Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Foundation of Education 
MAT 505 TUP-LOA 
"Tell me and I'll forget. Show me and I'll 
remember. Involve me and I'll unders...
Principles and Theories 
of Learning 
Christian D. Sario
OUTLINE 
3 
Principles and Theories of Learning 
•Social Constructivism 
•Multiple Intelligences 
•Brain-Based Learning
Social Constructivism 
4 
• Social constructivism emphasizes the importance of 
culture and context in understanding what ...
Lev Vygotsky (1896 – 1934) 
• After college, taught in secondary 
school and at a teacher’s college. 
Joined a research te...
Jean Piaget (1896 - 1980) 
Theory of Cognitive Development. 
Children construct an 
understanding of the world around 
the...
Jerome Bruner (1915- ) 
• Key figure in Cognitive Revolution-- 
All children are naturally curious. 
Learning is an active...
Assumptions of Social 
Constructivism 
8 
• Social constructivism is based on 
specific assumptions about reality, 
knowle...
3 Assumptions: 
• Knowledge is a product of human 
interaction 
• Knowledge is socially and culturally 
constructed that i...
Assumptions of Social 
Constructivism 
10 
• Reality: Social constructivists believe that reality is constructed 
through ...
Social Context for Learning 
• Historical developments inherited by the learner as a member 
of a particular culture. Symb...
General Perspectives of Social 
Constructivism on Learning 
There are four general perspectives that inform how we could f...
General Perspectives of Social 
Constructivism on Learning 
2. Idea-based social constructivism: Idea-based 
social constr...
General Perspectives of Social 
Constructivism on Learning 
3. Pragmatic or emergent approach: Social 
constructivists wit...
General Perspectives of Social 
Constructivism on Learning 
4. Transactional or situated cognitive 
perspectives: This per...
Social Constructivism and 
Instructional Models 
• Instructional models based on the social constructivist 
perspective st...
Sorting Out Variations on the Terms 
"Constructionism" and Constructivism"
Multiple Intelligences 
• The theory of multiple intelligences was 
developed in 1983 by Dr. Howard Gardner, 
professor of...
Intelligences: 
• Linguistic intelligence ("word smart") 
• Logical-mathematical intelligence 
("number/reasoning smart") ...
Visual-Spatial Intelligence 
Strengths: Visual and Spatial Judgment 
•People who are strong in visual-spatial intelligence...
Linguistic-Verbal Intelligence 
Strengths: Words, Language and Writing 
•People who are strong in linguistic-verbal intell...
Logical - Mathematical Intelligence 
Strengths: Analyzing Problems and Mathematical Operations 
•People who are strong in ...
Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence 
Strengths: Physical Movement, Motor Control 
•Those who have high bodily-kinesthetic inte...
Musical Intelligence 
Strengths: Rhythm and Music 
•People who have strong musical intelligence are good and thinking in 
...
Interpersonal Intelligence 
Strengths: Understanding and Relating to Other People 
•Those who have strong interpersonal in...
Intrapersonal Intelligence 
Strengths: Introspection and Self-Reflection 
•Individuals who are strong in intrapersonal int...
Naturalistic Intelligence 
Strengths: Finding Patters and Relationships to Nature 
•Naturalistic is the most recent additi...
My MI
Brain-Based Learning 
This learning theory is based on 
the structure and function of the 
brain. As long as the brain is ...
• Brain-Based Learning is also the application of 
a meaningful group of principles that 
represent our understanding of h...
The core principles of brain-based 
learning state that: 
• The brain is a parallel processor, meaning it can perform seve...
The three instructional techniques associated with 
brain-based learning are: 
• Orchestrated immersion–Creating learning ...
How Brain-Based Learning Impacts 
Education 
• Curriculum–Teachers must design learning around 
student interests and make...
What Brain-Based Learning Suggests 
• How the brain works has a significant impact 
on what kinds of learning activities a...
• Teachers must immerse learners in complex, interactive 
experiences that are both rich and real. One excellent 
example ...
A few other tenets of brain-based 
learning include: 
• Feedback is best when it comes from reality, 
rather than from an ...
Thank You!  
