Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

1820 e o liberalismo

55,376 views

Published on

PPT 1820 e o liberalismo

Published in: Education
  • DOWNLOAD THE BOOK INTO AVAILABLE FORMAT (New Update) ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... Download Full PDF EBOOK here { https://urlzs.com/UABbn } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full EPUB Ebook here { https://urlzs.com/UABbn } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full doc Ebook here { https://urlzs.com/UABbn } ......................................................................................................................... Download PDF EBOOK here { https://urlzs.com/UABbn } ......................................................................................................................... Download EPUB Ebook here { https://urlzs.com/UABbn } ......................................................................................................................... Download doc Ebook here { https://urlzs.com/UABbn } ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... eBook is an electronic version of a traditional print book THE can be read by using a personal computer or by using an eBook reader. (An eBook reader can be a software application for use on a computer such as Microsoft's free Reader application, or a book-sized computer THE is used solely as a reading device such as Nuvomedia's Rocket eBook.) Users can purchase an eBook on diskette or CD, but the most popular method of getting an eBook is to purchase a downloadable file of the eBook (or other reading material) from a Web site (such as Barnes and Noble) to be read from the user's computer or reading device. Generally, an eBook can be downloaded in five minutes or less ......................................................................................................................... .............. Browse by Genre Available eBOOK .............................................................................................................................. Art, Biography, Business, Chick Lit, Children's, Christian, Classics, Comics, Contemporary, CookBOOK, Manga, Memoir, Music, Mystery, Non Fiction, Paranormal, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Religion, Romance, Science, Science Fiction, Self Help, Suspense, Spirituality, Sports, Thriller, Travel, Young Adult, Crime, EBOOK, Fantasy, Fiction, Graphic Novels, Historical Fiction, History, Horror, Humor And Comedy, ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... .....BEST SELLER FOR EBOOK RECOMMEND............................................................. ......................................................................................................................... Blowout: Corrupted Democracy, Rogue State Russia, and the Richest, Most Destructive Industry on Earth,-- The Ride of a Lifetime: Lessons Learned from 15 Years as CEO of the Walt Disney Company,-- Call Sign Chaos: Learning to Lead,-- StrengthsFinder 2.0,-- Stillness Is the Key,-- She Said: Breaking the Sexual Harassment Story THE Helped Ignite a Movement,-- Atomic Habits: An Easy & Proven Way to Build Good Habits & Break Bad Ones,-- Everything Is Figureoutable,-- What It Takes: Lessons in the Pursuit of Excellence,-- Rich Dad Poor Dad: What the Rich Teach Their Kids About Money THE the Poor and Middle Class Do Not!,-- The Total Money Makeover: Classic Edition: A Proven Plan for Financial Fitness,-- Shut Up and Listen!: Hard Business Truths THE Will Help You Succeed, ......................................................................................................................... .........................................................................................................................
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • DOWNLOAD THIS BOOKS INTO AVAILABLE FORMAT (2019 Update) ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... Download Full PDF EBOOK here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full EPUB Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full doc Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download PDF EBOOK here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download EPUB Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download doc Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... eBook is an electronic version of a traditional print book THIS can be read by using a personal computer or by using an eBook reader. (An eBook reader can be a software application for use on a computer such as Microsoft's free Reader application, or a book-sized computer THIS is used solely as a reading device such as Nuvomedia's Rocket eBook.) Users can purchase an eBook on diskette or CD, but the most popular method of getting an eBook is to purchase a downloadable file of the eBook (or other reading material) from a Web site (such as Barnes and Noble) to be read from the user's computer or reading device. Generally, an eBook can be downloaded in five minutes or less ......................................................................................................................... .............. Browse by Genre Available eBooks .............................................................................................................................. Art, Biography, Business, Chick Lit, Children's, Christian, Classics, Comics, Contemporary, Cookbooks, Manga, Memoir, Music, Mystery, Non Fiction, Paranormal, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Religion, Romance, Science, Science Fiction, Self Help, Suspense, Spirituality, Sports, Thriller, Travel, Young Adult, Crime, Ebooks, Fantasy, Fiction, Graphic Novels, Historical Fiction, History, Horror, Humor And Comedy, ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... .....BEST SELLER FOR EBOOK RECOMMEND............................................................. ......................................................................................................................... Blowout: Corrupted Democracy, Rogue State Russia, and the Richest, Most Destructive Industry on Earth,-- The Ride of a Lifetime: Lessons Learned from 15 Years as CEO of the Walt Disney Company,-- Call Sign Chaos: Learning to Lead,-- StrengthsFinder 2.0,-- Stillness Is the Key,-- She Said: Breaking the Sexual Harassment Story THIS Helped Ignite a Movement,-- Atomic Habits: An Easy & Proven Way to Build Good Habits & Break Bad Ones,-- Everything Is Figureoutable,-- What It Takes: Lessons in the Pursuit of Excellence,-- Rich Dad Poor Dad: What the Rich Teach Their Kids About Money THIS the Poor and Middle Class Do Not!,-- The Total Money Makeover: Classic Edition: A Proven Plan for Financial Fitness,-- Shut Up and Listen!: Hard Business Truths THIS Will Help You Succeed, ......................................................................................................................... .........................................................................................................................
