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Valencia Marshall Breeding Jornada Perspectiva Tecnologia Bibliotecas


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Valencia Marshall Breeding Jornada Perspectiva Tecnologia Bibliotecas

  1. 1. TRENDS IN LIBRARY TECHNOLOGIES: AN INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVEMarshall BreedingDirector for Innovative Technology and ResearchVanderbilt University LibraryFounder and Publisher, Library Technology Guides Mar2012 Col·legi Oficial de Bibliotecaris y Documentalistas COmunitat Valenciana
  2. 2. Abstract This session will describe the recent trends in library automation, including the emergence of a new generation of library services platforms with different scope and architectures than the integrated library systems that have dominated library automation until now. Breeding will present the broader context that led to the emergence of these new products and how he expects them to impact libraries in different international sectors. He will also talk about the increasingly globalized business environment and its positive and negative implications for libraries.
  3. 3. Library Technology Guides gy .org chn olo aryte w.libr w w
  4. 4. ILS Turnover Report
  5. 5. ILS Turnover Report -- Reverse
  6. 6. Mergers and Acquisitions
  7. 7. Key Context: Libraries in Transition Academic Shift from Print > Electronic  E-journal transition largely complete  Circulation of print collections slowing  E-books now in play (consultation > reading) Public: Emphasis on Patron Engagement  Increased pressure on physical facilities  Increased circulation of print collections  Dramatic increase in interest in e-books All libraries:  Need better tools for access to complex multi-format collections  Strong emphasis on digitizing local collections  Demands for enterprise integration and interoperability
  8. 8. Key Context: Technologies in transition  Client / Server > Web-based computing  Beyond Web 2.0  Integration of social computing into core infrastructure  Local computing shifting to cloud platforms  Application Service Provider offerings standard  New expectations for multi-tenant software-as-a-service  Full spectrum of devices  full-scale / net book / tablet / mobile  Mobile the current focus, but is only one example of device and interface cycles
  9. 9. Key Text: Changed expectations inmetadata management Moving away from individual record-by-record creation Life cycle of metadata  Metadata follows the supply chain, improved and enhanced along the way as needed Manage metadata in bulk when possible  E-book collections Highly shared metadata  E-journal knowledge bases, e.g. Great interest in moving toward semantic web and open linked data  Very little progress in linked data for operational systems  AACR2 > RDA  MARC > RDF (recent announcement of Library of Congress)
  10. 10. Each Library Type Distinctive Academic – Public – School – Special Academic: Emphasis on subscribed electronic resources Public: Engaged in the management of print collections  Dramatic increase in interest in E-books School: Age-appropriate resources (print and Web), textbook and media management Special: Enterprise knowledge management (Corporate, Law, Medical, etc)
  11. 11. Specialized automation In general, products have emerged to serve each library sector Companies in general cluster around these specializations Some overlap: Public / Academic Multi-type consortia: compromise and adapt systems to serve many types of libraries
  12. 12. Cooperation and Resource sharing Efforts on many fronts to cooperate and consolidate Many regional consortia merging (Example: suburban Chicago systems) State-wide or national implementations Software-as-a-service or “cloud” based implementations  Many libraries share computing infrastructure and data resources
  13. 13. Status Quo Sustainable? ILS for management of (mostly) print Duplicative financial systems between library and campus Electronic Resource Management (non-integrated with ILS) OpenURL Link Resolver w/ knowledge base for access to full-text electronic articles Digital Collections Management platforms (CONTENTdm, DigiTool, etc.) Institutional Repositories (DSpace, Fedora, etc.) Discovery-layer services for broader access to library collections No effective integration services / interoperability among disconnected systems, non-aligned metadata schemes
  14. 14. Phase of realignment Strong need to realign library automation with current library realities Legacy library systems reinforce workflows no longer in step with library priorities. Need systems that allow libraries to allocate personnel in proper proportion to collection Separate automation platforms for print and electronic have not proven successful
  15. 15. Academic Library Issues Greater concern with electronic resources Management: Need for consolidated approach that balances print, digital, and electronic workflows Access: discovery interfaces that maximize the value of investments in electronic content
  16. 16. Public Library Issues Enhance the experience of library patrons Management and access to physical resources Self-service through the Web portal:  View current loans, perform holds, renewals, pay fines and fees Self-service in the physical library  RFID-based self-issue and returns  Helps the library deploy service personnel for highest impact
  17. 17. National Library Issues Larger-scale collections Cultural Heritage responsibilities National services: bibliographic, resource sharing, automation, etc. National infrastructure: technology platforms shared at the widest level
  18. 18. A Cloudy Forecast for LibrariesSystems Librarian Column, Sept 2011“Service-oriented architectures and browser-basedinterfaces deployed through cloud-basedinfrastructure stand today as the key technologiespreferred for new software development efforts”
