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e/merge Africa webinar: OEP in Higher Education

e/merge Africa webinar, 23rd May 2017. Open educational practices (OEP) for teaching in higher education. See

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e/merge Africa webinar: OEP in Higher Education

  1. 1. Catherine Cronin  @catherinecronin CELT, National University of Ireland, Galway Open educational practices (OEP) for teaching in higher education
  2. 2. links to presentation slides, references & resources:
  3. 3. pen Choosing Image: CC0 by Nadine Shaabana
  4. 4. GO-GN researchers at OE Global Conference – Cape Town, April 2017 &
  5. 5. 1. Why and when might educators and educational technology practitioners choose open, and why not? questions to consider… 2. In our contexts, how can we balance personal choice (regarding openness) with institutional and other constraints? 3. How can we grow open educational practices (OEP) in African Higher Education? presentation discussion
  6. 6. Open education is a tool for social change. Santos, A.I., Punie, Y., & Muñoz, J.C. (2016) Opening up Education: A Support Framework for Higher Education Institutions “
  7. 7. networked educators networked students Physical Spaces Bounded Online Spaces Open Online Spaces Image: CC BY-SA 2.0 Catherine Cronin, built on Networked Teacher image CC BY-NC-SA 2.0 Alec Couros higher education
  8. 8. Openness and praxis: Exploring the use of open educational practices (OEP) in higher education my PhD research study
  9. 9. 1. In what ways do academic staff use OEP? 2. Why do/don’t academic staff use OEP? 3. What practices, values, and/or strategies are shared by open educators, if any? 4. How do open educators and students interact in open online spaces, and how do they enact and negotiate their digital identities? research questions
  10. 10. “Part of the problem of definition stems from the careless, if evocative, use of the term open by educators and the popular press to describe the wide variety of educational innovations which proliferated at the same time as open education classrooms were being developed.” Noddings & Enright (1983) “Open learning is an imprecise phrase to which a range of meanings can be, and is, attached. It eludes definition. But as an inscription to be carried in procession on a banner, gathering adherents and enthusiasms, it has great potential. For its very imprecision enables it to accommodate many different ideas and aims.” MacKenzie, Postgate & Scupham (1975)
  11. 11. OEP (Open Educational Practices) OER (Open Educational Resources) Free Open Admission (e.g. Open Universities) INTERPRETATIONS of ‘OPEN’ OER-focused definitions produce, use, reuse OER + broader definitions… Licensed for reuse for use, adaptation & redistribution by others Image: CC BY-SA 2.0 Marcel Oosterwijk
  12. 12. • Open educational practices (OEP) (Beetham, et al., 2012; Ehlers, 2011; Hodgkinson-Williams, 2009 & 2014) • Open teaching (Couros, 2010; Couros & Hildebrandt, 2016) • Open pedagogy (DeRosa & Robison, 2017; Hegarty, 2015; Weller, 2014) • Open scholarship (Veletsianos & Kimmons, 2012a; Weller, 2011) • Networked participatory scholarship (Stewart, 2015; Veletsianos & Kimmons, 2012b; Veletsianos & Stewart, 2016) • Critical (digital) pedagogy (Farrow, 2016; Rosen & Smale, 2015; Stommel, 2014) OEP and related concepts
  13. 13. The expanding global collection of OER… contribute to making education more accessible, especially where money for learning materials is scarce. They also nourish the kind of participatory culture of learning, creating, sharing and cooperation that rapidly changing knowledge societies need. However, open education is not limited to just OER. It also draws upon open technologies that facilitate collaborative, flexible learning and the open sharing of teaching practices that empower educators to benefit from the best ideas of their colleagues. It may also grow to include new approaches to assessment, accreditation and collaborative learning. Cape Town Open Declaration (2007) “
  14. 14. open educational practices (OEP) collaborative practices that include the creation, use and reuse of OER and pedagogical practices employing participatory technologies and social networks for interaction, peer-learning, knowledge creation & sharing, and empowerment of learners definition for my study
  15. 15. INTERPRETATIONS of ‘OPEN’ Policy/ Culture Values Practices Activities LEVELS of OPENNESS OEP (Open Educational Practices) OER (Open Educational Resources) Free Open Admission (e.g. Open Universities) IndividualInstitutional Image: CC BY-SA 2.0 Marcel Oosterwijk