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • DOWNLOAD THIS BOOKS INTO AVAILABLE FORMAT (2019 Update) ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... Download Full PDF EBOOK here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full EPUB Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full doc Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download PDF EBOOK here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download EPUB Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download doc Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... eBook is an electronic version of a traditional print book THIS can be read by using a personal computer or by using an eBook reader. (An eBook reader can be a software application for use on a computer such as Microsoft's free Reader application, or a book-sized computer THIS is used solely as a reading device such as Nuvomedia's Rocket eBook.) Users can purchase an eBook on diskette or CD, but the most popular method of getting an eBook is to purchase a downloadable file of the eBook (or other reading material) from a Web site (such as Barnes and Noble) to be read from the user's computer or reading device. Generally, an eBook can be downloaded in five minutes or less ......................................................................................................................... .............. Browse by Genre Available eBooks .............................................................................................................................. Art, Biography, Business, Chick Lit, Children's, Christian, Classics, Comics, Contemporary, Cookbooks, Manga, Memoir, Music, Mystery, Non Fiction, Paranormal, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Religion, Romance, Science, Science Fiction, Self Help, Suspense, Spirituality, Sports, Thriller, Travel, Young Adult, Crime, Ebooks, Fantasy, Fiction, Graphic Novels, Historical Fiction, History, Horror, Humor And Comedy, ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... .....BEST SELLER FOR EBOOK RECOMMEND............................................................. ......................................................................................................................... Blowout: Corrupted Democracy, Rogue State Russia, and the Richest, Most Destructive Industry on Earth,-- The Ride of a Lifetime: Lessons Learned from 15 Years as CEO of the Walt Disney Company,-- Call Sign Chaos: Learning to Lead,-- StrengthsFinder 2.0,-- Stillness Is the Key,-- She Said: Breaking the Sexual Harassment Story THIS Helped Ignite a Movement,-- Atomic Habits: An Easy & Proven Way to Build Good Habits & Break Bad Ones,-- Everything Is Figureoutable,-- What It Takes: Lessons in the Pursuit of Excellence,-- Rich Dad Poor Dad: What the Rich Teach Their Kids About Money THIS the Poor and Middle Class Do Not!,-- The Total Money Makeover: Classic Edition: A Proven Plan for Financial Fitness,-- Shut Up and Listen!: Hard Business Truths THIS Will Help You Succeed, ......................................................................................................................... .........................................................................................................................
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • DOWNLOAD THIS BOOKS INTO AVAILABLE FORMAT (2019 Update) ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... Download Full PDF EBOOK here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full EPUB Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full doc Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download PDF EBOOK here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download EPUB Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download doc Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... eBook is an electronic version of a traditional print book THIS can be read by using a personal computer or by using an eBook reader. (An eBook reader can be a software application for use on a computer such as Microsoft's free Reader application, or a book-sized computer THIS is used solely as a reading device such as Nuvomedia's Rocket eBook.) Users can purchase an eBook on diskette or CD, but the most popular method of getting an eBook is to purchase a downloadable file of the eBook (or other reading material) from a Web site (such as Barnes and Noble) to be read from the user's computer or reading device. Generally, an eBook can be downloaded in five minutes or less ......................................................................................................................... .............. Browse by Genre Available eBooks .............................................................................................................................. Art, Biography, Business, Chick Lit, Children's, Christian, Classics, Comics, Contemporary, Cookbooks, Manga, Memoir, Music, Mystery, Non Fiction, Paranormal, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Religion, Romance, Science, Science Fiction, Self Help, Suspense, Spirituality, Sports, Thriller, Travel, Young Adult, Crime, Ebooks, Fantasy, Fiction, Graphic Novels, Historical Fiction, History, Horror, Humor And Comedy, ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... .....BEST SELLER FOR EBOOK RECOMMEND............................................................. ......................................................................................................................... Blowout: Corrupted Democracy, Rogue State Russia, and the Richest, Most Destructive Industry on Earth,-- The Ride of a Lifetime: Lessons Learned from 15 Years as CEO of the Walt Disney Company,-- Call Sign Chaos: Learning to Lead,-- StrengthsFinder 2.0,-- Stillness Is the Key,-- She Said: Breaking the Sexual Harassment Story THIS Helped Ignite a Movement,-- Atomic Habits: An Easy & Proven Way to Build Good Habits & Break Bad Ones,-- Everything Is Figureoutable,-- What It Takes: Lessons in the Pursuit of Excellence,-- Rich Dad Poor Dad: What the Rich Teach Their Kids About Money THIS the Poor and Middle Class Do Not!,-- The Total Money Makeover: Classic Edition: A Proven Plan for Financial Fitness,-- Shut Up and Listen!: Hard Business Truths THIS Will Help You Succeed, ......................................................................................................................... .........................................................................................................................
