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Summary mindmaps physical geography 2015

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Physical Geog mindmap
coast weather tectonics

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Summary mindmaps physical geography 2015

  1. 1. Summary Mind-Map Slides Physical Geography
  2. 2. Tectonic Hazards Earth’s internal structure Responses Landforms & Phenomena
  3. 3. Earth’s internal Structure Structure • Core • Mantle • Crust (Oceanic) • Crust (Continental) • Asthenosphere • Lithosphere Tectonic Forces • Convection Currents • Slab-pull force Plate Boundaries • Transform / Shear • Convergent / Destructive • O-C / C-C / O- O • Divergent / Constructive • O-O / C-C
  4. 4. Responses Preparing for Earthquakes • Landuse regulation • Building design • Improve Infrastructure • Emergency Drills • Technology, monitoring & warning system. Short-term • Handling Status of the area • Provide medical aid, food & water • Set up emergency shelter • Calling for humanitarian aid • Search & Rescue Long-term • Recover Economically • Improve infrastructure • Compensation • Health Option
  5. 5. Landforms & Phenomena Landforms • Rift valley (Graben) • Block Mountain (Horst) • Fold mountain • Volcanoes • Shield volcano • Stratovolcano Phenomena
  6. 6. PhenomenaEarthquakes Volcanic Eruptions • Impact / Risks • Landslide / Lohars • Pollution • Effect on weather • Destruction by pyroclastic flow Benefits • Fertile soil • Tourism • Geotherm al energy • Minerals Factors causing damage • Magnitude • Depth of focus • Distance from Epicentre • Pop Density • Time of occurrence • Type of soil • Level of preparedness. Effects • Tsunami • Landslides • Destruction of building and infrastructure • Loss of services.
  7. 7. Coasts Coastal Features Value Of Coasts Threats To Coasts Coastal Management
  8. 8. Coastal Feature Waves Wave Refraction Processes Erosion • Corrasion • Attrition • Solution • Hydraulic Action Transportation • Longshore Drift theory Deposition • Beach formation Landforms Erosion • Stack • Stump • Arch • Cave • Notch Erosion & Deposition • Headlands & Bays Deposition • Spit • Tombolo • Beach
  9. 9. Value of Coasts Human Value • Provisionary • Regulating • Cultural • Supporting Ecosystem Coral Reefs Mangroves • Distribution • Value to humans • Threats faced
  10. 10. Threats to Coast Climate Change • Rising global population • Pollution • Coastal Development and Habitat loss • Eroding Shorelines
  11. 11. Coastal Management Management • Limiting Activities • Restricting Development Soft Engineering • Beach nourishment • Dune Stabilising • Encourage growth of corals Hard Engineering • Seawall • Gryone • Tetrapods • Gabions
  12. 12. Weather and Climate Elements of Weather Climate Change Extreme Weather (Pure Geog)
  13. 13. Elements of Weather Temperature • Altitude • Latitude • Distance from sea • Cloud Cover Humidity & Rainfall • Relative Humidity • Clouds • Saturation Dew Point • Orographic and Convectional Rain Winds & Pressure • Pressure • Land & Sea Breezes • Monsoon winds ` Climate Types • Equatorial • Monsoon • Cool Temperate
  14. 14. Climatic Changes Current Trends Man-Made • Burning fossil fuels • Deforestation • Changing landuse – • Agriculture • Industries • Urbanisation Impacts • Sea level rising • More extreme weather • Increase in speed of diseases • Change in growing season Responses Natural • Solar Variations • Volcanic Eruptions Causes Responses • Kyoto Protocol • Copenhagen Conference National • Plant a tree • Green Mark • Green Plan • Energy Labelling • INCCA • NUTD
  15. 15. Extreme Weather (Tropical Cyclone) Responses • Short-term • Long-term Impacts • Economic • Physical • Social Hazards • Torrential rain • Wind Damage • Storm Surge Formation / Disturbution • Warm Sea surface temperature • Strong Coriolis effect • Tropical Regions

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