Christian D. Sario 
Technological University of the 
Philippines-Manila
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Principles and theories of Learning( Social Constructivism, Multiple Intelligence and Brain-based Learning)

7,320 views

Published on

Social Constructivism, Multiple Intelligence and Brain-based Learning)

Published in: Education
  • www.HelpWriting.net helped me too. I always order there
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • If u need a hand in making your writing assignments - visit ⇒ www.WritePaper.info ⇐ for more detailed information.
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Hello! I can recommend a site that has helped me. It's called HelpWriting.net They helped me for writing my quality research paper on diabetes, and of course by keeping my all other needs fulfilled.
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • DOWNLOAD THE BOOK INTO AVAILABLE FORMAT (New Update) ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... Download Full PDF EBOOK here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full EPUB Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full doc Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download PDF EBOOK here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download EPUB Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download doc Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... eBook is an electronic version of a traditional print book THE can be read by using a personal computer or by using an eBook reader. (An eBook reader can be a software application for use on a computer such as Microsoft's free Reader application, or a book-sized computer THE is used solely as a reading device such as Nuvomedia's Rocket eBook.) Users can purchase an eBook on diskette or CD, but the most popular method of getting an eBook is to purchase a downloadable file of the eBook (or other reading material) from a Web site (such as Barnes and Noble) to be read from the user's computer or reading device. Generally, an eBook can be downloaded in five minutes or less ......................................................................................................................... .............. Browse by Genre Available eBOOK .............................................................................................................................. Art, Biography, Business, Chick Lit, Children's, Christian, Classics, Comics, Contemporary, CookBOOK, Manga, Memoir, Music, Mystery, Non Fiction, Paranormal, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Religion, Romance, Science, Science Fiction, Self Help, Suspense, Spirituality, Sports, Thriller, Travel, Young Adult, Crime, EBOOK, Fantasy, Fiction, Graphic Novels, Historical Fiction, History, Horror, Humor And Comedy, ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... .....BEST SELLER FOR EBOOK RECOMMEND............................................................. ......................................................................................................................... Blowout: Corrupted Democracy, Rogue State Russia, and the Richest, Most Destructive Industry on Earth,-- The Ride of a Lifetime: Lessons Learned from 15 Years as CEO of the Walt Disney Company,-- Call Sign Chaos: Learning to Lead,-- StrengthsFinder 2.0,-- Stillness Is the Key,-- She Said: Breaking the Sexual Harassment Story THE Helped Ignite a Movement,-- Atomic Habits: An Easy & Proven Way to Build Good Habits & Break Bad Ones,-- Everything Is Figureoutable,-- What It Takes: Lessons in the Pursuit of Excellence,-- Rich Dad Poor Dad: What the Rich Teach Their Kids About Money THE the Poor and Middle Class Do Not!,-- The Total Money Makeover: Classic Edition: A Proven Plan for Financial Fitness,-- Shut Up and Listen!: Hard Business Truths THE Will Help You Succeed, ......................................................................................................................... .........................................................................................................................
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • How to improve brain memory power naturally? Boost your brainpower with brain pill now...  https://bit.ly/2GEWG9T
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here

Principles and theories of Learning( Social Constructivism, Multiple Intelligence and Brain-based Learning)

  1. 1. Foundation of Education MAT 505 TUP-LOA "Tell me and I'll forget. Show me and I'll remember. Involve me and I'll understand." 1 -Confucius (551 BC-479 BC) Chinese Philosopher.
  2. 2. Principles and Theories of Learning Christian D. Sario
  3. 3. OUTLINE 3 Principles and Theories of Learning •Social Constructivism •Multiple Intelligences •Brain-Based Learning
  4. 4. Social Constructivism 4 • Social constructivism emphasizes the importance of culture and context in understanding what occurs in society and constructing knowledge based on this understanding (Derry, 1999; McMahon, 1997). This perspective is closely associated with many contemporary theories, most notably the developmental theories of Vygotsky and Bruner, and Bandura's social cognitive theory (Shunk, 2000).
  5. 5. Lev Vygotsky (1896 – 1934) • After college, taught in secondary school and at a teacher’s college. Joined a research team lead by Alexander Luria at Moscow Institute of Psychology. Soon after, became the leader and formed a troika with Luria and Alexei Leont’ev. After his death, academic life became politicized and his published work did not re-emerge until the 1960’s. Some aspects of his research were ultimately discarded, but cultural- historical research, now seen as social constructivism, survived.