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • DOWNLOAD THIS BOOKS INTO AVAILABLE FORMAT (2019 Update) ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... Download Full PDF EBOOK here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full EPUB Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full doc Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download PDF EBOOK here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download EPUB Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download doc Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... eBook is an electronic version of a traditional print book THIS can be read by using a personal computer or by using an eBook reader. (An eBook reader can be a software application for use on a computer such as Microsoft's free Reader application, or a book-sized computer THIS is used solely as a reading device such as Nuvomedia's Rocket eBook.) Users can purchase an eBook on diskette or CD, but the most popular method of getting an eBook is to purchase a downloadable file of the eBook (or other reading material) from a Web site (such as Barnes and Noble) to be read from the user's computer or reading device. Generally, an eBook can be downloaded in five minutes or less ......................................................................................................................... .............. Browse by Genre Available eBooks .............................................................................................................................. Art, Biography, Business, Chick Lit, Children's, Christian, Classics, Comics, Contemporary, Cookbooks, Manga, Memoir, Music, Mystery, Non Fiction, Paranormal, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Religion, Romance, Science, Science Fiction, Self Help, Suspense, Spirituality, Sports, Thriller, Travel, Young Adult, Crime, Ebooks, Fantasy, Fiction, Graphic Novels, Historical Fiction, History, Horror, Humor And Comedy, ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... .....BEST SELLER FOR EBOOK RECOMMEND............................................................. ......................................................................................................................... Blowout: Corrupted Democracy, Rogue State Russia, and the Richest, Most Destructive Industry on Earth,-- The Ride of a Lifetime: Lessons Learned from 15 Years as CEO of the Walt Disney Company,-- Call Sign Chaos: Learning to Lead,-- StrengthsFinder 2.0,-- Stillness Is the Key,-- She Said: Breaking the Sexual Harassment Story THIS Helped Ignite a Movement,-- Atomic Habits: An Easy & Proven Way to Build Good Habits & Break Bad Ones,-- Everything Is Figureoutable,-- What It Takes: Lessons in the Pursuit of Excellence,-- Rich Dad Poor Dad: What the Rich Teach Their Kids About Money THIS the Poor and Middle Class Do Not!,-- The Total Money Makeover: Classic Edition: A Proven Plan for Financial Fitness,-- Shut Up and Listen!: Hard Business Truths THIS Will Help You Succeed, ......................................................................................................................... .........................................................................................................................
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here

1820 e o liberalismo

  1. 1. 1820 E O LIBERALISMO
  2. 2. 1820 E O LIBERALISMO1820 E O LIBERALISMO As Invasões FrancesasAs Invasões Francesas REVOLUÇÃO FRANCESAREVOLUÇÃO FRANCESAREVOLUÇÃO FRANCESAREVOLUÇÃO FRANCESA SÉCULO XVIIISÉCULO XVIII Os reis europeus governavam de forma absoluta, devendo-lhe todos os grupos sociais obediência; havia, entre estes, grandes desigualdades. 17891789 Em França, iniciou-se uma revolução liderada pela burguesia e pelo po- vo que defendia: - o fim dos privilégios do clero e da nobreza; - o fim da monarquia absoluta; - os ideais da liberdade, da igualdade e da fraternidade; - todos os cidadãos serem livres e iguais perante a lei.
