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Choosing Open (#GO_GN) - Openness and praxis: Using OEP in HE

Presentation for GO-GN doctoral seminar in Cape Town, South Africa, 6th March 2017

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Choosing Open (#GO_GN) - Openness and praxis: Using OEP in HE

  1. 1. pen Choosing Image: CC0 by Nadine Shaabana Catherine Cronin  @catherinecronin  NUI Galway #GO_GN Cape Town  6th March 2017
  2. 2. Open education is a tool for social change. Santos, A.I., Punie, Y., & Muñoz, J.C. (2016) Opening up Education: A Support Framework for Higher Education Institutions “
  3. 3. networked educators networked students Physical Spaces Bounded Online Spaces Open Online Spaces Image: CC BY-SA 2.0 Catherine Cronin, built on Networked Teacher image CC BY-NC-SA 2.0 Alec Couros Higher education
  4. 4. Openness and praxis: Exploring the use of open educational practices (OEP) in higher education study title
  5. 5. 1. In what ways do academic staff use open educational practices (OEP)? 2. Why do/don’t academic staff use OEP? 3. What practices, values, and/or strategies are shared by open educators, if any? 4. How do open educators and students interact in open online spaces, and how do they enact and negotiate their digital identities? Research questions
  6. 6. OEP (Open Educational Practices) OER (Open Educational Resources) Free Open Admission (e.g. Open Universities) INTERPRETATIONS of ‘OPEN’ OER-focused definitions produce, use, reuse OER + Broader definitions… Licensed for reuse for use, adaptation & redistribution by others Image: CC BY-SA 2.0 Marcel Oosterwijk
  7. 7. • Open educational practices (OEP) (Beetham, et al., 2012; Ehlers, 2011; Hodgkinson-Williams, 2009) • Open teaching (Couros, 2010; Couros & Hildebrandt, 2016) • Open pedagogy (DeRosa & Robison, 2015; Hegarty, 2015; Weller, 2014) • Open scholarship (Veletsianos & Kimmons, 2012b; Weller, 2011) • Networked participatory scholarship (Veletsianos & Kimmons, 2012a; Stewart, 2015) • Critical (digital) pedagogy (Farrow, 2016; Rosen & Smale, 2015; Stommel, 2014) OEP and related concepts
  8. 8. collaborative practices that include the creation, use and reuse of OER and pedagogical practices employing participatory technologies and social networks for interaction, peer-learning, knowledge creation and sharing, and empowerment of learners. definition for my study Open Educational Practices (OEP)
  9. 9. INTERPRETATIONS of ‘OPEN’ Policy/ Culture Values Practices Activities LEVELS of OPENNESS OEP (Open Educational Practices) OER (Open Educational Resources) Free Open Admission (e.g. Open Universities) IndividualInstitutional Image: CC BY-SA 2.0 Marcel Oosterwijk
  10. 10. Image: CC0 photo by Saksham Gangwar Methodology  Approach: qualitative / interpretive / critical  Method: constructivist grounded theory (Charmaz, 2014)  Setting: one HEI in Ireland without open education policies/culture  Participants: 19 members of academic staff, varied by discipline, employment status, and approach to openness
  11. 11. Not using OEP for teaching Using OEP for teaching DIGITAL NETWORKING PRACTICES Main digital identity is university-based Not using social media (or personal use only) Combine university & open identities Using social media personal/prof (but not for teaching) Well-developed open digital identity Using social media for personal/professional (including teaching) DIGITAL TEACHING PRACTICES Using VLE only Using free resources, little knowledge of C or CC Using VLE + open tools Using & reusing OER PERSONAL VALUES Strong attachment to personal privacy Strict boundaries (P/P & S/T) Valuing privacy & openness; balance Accepting porosity across boundaries increasing openness
  12. 12. • Many academic staff perceive potential risks (for themselves & their students) in using OEP; some perceive the benefits to outweigh the risks • A minority of participants (8 of 19) used OEP • 2 levels of ‘using OEP’: (i) being open, (ii) teaching openly • 4 dimensions shared by open educators:  balancing privacy and openness  developing digital literacies (self & students)  valuing social learning  challenging traditional teaching role expectations Findings
  13. 13. Balancing privacy and openness Developing digital literacies Valuing social learning Challenging traditional teaching role expectations inner circle (2 dimensions) Networked Individuals both circles (4 dimensions) Networked Educators 4 dimensions shared by educators using OEP
  14. 14. “I don’t mind if students follow me and if they find stuff that I’ve written online. But I just don’t encourage it as part of the teaching, or their relationship with me as their teacher.” - participant (not using OEP)
  15. 15. “I don’t let students know I’m on Twitter, they seem to figure it out. It depends on what email account I reply to them with. Depending on the teaching or contractual situation in any given year, sometimes the [university] email account just evaporates and I have to fall back and use my own email account. My personal email signature has my Twitter name, my blog. The [university] account just has the department name.” - participant (using OEP)
  16. 16. Balancing privacy & openness Image: CC BY 2.0 woodleywonderworks
