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System system check
Urinary system
Excretory system- removes waste and excess water
from the body and is important for maintaining the
body’s...
What makes up the urinary system
2 kidneys
2 ureters
1 bladder
1 urethra
This system is sterile!!!!
kidneys
Located in the upper part of the abdominal cavity
Each kidney is surrounded by an adipose capsule
Divided into ...
nephrons
Microscopic filtering units
More than a million per kidney
Each nephron contains:
Glomerulous-(high pressure ...
nephron
Convoluted tubule- it collects the crud that was
filtered out and returns the things the body needs
back into the...
Drawing Billy the kidney
Make a beautiful most beautiful drawing of the
nephron for yourself!
ureters
2 tubes that are 10-12 inches in length that goes from
the kidney to the bladder
Peristalsis moves the urine thr...
bladder
Hollow muscular sac located behind the symphysis
pubis midline
Urge to void bladder occurs when there is 250 cc ...
urethra
Urethra is a tube that carries urine from the bladder
to the outside opening called the urinary meatus
Blood pressure and the kidney
Andy gets shot
Andy is bleeding out
Andy’s BP drops
Inside Andy, his kidneys have a cell...
Blood pressure and Billy the kidney
Angiotensin I as a hormone can change blood
pressure a little, but it has to convert ...
Blood pressure and Billy the kidney
Want to know how angiotensin coverts itself from I
to II? Angiotensin Converting Enzy...
Pathopathopathopathopatho
Kidney stones- no these are not rocks you
swallowed…
This may be called renal calculus- it is ...
Rolling kidney stones
Signs and symptoms of kidney stones:
extreme pain in your back or side that will not go
away
bloo...
What do they look like?
Kidney stones may be as small as a grain of sand or as
large as a pearl. Some stones are even as ...
How to get rid of them
Shoot shock waves transdermally into the kidney to
break up stones to pass them called lithotripsy...
Urinary tract infections
UTI most common in women due to shorter structure
of the urinary tract, and proximity of the mea...
UTI
Signs and symptoms of UTI:
Frequent urination
Burning with urination
Strange odor
Cloudy color to blood tinged ca...
pyelonephritis
This is inflammation of the kidney tissue and renal pelvis.
This is usually caused by the strep bacteria, ...
Renal failure
Renal failure is when the kidneys shut down and stop
filtering the blood.
ARF= acute renal failure, sudden...
ARF
Little or no urine when you urinate.
Swelling, especially in your legs and feet.
Not feeling like eating.
Nausea a...
dialysis
Chronic renal failure stages
Stage I= slight kidney damage- observation and
control BP
Stage II= mild decrease in kidney...
End stage kidney failure
Stage 4 pitting edema
AV fistula
AV fistula
Cannulation of AV fistula
Port for dialysis
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Urinary noyouranary 2

