices – Surge in prices of commodities and real estate
  41. 41. Economic Issues • Economic dependence on tourism – Lack of economic diversification: risky – Maldives: 83% of workforce depend on tourism – What are the possible impacts of economic recession and natural disasters on tourism- dependent economies?
  42. 42. Venice Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=- 81c4q9_9LQ
  43. 43. Socio-cultural Issues • Change or loss of indigenous identity and values (cultural erosion) – Factors: tourists’ behavior, commodification, staged authenticity, adaptation to tourist demands – Altering livelihoods to accommodate tourism (ex: farmers to tour guides; fisherman to bangka tour guides)
  44. 44. Socio-cultural Issues • Tension between locals and tourists on the use of resources – Should the distribution of energy or water depend on the use of hotels and resorts? • Prostitution and Human Trafficking – Sex tourism: alarming in the Philippines – Children's Legal Bureau: 60,000 - 100,000 children prostitutes in the Philippines
  45. 45. Socio-cultural Issues • Displacement or forced migration for locals – Factors: real estate development, rising real estate prices, rising standards of living – Migrants take away employment opportunities from locals
  46. 46. Costa Rica Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=54W12VbXvNg
  47. 47. Environmental Issues • Decreased biodiversity, environmental degradation, endangered wildlife – Factors: Tourist activity, waste, lack of awareness and information dissemination
  48. 48. Environmental Issues • Global warming and climate change – Carbon emissions from air transport and other modes of transportation – How much is your travel carbon footprint?
  49. 49. Gringo Trails
  50. 50. SOME POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS
  51. 51. Economic • Legislation that supports the creation of tourism enterprises (e.g. Tourism Code, LIIC) • Support local industries to reduce leakage • Diversify other sectors related to the tourism industry • Ex: LGSP-LED - promotes investment, equips government, strengthens tourism industry, and trains locals (workforce development)
  52. 52. Socio-cultural • Stakeholder Management - Consider local opinion & knowledge; address conflict between migrants & locals • Educate tourists on their possible impact • Instill cultural pride among locals, empower locals • Ex: Palaui (Blue Water); Bhutan
  53. 53. Environmental • Carrying Capacity • Limits of Acceptable Change • Site hardening • Ex: Kenya; Kalanggaman Island; Aloguinsan River
  54. 54. CONCLUSION
  55. 55. • Is sustainable tourism development possible? How? • Who is responsible for sustainable tourism development in the Philippines?
  56. 56. Objectives: At the end of this session, we should be able to: • Analyze the relationship of the macro and micro contexts of the tourism industry • Determine key challenges to sustainable tourism development • Consider possible solutions to address the challenges to sustainable tourism development
  57. 57. What is your proposed sustainable tourism development solution/strategy?

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