  3. 3. 1820 E O LIBERALISMO1820 E O LIBERALISMO O Bloqueio ContinentalO Bloqueio Continental Alguns reis europeus, receando que a revolução se espalhasse aos seus países, declararam guerra à França Para vencer os países europeus e, sobretudo a Inglaterra, Napoleão decreta o BLOQUEIO CONTINENTALBLOQUEIO CONTINENTAL
  4. 4. 1820 E O LIBERALISMO1820 E O LIBERALISMO Invasões FrancesasInvasões Francesas Portugal não aceitou esta ordem e, por isso, Napoleão invadiu PortugalPortugal não aceitou esta ordem e, por isso, Napoleão invadiu Portugal 1ª INVASÃO1ª INVASÃO Comandada pelo General JUNOT. A família real portuguesa foge para o Brasil 1ª INVASÃO1ª INVASÃO Comandada pelo General JUNOT. A família real portuguesa foge para o Brasil 2ª INVASÃO2ª INVASÃO Comandada pelo marechal SOULT 2ª INVASÃO2ª INVASÃO Comandada pelo marechal SOULT 3ª INVASÃO3ª INVASÃO Comandada pelo General MASSENA 3ª INVASÃO3ª INVASÃO Comandada pelo General MASSENA
  5. 5. 1ª Invasão e fuga da família real para o Brasil1ª Invasão e fuga da família real para o Brasil Perante a ameaça da invasão dos franceses, a família real decidiu embarcar para o Brasil, em 1807
  6. 6. 1ª Invasão1ª Invasão Junot passou a governar Portugal como se de uma colónia francesa se tratasse. Os actos de violência,a prisão de pessoas,incêndio,des- truição de colheitas e roubos provocaram a revolta das populações Foi pedido auxílio militar a Inglaterra,tendo os exércitos luso-ingleses vencido os franceses nas batalhas de Roliça e Vimeiro ROLIÇA VIMEIRO Junot rendeu-se assinando a Convenção de Sintra e retirou-se do país
  7. 7. 2ª Invasão2ª Invasão Em 1809, Portugal foi invadido pela segunda vez sob o comando de SOULT. As tropas luso-inglesas, mais uma vez, derrotaram as fran- cesas. O pior acidente foi o da ponte das barcas, no Porto, em que morreram milhares de pessoas.
  8. 8. 3ª Invasão3ª Invasão Em 1809, Portugal foi invadido pela terceira vez sob o comando de MASSENA. Foram derrotados na batalha do Buçaco e nas Linhas de Torres Vedras
  9. 9. 1820 E O LIBERALISMO1820 E O LIBERALISMO A Revolução Liberal de 1820A Revolução Liberal de 1820 Razões do descontentamento - Reino destruído e actividades económicas paralisadas - Miséria - Família real ausente no Brasil - Os Ingleses não saiam de Portugal SURGIRAM REVOLUCIONÁRIOS QUE PRE-SURGIRAM REVOLUCIONÁRIOS QUE PRE- TENDIAM EXPULSAR OS INGLESES E FAZERTENDIAM EXPULSAR OS INGLESES E FAZER REGRESSAR O REI, SUBSTITUINDO A MO-REGRESSAR O REI, SUBSTITUINDO A MO- NARQUIA ABSOLUTA PELA CONSTITUCIO-NARQUIA ABSOLUTA PELA CONSTITUCIO- NALNAL D. JOÃO VI
  10. 10. 1820 E O LIBERALISMO1820 E O LIBERALISMO A Revolução Liberal de 1820A Revolução Liberal de 1820 O Movimento Revolucionário 1817 – Gomes Freire de Andrade organizou uma conspiração para expulsar os Ingleses 1818 – Manuel Fernandes Tomás funda o Siné- drio 1820 – Inicia-se uma revolução no Porto que teve êxito Os revolucionários defen-Os revolucionários defen- diam ideias liberais:diam ideias liberais: - LIBERDADELIBERDADE - IGUALDADEIGUALDADE - SEPARAÇÃO DE PODE-SEPARAÇÃO DE PODE- RESRES
  11. 11. 1820 E O LIBERALISMO1820 E O LIBERALISMO As Cortes Constituintes e a Constituição de 1820As Cortes Constituintes e a Constituição de 1820 Os revolucionários dotaram o país de uma Constituição: a CONSTITUIÇÃO de 1822, pela qual se adotavam as ideias liberais: - Separação dos poderes: legislativo, executivo e judicial
  12. 12. 1820 E O LIBERALISMO1820 E O LIBERALISMO A Monarquia Constitucional/ LiberalA Monarquia Constitucional/ Liberal Após a revolução liberal de 1820, Portugal deixou de ter uma Monarquia Absoluta para dar lugar a uma Monarquia Liberal Antes… MONARQUIA ABSOLUTA O Rei tinha todos os poderes LEGISLATIVO Fazia as leis EXECUTIVO Aplicava as leis JUDICIAL Julgava quem não cumpria as leis
  13. 13. 1820 E O LIBERALISMO1820 E O LIBERALISMO A Monarquia Constitucional/ LiberalA Monarquia Constitucional/ Liberal Em 1821, D. João VI regressou do Brasil e jurou cumprir a Constituição Portuguesa Depois… MONARQUIA LIBERAL Os poderes estavam separados LEGISLATIVO Cortes EXECUTIVO Rei JUDICIAL Tribunais
  14. 14. 1820 E O LIBERALISMO1820 E O LIBERALISMO A independência do BrasilA independência do Brasil D. PEDRO IV Quando regressou, D. João VI deixou o seu fi- lho, D. PEDRO, a governar o Brasil Porém, a presença da corte portuguesa, no Brasil durante 14 anos, levou a um desenvol- vimento enorme desta colónia Foi, assim, crescendo entre os colonos brasi- leiros o desejo de independência Entretanto,em Portugal, as Cortes decretaram que o Brasil voltasse à condição de colónia e que Portugal voltasse a controlar o comércio externo brasileiro Exigiram, também, o regresso de D. Pedro.