  19. 19. Cloud Computing Major trend in Information Technology Few organizations have core competence in large-scale computer infrastructure management Essentially outsourcing of server housing and management Usually based on a consumption-based business model Most new automation products delivered through some flavor of cloud computing Many flavors to suit business needs: public, private, hybrid
  20. 20. Library Automation in the Cloud Almost all library automation vendors offer some form of cloud-based services Server management moves from library to Vendor Subscription-based business model Comprehensive annual subscription payment  Offsets local server purchase and maintenance  Offsets some local technology support
  21. 21. Software as a Service Multi Tennant SaaS is the modern approach  One copy of the code base serves multiple sites Software functionality delivered entirely through Web interfaces  No workstation clients Upgrades and fixes deployed universally  Usually in small increments
  22. 22. Data as a service SaaS provides opportunity for highly shared data models WorldCat: one globally shared copy that serves all libraries Primo Central: central index of articles maintained by Ex Libris shared by all libraries implementing Primo / Primo Central KnowledgeWorks database of of e-journal holdings shared among all customers of Serials Solutions products General opportunity to move away from library-by-library metadata management to globally shared workflows
  23. 23. Competing Models of LibraryAutomation Traditional Proprietary Commercial ILS  Aleph, Voyager, Millennium, Symphony, Polaris,  BOOK-IT, DDELibra,  LIBERO, Amlib, Spydus, TOTALS II, Traditional Open Source ILS  Evergreen, Koha New generation Library Services Platforms  Ex Libris Alma, Kuali OLE, OCLC WorldShare Management Services, Serials Solutions Intota Cloud-based systems  Ex Libris Alma  OCLC WorldShare Management Service  Serials Solutions: Intota
  24. 24. Beyond the Integrated Library System Find a new term for the successor to the ILS Integrated Library System now viewed as print- centric Need to designate a name for the new genre of automation products
  25. 25. Library Services Platforms Comprehensive Management: Print, Electronic, Digital Shared data models / Knowledge base driven Cloud Technology: multi-tenant software-as-a- service Service Platform: Open APIs for extensibility and interoperability
  26. 26. Comprehensive Resource Management No longer sensible to use different software platforms for managing different types of library materials ILS + ERM + OpenURL Resolver + Digital Asset management, etc. very inefficient model Flexible platform capable of managing multiple type of library materials, multiple metadata formats, with appropriate workflows
  27. 27. Open Systems Achieving openness has risen as the key driver behind library technology strategies Libraries need to do more with their data Ability to improve customer experience and operational efficiencies Demand for Interoperability Open source – full access to internal program of the application Open API’s – expose programmatic interfaces to data and functionality
  28. 28. New Library Management Model Search: Unified Presentation Layer Self-Check / Digital Coll Automated Library Services Return Platform ProQuest Consolidated index Di Serv sc ic API Layer ov e EBSCO er … ` y JSTOR Stock OtherManagement Resources Enterprise Smart Cad / Resource Payment Planning systems Learning Authentication Management Service
  29. 29. New models of Library CollectionDiscoveryFrom local discovery to Web-scale discovery
  30. 30. Next-Gen Library Catalogs Marshall Breeding Neal-Schuman Publishers March 2010 Volume 1 of The Tech Set
  31. 31. Challenge: Disjointed approach toinformation and service delivery Library Web sites offer a menu of unconnected silos:  Books: Library OPAC (ILS online catalog module)  Articles: Aggregated content products, e-journal collections  OpenURL linking services  E-journal finding aids (Often managed by link resolver)  Subject guides (e.g. Springshare LibGuides)  Local digital collections  ETDs, photos, rich media collections  Metasearch engines  Discovery Services – often just another choice among many All searched separately
  32. 32. Online Catalog ILS Data Search: Search Results
  33. 33. Next-gen Catalogs or DiscoveryInterface Single search box Query tools  Did you mean  Type-ahead Relevance ranked results Faceted navigation Enhanced visual displays  Cover art  Summaries, reviews, Recommendation services
  34. 34. Discovery Interface search model ILS Data Digital Search: Local Collections Index ProQuest Search Results EBSCOhost MetaSearch Engine … MLA Bibliography ABC-CLIO Real-time query and responses
  35. 35. Discovery Products d n ww. librarytech http://w
  36. 36. Differentiation in Discovery Products increasingly specialized between public and academic libraries Public libraries: emphasis on engagement with physical collection Academic libraries: concern for discovery of heterogeneous material types, especially books + articles + digital objects
  37. 37. Device Agnostic
  38. 38. Discovery from Local to Web-scale Initial products focused on technology  AquaBrowser, Endeca, Primo, Encore, VuFind,  LIBERO Uno, Civica Sorcer, Axiell Arena  Mostly locally-installed software Current phase is focused on pre-populated indexes that aim to deliver Web-scale discovery  Primo Central (Ex Libris)  Summon (Serials Solutions)  WorldCat Local (OCLC)  EBSCO Discovery Service (EBSCO)  Encore with Article Integration (no index, though)
  39. 39. Web-scale Index-based Discovery ILS Data Digital Search: Collections Consolidated Index ProQuest Search Results EBSCOhost … MLA Bibliography ABC-CLIO Pre-built harvesting and indexing