  6. 6. Jean Piaget (1896 - 1980) Theory of Cognitive Development. Children construct an understanding of the world around them, then experience discrepancies between what they already know and what they discover in their environment. Assimilation and Accommodation Theory Stages of Cognitive Development
  7. 7. Jerome Bruner (1915- ) • Key figure in Cognitive Revolution-- All children are naturally curious. Learning is an active, social process in which students construct new ideas or concepts based on current knowledge. • Three Modes of Representation -Enactive, Iconic and Symbolic. The Process of Education . Role of Structure in Learning .Readiness for Learning . Intuitive and analytical thinking . Motives for Learning
  8. 8. Assumptions of Social Constructivism 8 • Social constructivism is based on specific assumptions about reality, knowledge, and learning. To understand and apply models of instruction that are rooted in the perspectives of social constructivists, it is important to know the premises that underlie them.
  9. 9. 3 Assumptions: • Knowledge is a product of human interaction • Knowledge is socially and culturally constructed that is influenced by the group and its’ environment . • Learning is a social activity
  10. 10. Assumptions of Social Constructivism 10 • Reality: Social constructivists believe that reality is constructed through human activity. Members of a society together invent the properties of the world (Kukla, 2000). For the social constructivist, reality cannot be discovered: it does not exist prior to its social invention. • Knowledge: To social constructivists, knowledge is also a human product, and is socially and culturally constructed (Ernest, 1999; Gredler, 1997; Prat & Floden, 1994). Individuals create meaning through their interactions with each other and with the environment they live in. • Learning: Social constructivists view learning as a social process. It does not take place only within an individual, nor is it a passive development of behaviors that are shaped by external forces (McMahon, 1997). Meaningful learning occurs when individuals are engaged in social activities.
  11. 11. Social Context for Learning • Historical developments inherited by the learner as a member of a particular culture. Symbol systems, such as language, logic, and mathematical systems, are learned throughout the learner's life. These symbol systems dictate how and what is learned. • The nature of the learner's social interaction with knowledgeable members of the society is important. Without the social interaction with more knowledgeable others, it is impossible to acquire social meaning of important symbol systems and learn how to use them. Young children develop their thinking abilities by interacting with adults. 11
  12. 12. General Perspectives of Social Constructivism on Learning There are four general perspectives that inform how we could facilitate the learning within a framework of social constructivism (Gredler, 1997): 1. Cognitive tools perspective: Cognitive tools perspective focuses on the learning of cognitive skills and strategies. Students engage in those social learning activities that involve hands-on project-based methods and utilization of discipline-based cognitive tools (Gredler, 1997; Prawat & Folden, 1994). Together they produce a product and, as a group, impose meaning on it through the social learning process.
  13. 13. General Perspectives of Social Constructivism on Learning 2. Idea-based social constructivism: Idea-based social constructivism sets education's priority on important concepts in the various disciplines (e.g. part-whole relations in mathematics, photosynthesis in science, and point of view in literature, Gredler, 1997, p.59; Prawat, 1995; Prawat & Folden, 1994). These "big ideas" expand learner vision and become important foundations for learners' thinking and on construction of social meaning (Gredler, 1997).
  14. 14. General Perspectives of Social Constructivism on Learning 3. Pragmatic or emergent approach: Social constructivists with this perspective assert that the implementation of social constructivism in class should be emergent as the need arises (Gredler, 1997). Its proponents hold that knowledge, meaning, and understanding of the world can be addressed in the classroom from both the view of individual learner and the collective view of the entire class (Cobb, 1995; Gredler, 1997).
  15. 15. General Perspectives of Social Constructivism on Learning 4. Transactional or situated cognitive perspectives: This perspective focuses on the relationship between the people and their environment. Humans are a part of the constructed environment (including social relationships); the environment is in turn one of the characteristics that constitutes the individual (Bredo, 1994; Gredler, 1997). When a mind operates, its owner is interacting with the environment. Therefore, if the environment and social relationships among group members change, the tasks of each individual also change (Bredo, 1994; Gredler, 1997). Learning thus should not take place in isolation from the environment.