  15. 15. 1820 E O LIBERALISMO1820 E O LIBERALISMO A independência do BrasilA independência do Brasil D. Pedro não cumpriu as ordens das Cortes e declarou a independência do Brasil, em 1822, tornando-se no seu primeiro Imperador
  16. 16. 1820 E O LIBERALISMO1820 E O LIBERALISMO Lutas entre Liberais e AbsolutistasLutas entre Liberais e Absolutistas Apesar de D. João VI ter jurado respeitar a constituição liberal de 1822, havia membros da família real que não estavam de acordo com ela Surgiram revoltas e conspirações lideradas por D. MI- GUEL, apoiado pela mãe, D. Carlota Joaquina D. MIGUEL Formaram-se, em Portugal, dois grupos rivais: ABSOLUTISTAS Nobres e clérigos que apoia- vam D. Miguel e o regresso da monarquia absoluta LIBERAIS Burgueses que defendiam a monarquia liberal D. Pedro abdicou do trono de Portugal a favor da sua filha, D. Maria. A princesa casaria com o tio, D. Miguel, ficando este a governar o país co- mo regente e respeitando a Carta Constitucional Porém, apesar do acordo, D. Miguel começou a governar como rei absolu- to. Muitos liberais fugiram, outros foram perseguidos e mortos
  17. 17. 1820 E O LIBERALISMO1820 E O LIBERALISMO Lutas entre Liberais e AbsolutistasLutas entre Liberais e Absolutistas D. Pedro, ao tomar conhecimento da situação em Portugal, entregou o governo do Brasil ao seu filho e embarcou para a ilha Terceira onde se juntou a outros liberais Aqui prepararam um exército para combater D. Miguel
  18. 18. 1820 E O LIBERALISMO1820 E O LIBERALISMO Lutas entre Liberais e AbsolutistasLutas entre Liberais e Absolutistas O exército liberal desembarcou na praia do Pampelido e ocuparam a ci- dade do Porto. Imediatamente, as tropas miguelistas cercaram o Porto. Começava a GUERRA CIVIL Desembarque do MindeloDesembarque do Mindelo Cerco do PortoCerco do Porto
  19. 19. 1820 E O LIBERALISMO1820 E O LIBERALISMO Lutas entre Liberais e AbsolutistasLutas entre Liberais e Absolutistas As tropas de D. Pedro conseguiram furar o cerco com uma armada que se dirigiu para o Algarve, de onde marcharam para Lisboa. D. Miguel le- vantou o cerco no Porto e foi ao encontro das tropas liberais tendo, no entanto, sido derrotado nas batalhas de Almoster e Asseiceira Derrotado, D. Miguel foi obrigado a assinar um acordo de paz – Convenção de Évora - - Monte (1834) Partiu para o exílio de onde nunca mais re- gressou Casa onde foi assinada a Convenção de Évora - Monte
  20. 20. 1820 E O LIBERALISMO1820 E O LIBERALISMO Lutas entre Liberais e AbsolutistasLutas entre Liberais e Absolutistas D. Pedro assumiu a regência do reino, mas morreu pouco tempo depois. Sucedeu-lhe D. Maria II, que governou Portugal de acordo com os princí- pios da Monarquia Liberal Só neste reinado, a partir de 1851, Portugal encontrou a estabilidade po- lítica

×