  40. 40. Web-scale Search + Federated Search ILS Data Digital Search: Collections Index Consolidated ProQuest … Search Results MLA Bibliography ABC-CLIO Pre-built harvesting and Fed indexing Search Non- Interim model to deal with resources not harvestable possible to harvest into consolidated index Resources
  41. 41. Encore Synergy ILS Data Digital Search: Collections Index Local ProQuest Local Index Results … EBSCOhost Web Services Remote Search Results … MLA Bibliography Local Index Results ABC-CLIO
  42. 42. New Library Management Model Search: Unified Presentation Layer Self-Check / Digital Coll Automated Library Services Search Engine Return Platform ProQuest Di Consolidated index sc ov API Layer EBSCO er y … ` Se rv ic e JSTOR Stock OtherManagement Resources Enterprise Smart Cad / Resource Payment Planning systems Learning Authentication Management Service
  43. 43. The Discovery Services Market
  44. 44. Adoption of Discovery Services Next-gen catalogs or discovery services have been around since 2002 Many mature products Continuing to evolve and expand Online catalog components of ILS products have taken on many of the characteristics of discovery layers  Examples: LS2 PAC, Polaris PowerPAC
  45. 45. Discovery Service InstallationsDiscovery Product 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 InstalledPrimo 12 37 53 506 111 914AquaBrowser 55 339 64 69 74 254Encore 72 72 109 56 72 326LS2 PAC   46 77 58 88 236Summon     50 164 214 407Enterprise   16  75 100 251Civica Sorcer     7 12 22 39Axiell Arena     61 57 33 76Chamo     10 34 7 51
  46. 46. EBSCO Discovery Service
  47. 47. Global Primo Installations
  48. 48. Summon Global Adoption
  49. 49. Expanding the Depth of Discovery
  50. 50. Citations / Metadata > Full Text Citations or structured metadata provide key data to power search & retrieval and faceted navigation Indexing Full-text of content amplifies access Important to understand depth indexing  Currency,dates covered, full-text or citation  Many other factors
  51. 51. Full-text Book indexing HathiTrust: 11 million volumes, 5.3 million titles, 263,000 serial titles, 3.5 billion pages HathiTrust in Discovery Indexes  PrimoCentral (Jan 20, 2012) [previously indexed only metadata]  EBSCO Discovery Service (Sept 8 2011)  WorldCat Local (Sept 7, 2011)  Summon (Mar 28, 2011)
  52. 52. Challenge for Relevancy Technically feasible to index hundreds of millions or billions of records through Lucene or SOLR Difficult to order records in ways that make sense Many fairly equivalent candidates returned for any given query Must rely on use-based and social factors to improve relevancy rankings
  53. 53. Challenges for Collection Coverage To work effectively, discovery services need to cover comprehensively the body of content represented in library collections What about publishers that do not participate? Is content indexed at the citation or full-text level? What are the restrictions for non-authenticated users? How can libraries understand the differences in coverage among competing services?
  54. 54. Evaluating the Coverage of Index-based Discovery Services Intense competition: how well the index covers the body of scholarly content stands as a key differentiator Difficult to evaluate based on numbers of items indexed alone. Important to ascertain now your library’s content packages are represented by the discovery service. Important to know what items are indexed by citation and which are full text Important to know whether the discovery service favors the content of any given publisher
  55. 55. Example: Summon Unified IndexGrowth p le a m Ex
  56. 56. Open Discovery Initiative NISO Work Group to Develop Standards and Recommended Practices for Library Discovery Services Based on Indexed Search Informal meeting called at ALA Annual 2011 Co-Chaired by Marshall Breeding and Jenny Walker Term: Dec 2011 – May 2013
  57. 57. Open Discovery Initiative stakeholders Libraries: provide discovery services on behalf of their patrons Publishers: provide content to be indexed by discovery services Discovery Service Provides: develop discovery interfaces and populate indexes
  58. 58. ODI Project Goals: Identify … needs and requirements of the three stakeholder groups in this area of work. Create recommendations and tools to streamline the process by which information providers, discovery service providers, and librarians work together to better serve libraries and their users. Provide effective means for librarians to assess the level of participation by information providers in discovery services, to evaluate the breadth and depth of content indexed and the degree to which this content is made available to the user.
  59. 59. E-book Integration
  60. 60. The rise of e-books Academic libraries: e-books included in aggregated content packages  E-books used primarily for research and consultation, not long reading Public Libraries: Subscriptions to e-book services that provide an outsourced collection of loanable e- books K-12 Schools, Colleges, Universities: interest in electronic textbooks
  61. 61. Integrating e-Books into LibraryAutomation Infrastructure Current approach involves mostly outsourced arrangements Collections licensed wholesale from single provider Hand-off to DRM and delivery systems of providers Loading of MARC records into local catalog with linking mechanisms No ability to see availability status of e-books from the library’s online catalog or discovery interface
  62. 62. Technology Issues Access to materials controlled through Digital Rights Management Closed ecosystems that control content through identity management and rights policies Imposes significant overhead on the user experience:  Download an install DRM components  Establish user credentials in site trusted by DRM  Works only with devices that comply with DRM restrictions
  63. 63. Questions and discussion