  16. 16. Social Constructivism and Instructional Models • Instructional models based on the social constructivist perspective stress the need for collaboration among learners and with practitioners in the society (Lave & Wenger, 1991; McMahon, 1997). Lave and Wenger (1991) assert that a society’s practical knowledge is situated in relations among practitioners, their practice, and the social organization and political economy of communities of practice. For this reason, learning should involve such knowledge and practice (Lave & Wenger, 1991; Gredler, 1997). Social constructivist approaches can include reciprocal teaching, peer collaboration, cognitive apprenticeships, problem-based instruction, webquests, anchored instruction and other methods that involve learning with others (Shunk, 2000).
  17. 17. Sorting Out Variations on the Terms "Constructionism" and Constructivism"
  18. 18. Multiple Intelligences • The theory of multiple intelligences was developed in 1983 by Dr. Howard Gardner, professor of education at Harvard University. It suggests that the traditional notion of intelligence, based on I.Q. testing, is far too limited. Instead, Dr. Gardner proposes eight different intelligences to account for a broader range of human potential in children and adults.
  19. 19. Intelligences: • Linguistic intelligence ("word smart") • Logical-mathematical intelligence ("number/reasoning smart") • Spatial intelligence ("picture smart") • Bodily-Kinesthetic intelligence ("body smart") • Musical intelligence ("music smart") • Interpersonal intelligence ("people smart") • Intrapersonal intelligence ("self smart") • Naturalist intelligence ("nature smart")
  20. 20. Visual-Spatial Intelligence Strengths: Visual and Spatial Judgment •People who are strong in visual-spatial intelligence are good a visualizing things. These individuals are often good with directions as well as maps, charts, videos and pictures. Characteristics of Visual-Spatial Intelligence • Enjoys reading and writing • Good at putting puzzles together • Good at interpreting pictures, graphs and charts • Enjoys drawing, painting and the visual arts • Recognizes patterns easily Potential Career Choices • Architect • Artist • Engineer
  21. 21. Linguistic-Verbal Intelligence Strengths: Words, Language and Writing •People who are strong in linguistic-verbal intelligence are able to use words well, both when writing and speaking. These individuals are typically very good at writing stories, memorizing information and reading. Characteristics of Linguistic-Verbal Intelligence • Good at remembering written and spoken information • Enjoys reading and writing • Good at debating or giving persuasive speeches • Able to explain things well • Often uses humor when telling stories Potential Career Choices • Writer / Journalist • Lawyer • Teacher
  22. 22. Logical - Mathematical Intelligence Strengths: Analyzing Problems and Mathematical Operations •People who are strong in logical-mathematical intelligence are good at reasoning, recognizing patterns and logically analyze problems. These individuals tend to think conceptually about numbers, relationships and patterns. Characteristics of Logical-Mathematical Intelligence • Excellent problem-solving skills • Enjoys thinking about abstract ideas • Likes conducting scientific experiments • Good and solving complex computations Potential Career Choices • Scientist • Mathematician • Computer programmer • Engineer • Accountant
  23. 23. Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence Strengths: Physical Movement, Motor Control •Those who have high bodily-kinesthetic intelligence are said to be good at body movement, performing actions and physical control. People who are strong in this area tend to have excellent hand-eye coordination and dexterity. Characteristics of Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence • Good at dancing and sports • Enjoy creating things with their hands • Excellent physical coordination • Tends to remember by doing, rather than hearing or seeing Potential Career Choices • Dancer • Builder • Sculptor • Actor
  24. 24. Musical Intelligence Strengths: Rhythm and Music •People who have strong musical intelligence are good and thinking in patterns, rhythms and sounds. They have a strong appreciation for music and are often good at musical composition and performance. Characteristics of Musical Intelligence • Enjoy singing and playing musical instruments • Recognizes musical patterns and tones easily • Good at remembering songs and melodies • Rich understanding of musical structure, rhythm and notes •Potential Career Choices • Musician • Composer • Singer • Music Teacher • Conductor
  25. 25. Interpersonal Intelligence Strengths: Understanding and Relating to Other People •Those who have strong interpersonal intelligence are good understanding and interacting with other people. These individuals are skilled at assessing the emotions, motivations, desires and intentions of those around them. Characteristics of Interpersonal Intelligence • Good at communicating verbally • Skilled nonverbal communicators • See situations from different perspectives • Create positive relationships with others • Good at resolving conflict in groups Potential Career Choices • Psychologist Philosopher Counselor • Sales person Politician