  16. 16. Image: CC BY-SA izzie_whizzie methodology  Approach: qualitative / interpretive / critical  Method: constructivist grounded theory (Charmaz, 2014)  Setting: one HEI in Ireland without open education policies/culture  Participants: 19 members of academic staff, varied by discipline, employment status, and approach to openness
  17. 17. Not using OEP for teaching Using OEP for teaching DIGITAL NETWORKING PRACTICES Main digital identity is university- based Not using social media (or personal use only) Combined university & open identities Using social media personally/professionally, but not for teaching Well-developed open digital identity Using social media personally/professionally, including teaching DIGITAL TEACHING PRACTICES Using VLE only Using free resources, little knowledge of C or CC Using VLE + open tools Using & reusing OER DIGITAL LITERACIES Using digital natives discourse to describe self, peers, and/or students Developing own & students’ digital & network literacies PERSONAL VALUES Strong attachment to personal privacy Strict boundaries: personal/professional & student/teacher Valuing privacy & openness; striving for balance Accepting porosity across boundaries Continuum: increasing openness
  18. 18. • Many academic staff perceive potential risks (for themselves & their students) in using OEP; some perceive the benefits to outweigh the risks. • A minority of participants (8 of 19) used OEP. • 2 levels of ‘using OEP’: (i) being open, (ii) teaching openly. • 4 dimensions shared by open educators:  balancing privacy and openness  developing digital literacies (self & students)  valuing social learning  challenging traditional teaching role expectations Findings
  19. 19. Balancing privacy and openness Developing digital literacies Valuing social learning Challenging traditional teaching role expectations 4 dimensions shared by educators using OEP
  20. 20. “I don’t mind if students follow me and if they find stuff that I’ve written online. But I just don’t encourage it as part of the teaching, or their relationship with me as their teacher.” - participant (not using OEP)
  21. 21. “I don’t let students know I’m on Twitter, they seem to figure it out. It depends on what email account I reply to them with. Depending on the teaching or contractual situation in any given year, sometimes the [university] email account just evaporates and I have to fall back and use my own email account. My personal email signature has my Twitter name, my blog. The [university] account just has the department name.” - participant (using OEP)
  22. 22. Balancing privacy and openness Developing digital literacies Valuing social learning Challenging traditional teaching role expectations inner circle (2 dimensions) Networked Individuals both circles (4 dimensions) Networked Educators 4 dimensions shared by educators using OEP
  23. 23. using OER using OEP emergent practice in this study See also: Cox & Trotter (2016); Czerniewicz, Deacon, Walji & Glover (2016, in press)
  24. 24. Balancing privacy & openness Image: CC BY 2.0 woodleywonderworks
  25. 25. “There are no hard and fast rules.” - participant (using OEP) “I have personal rules for that.” - participant (using OEP) “You’re negotiating all the time.” - participant (using OEP)
  26. 26. Balancing privacy and openness will I share openly? who will I share with? (context collapse) who will I share as? (digital identity) will I share this? MACRO MESO MICRO NANO
  27. 27. An important question becomes not simply whether education is more or less open, but what forms of openness are worthwhile and for whom; openness alone is not an educational virtue. Edwards (2015) “ critical approaches to openness additional references: Bayne, Knox & Ross (2015) Cottom (2015) Czerniewicz (2015) Martins dos Santos Ferriera, G., et al. (Eds.). (2017). Selwyn & Facer (2013) singh (2015) Watters (2014)
  28. 28. Image: CC BY 2.0 vramak It has never been more risky to operate in the open. It has never been more vital to operate in the open. Martin Weller (2016)
  29. 29. Use of OEP is...  Complex  Personal  Contextual  Continuously negotiated
  30. 30. Le spectre de la rose Jerome Robbins Dance Division, NYPL To hope is to give yourself to the future, and that commitment to the future makes the present inhabitable. Rebecca Solnit (2004) Hope in the Dark “
  31. 31. Le spectre de la rose Jerome Robbins Dance Division, NYPL Thank You! @catherinecronin