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Urinary noyouranary 2

  1. 1. System system check
  2. 2. Urinary system Excretory system- removes waste and excess water from the body and is important for maintaining the body’s acid-base balance.
  3. 3. What makes up the urinary system 2 kidneys 2 ureters 1 bladder 1 urethra This system is sterile!!!!
  4. 4. kidneys Located in the upper part of the abdominal cavity Each kidney is surrounded by an adipose capsule Divided into cortex- outer part with nephrons and medulla-inner part with collection tubules
  5. 5. nephrons Microscopic filtering units More than a million per kidney Each nephron contains: Glomerulous-(high pressure coiled capillaries)---filters water, mineral salts, sugar, metabolic product, and other crud, but not RBC’s and protein. Then goes out the renal vein to go back to the heart Bowman’s capsule- c- shaped structure that surrounds glomerulous it picks up the bad stuff that is filtered out, and takes it to the convoluted tubule……. To be continued
  6. 6. nephron Convoluted tubule- it collects the crud that was filtered out and returns the things the body needs back into the blood by the capillaries- water, sugar, salt Excess water sugar and salt stay in the tubule and form urine which go to the collecting ducts Collecting ducts- other tubules that dump urine into the renal pelvis-a funnel at the top of the ureter.
  7. 7. Drawing Billy the kidney Make a beautiful most beautiful drawing of the nephron for yourself!
  8. 8. ureters 2 tubes that are 10-12 inches in length that goes from the kidney to the bladder Peristalsis moves the urine through the ureter from the kidney to the bladder.
  9. 9. bladder Hollow muscular sac located behind the symphysis pubis midline Urge to void bladder occurs when there is 250 cc or 1 cup of urine When the bladder is full, receptors in the wall of the bladder signal muscles to open- a reflex
  10. 10. urethra Urethra is a tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside opening called the urinary meatus
  11. 11. Blood pressure and the kidney Andy gets shot Andy is bleeding out Andy’s BP drops Inside Andy, his kidneys have a cell that detects changes in the system. They release renin- a hormone that floats around in the body and finds angiotensin. This is a chemical that when touched by renin turns into angiotensin I. To be continued……
  12. 12. Blood pressure and Billy the kidney Angiotensin I as a hormone can change blood pressure a little, but it has to convert to Angiotensin II. Angiotensin II is much more powerful, and can change blood pressure more dramatically This change over happens in the lungs- remember when we talked about blowing off CO2? It just came back around to bite you in the gluteus!
  13. 13. Blood pressure and Billy the kidney Want to know how angiotensin coverts itself from I to II? Angiotensin Converting Enzyme of course! It is called ACE That is why people take ACE inhibitors-it controls high blood pressure!!!!! Light bulb! kill angiotensin II=reduced blood pressure
  14. 14. Pathopathopathopathopatho Kidney stones- no these are not rocks you swallowed… This may be called renal calculus- it is when minerals from our diets build up in the kidneys and form stones……..
  15. 15. Rolling kidney stones Signs and symptoms of kidney stones: extreme pain in your back or side that will not go away blood in your urine fever and chills vomiting urine that smells bad or looks cloudy a burning feeling when you urinate
  16. 16. What do they look like? Kidney stones may be as small as a grain of sand or as large as a pearl. Some stones are even as big as golf balls. Stones may be smooth or jagged. They are usually yellow or brown.  Golf ball size brown jagged and yellow small smooth
  17. 17. How to get rid of them Shoot shock waves transdermally into the kidney to break up stones to pass them called lithotripsy-stone crushing Tunnel surgery makes an incision into the kidney through the back to pull the kidney stone out Uteroscope- doctor sends a wire device through the urethra and a cage and pull it out
  18. 18. Urinary tract infections UTI most common in women due to shorter structure of the urinary tract, and proximity of the meatus to the vagina and rectum Remember the urinary tract is sterile, but the GI system is not Most common infections are from the e.coli bacteria common to the intestines
  19. 19. UTI Signs and symptoms of UTI: Frequent urination Burning with urination Strange odor Cloudy color to blood tinged called hematuria Treatment- antibiotics to kill bacteria and increase fluid intake
  20. 20. pyelonephritis This is inflammation of the kidney tissue and renal pelvis. This is usually caused by the strep bacteria, and forms pus in the kidney which is excreted with urine Signs and symptoms: High fever Chills  severe back pain Generalized weakness and pain Loss of appetite and nausea Treatment: antibiotics and increased fluid intake
  21. 21. Renal failure Renal failure is when the kidneys shut down and stop filtering the blood. ARF= acute renal failure, sudden drop in urine production due to infection, trauma or blood loss, this is sudden, and most of the time not permanent Feels like:
  22. 22. ARF Little or no urine when you urinate. Swelling, especially in your legs and feet. Not feeling like eating. Nausea and vomiting. Feeling confused, anxious and restless, or sleepy. Pain in the back just below the rib cage. This is called flank pain. Treatment- dialysis- a machine filters the blood where the body can’t
  23. 23. dialysis
  24. 24. Chronic renal failure stages Stage I= slight kidney damage- observation and control BP Stage II= mild decrease in kidney function- observation and control BP Stage III= moderate decrease in kidney function observation and control BP Stage IV= severe decrease in function-planning on end-stage renal failure Stage V= dialysis and kidney transplant
  25. 25. End stage kidney failure
  26. 26. Stage 4 pitting edema
  27. 27. AV fistula
  28. 28. AV fistula
  29. 29. Cannulation of AV fistula
  30. 30. Port for dialysis

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