  26. 26. Intrapersonal Intelligence Strengths: Introspection and Self-Reflection •Individuals who are strong in intrapersonal intelligence are good at being aware of their own emotional states, feelings and motivations. They tend to enjoy self-reflection and analysis, including day-dreaming, exploring relationships with others and assessing their personal strengths. Characteristics of Intrapersonal Intelligence • Good at analyzing their strengths and weaknesses • Enjoys analyzing theories and ideas • Excellent self-awareness • Clearly understands the basis for their own motivations and feelings Potential Career Choices • Philosopher • Writer • Theorist • Scientist
  27. 27. Naturalistic Intelligence Strengths: Finding Patters and Relationships to Nature •Naturalistic is the most recent addition to Gardner’s theory 5 and has been met with more resistance than his original seven intelligences. According to Gardner, individuals who are high in this type of intelligence are more in tune with nature and are often interested in nurturing, exploring the environment and learning about other species. These individuals are said to be highly aware of even subtle changes to their environments. Characteristics of Naturalistic Intelligence Interested in subjects such as botany, biology and zoology Good at categorizing and cataloging information easily May enjoy camping, gardening, hiking and exploring the outdoors Doesn’t enjoy learning unfamiliar topics that have no connection to nature Potential Career Choices Biologist, Conservationist, Gardener and Farmer
  28. 28. My MI
  29. 29. Brain-Based Learning This learning theory is based on the structure and function of the brain. As long as the brain is not prohibited from fulfilling its normal processes, learning will occur.
  30. 30. • Brain-Based Learning is also the application of a meaningful group of principles that represent our understanding of how our brain works in the context of education. • Brain-Based Learning is simply the engagement of strategies based on body/mind/brain research. • Brain-Based Learning is not a panacea or magic bullet to solve all of education’s problems.
  31. 31. The core principles of brain-based learning state that: • The brain is a parallel processor, meaning it can perform several activities at once, like tasting and smelling. • Learning engages the whole physiology. • The search for meaning is innate. • The search for meaning comes through patterning. • Emotions are critical to patterning. • The brain processes wholes and parts simultaneously. • Learning involves both focused attention and peripheral perception. • Learning involves both conscious and unconscious processes. • We have two types of memory: spatial and rote. • We understand best when facts are embedded in natural, spatial memory. • Learning is enhanced by challenge and inhibited by threat. • Each brain is unique.
  32. 32. The three instructional techniques associated with brain-based learning are: • Orchestrated immersion–Creating learning environments that fully immerse students in an educational experience. • Relaxed alertness–Trying to eliminate fear in learners, while maintaining a highly challenging environment. • Active processing–Allowing the learner to consolidate and internalize information by actively processing it.
  33. 33. How Brain-Based Learning Impacts Education • Curriculum–Teachers must design learning around student interests and make learning contextual. • Instruction–Educators let students learn in teams and use peripheral learning. Teachers structure learning around real problems, encouraging students to also learn in settings outside the classroom and the school building. • Assessment–Since all students are learning, their assessment should allow them to understand their own learning styles and preferences. This way, students monitor and enhance their own learning process.
  34. 34. What Brain-Based Learning Suggests • How the brain works has a significant impact on what kinds of learning activities are most effective. Educators need to help students have appropriate experiences and capitalize on those experiences. As Renate Caine illustrates on p. 113 of her book Making Connections, three interactive elements are essential to this process.
  35. 35. • Teachers must immerse learners in complex, interactive experiences that are both rich and real. One excellent example is immersing students in a foreign culture to teach them a second language. Educators must take advantage of the brain’s ability to parallel process. • Students must have a personally meaningful challenge. Such challenges stimulate a student’s mind to the desired state of alertness. • In order for a student to gain insight about a problem, there must be intensive analysis of the different ways to approach it, and about learning in general. This is what’s known as the “active processing of experience.”
  36. 36. A few other tenets of brain-based learning include: • Feedback is best when it comes from reality, rather than from an authority figure. • People learn best when solving realistic problems. • The big picture can’t be separated from the details. • Because every brain is different, educators should allow learners to customize their own environments. • The best problem solvers are those that laugh!
  37. 37. Thank You!  Christian D. Sario Technological University of the Philippines-Manila

×