  17. 17. “There are no hard and fast rules.” - participant (using OEP) “I have personal rules for that.” - participant (using OEP) “You’re negotiating all the time.” - participant (using OEP)
  18. 18. Balancing privacy and openness will I share openly? who will I share with? (context collapse) who will I share as? (digital identity) will I share this? MACRO MESO MICRO NANO
  19. 19. Use of OEP is...  Complex  Personal  Contextual  Continuously negotiated
  20. 20. using OER using OEP e.g. Wiley, 2015 actual, emergent practice in this study Sociocultural theory: “educators can shape and/or be shaped by openness” – see Veletsianos (2010) Social realist theory: interrelations of structure, culture & agency in shaping behaviour (Archer, 2003) – see Cox & Trotter (2016)
  21. 21. We must rebuild institutions that value humans’ minds and lives and integrity and safety. Audrey Watters (2017) “ Image: CC BY-NC 2.0 carnagenyc
  22. 22. #1. Separate consideration of Individual and Institutional openness HEIs require open education strategies and policies that recognise the benefits, risks, and complexities of openness for individuals (students & staff) as well as the institution. #2. Higher education is open education Daily, academic staff & students negotiate how to teach and learn in an increasingly open, networked, and participatory culture, e.g. deciding whether/how to combine informal & formal learning practices, identities, and networks. Conclusions
  23. 23. Balancing privacy and openness Developing digital literacies Valuing social learning Challenging traditional teaching role expectations HE institutions should work broadly & collaboratively to build and support academic staff capacity in 3 key areas: 1. Digital literacies/capabilities 2. Navigating tensions between privacy & openness 3. Reflecting on our roles as educators & researchers in increasingly networked participatory culture
  24. 24. Le spectre de la rose Jerome Robbins Dance Division, NYPL To hope is to give yourself to the future, and that commitment to the future makes the present inhabitable. Rebecca Solnit (2004) Hope in the Dark “
  25. 25. Le spectre de la rose Jerome Robbins Dance Division, NYPL Thank You! @catherinecronin
  26. 26. Beetham, H., Falconer, I., McGill, L. & Littlejohn, A. (2012). Open Practices: Briefing Paper. Jisc. Charmaz, K. (2014). Constructing grounded theory (2nd edition). London: Sage Publications. Couros, A. (2010). Developing personal learning networks for open and social learning. In G. Veletsianos (Ed.), Emerging Technologies in Distance Education. Athabasca University Press. Couros, A. & Hildebrandt, K. (2016). Designing for open and social learning. In G. Veletsianos, Emergence and Innovation in Digital Learning. Athabasca University Press. Czerniewicz, L. (2015). Confronting inequitable power dynamics of global knowledge production and exchange. Water Wheel 14(5), 26-28. DeRosa, R. & Robison, S. (2015, November 9). Pedagogy, technology, and the example of open educational resources. EDUCAUSE Review. Ehlers, U-D. (2011). Extending the territory: From open educational resources to open educational practices. Journal of Open, Flexible and Distance Learning, 15(2), 1–10. Farrow, R. (2016). Open education and critical pedagogy. Learning, Media and Technology. Geser, G. (2007). Open educational practices and resources: OLCOS Roadmap, 2012. Havemann, L., Atenas, J. & Stroud, J. (2014). Breaking down barriers: Open educational practices as an emerging academic literacy. Academic Practice & Technology conference, University of Greenwich. Hegarty, B. (2015). Attributes of open pedagogy: A model for using open educational resources. Educational Technology. (July/August). Rosen, J. R. & Smale, M. A. (2015). Open digital pedagogy = Critical pedagogy. Hybrid Pedagogy. References (1 of 2)
  27. 27. Santos, A.I., Punie, Y., & Muñoz, J.C. (2016). Opening up Education: A Support Framework for Higher Education Institutions. JRC Science For Policy Report. Selwyn, N. & Facer, K. (2013). The politics of education and technology: Conflicts, controversies, and connections. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Solnit, R. (2004). Hope in the Dark: Untold Histories, Wild Possibilities. New York: Nation Books. Stewart, B. (2015). In abundance: Networked participatory practices as scholarship. IRRODL, 16(3). Stommel, J. (2014, November 18). Critical digital pedagogy: a definition. Hybrid Pedagogy. Veletsianos, G. & Kimmons, R. (2012a). Assumptions and challenges of open scholarship. IRRODL, 13(4), 166-189. Veletsianos, G. & Kimmons, R. (2012b). Networked participatory scholarship: Emergent techno- cultural pressures toward open and digital scholarship in online networks. Computers & Education, 58(2), 766–774. Watters, A. (2014, November 16). From “open” to justice. Hack Education blog. Watters, A. (2017, February 2). Ed-tech in a time of Trump. Hack Education blog. Weller, M. (2011). The Digital Scholar: How technology is transforming scholarly practice. Basingstoke: Bloomsbury Academic. Weller, M. (2014). The Battle for Open: How openness won and why it doesn’t feel like victory. London: Ubiquity Press. Wiley, D. (2015). Reflections on open education and the path forward. Iterating toward openness blog. References (2 of 2)