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History of english literature sajid Slide 1 History of english literature sajid Slide 2 History of english literature sajid Slide 3 History of english literature sajid Slide 4 History of english literature sajid Slide 5 History of english literature sajid Slide 6 History of english literature sajid Slide 7 History of english literature sajid Slide 8 History of english literature sajid Slide 9 History of english literature sajid Slide 10 History of english literature sajid Slide 11 History of english literature sajid Slide 12 History of english literature sajid Slide 13 History of english literature sajid Slide 14 History of english literature sajid Slide 15 History of english literature sajid Slide 16 History of english literature sajid Slide 17 History of english literature sajid Slide 18 History of english literature sajid Slide 19 History of english literature sajid Slide 20 History of english literature sajid Slide 21 History of english literature sajid Slide 22 History of english literature sajid Slide 23 History of english literature sajid Slide 24 History of english literature sajid Slide 25 History of english literature sajid Slide 26 History of english literature sajid Slide 27 History of english literature sajid Slide 28 History of english literature sajid Slide 29 History of english literature sajid Slide 30 History of english literature sajid Slide 31 History of english literature sajid Slide 32 History of english literature sajid Slide 33 History of english literature sajid Slide 34 History of english literature sajid Slide 35 History of english literature sajid Slide 36 History of english literature sajid Slide 37 History of english literature sajid Slide 38 History of english literature sajid Slide 39 History of english literature sajid Slide 40 History of english literature sajid Slide 41 History of english literature sajid Slide 42 History of english literature sajid Slide 43 History of english literature sajid Slide 44 History of english literature sajid Slide 45 History of english literature sajid Slide 46 History of english literature sajid Slide 47 History of english literature sajid Slide 48 History of english literature sajid Slide 49 History of english literature sajid Slide 50 History of english literature sajid Slide 51 History of english literature sajid Slide 52 History of english literature sajid Slide 53 History of english literature sajid Slide 54 History of english literature sajid Slide 55 History of english literature sajid Slide 56 History of english literature sajid Slide 57 History of english literature sajid Slide 58 History of english literature sajid Slide 59 History of english literature sajid Slide 60 History of english literature sajid Slide 61 History of english literature sajid Slide 62 History of english literature sajid Slide 63 History of english literature sajid Slide 64 History of english literature sajid Slide 65 History of english literature sajid Slide 66 History of english literature sajid Slide 67 History of english literature sajid Slide 68 History of english literature sajid Slide 69 History of english literature sajid Slide 70 History of english literature sajid Slide 71 History of english literature sajid Slide 72 History of english literature sajid Slide 73 History of english literature sajid Slide 74 History of english literature sajid Slide 75 History of english literature sajid Slide 76 History of english literature sajid Slide 77 History of english literature sajid Slide 78 History of english literature sajid Slide 79 History of english literature sajid Slide 80 History of english literature sajid Slide 81 History of english literature sajid Slide 82 History of english literature sajid Slide 83 History of english literature sajid Slide 84 History of english literature sajid Slide 85 History of english literature sajid Slide 86 History of english literature sajid Slide 87 History of english literature sajid Slide 88 History of english literature sajid Slide 89 History of english literature sajid Slide 90 History of english literature sajid Slide 91
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History of english literature sajid

  1. 1. ENGLISH LITERATUREENGLISH LITERATURE Muhammad Sajid us SalamMuhammad Sajid us Salam LecturerLecturer Department of English Language & Applied LinguisticsDepartment of English Language & Applied Linguistics AIOU, Islamabad.AIOU, Islamabad.
  2. 2. What is literature?What is literature? What is the nature ofWhat is the nature of literature?literature? What is the value of literature?What is the value of literature? Why do we study literature?Why do we study literature? How do we study literature?How do we study literature?
  3. 3. 1. What is Literature?1. What is Literature?  Literature refers to the practice andLiterature refers to the practice and profession of writing. It comes from humanprofession of writing. It comes from human interest in telling a story, in arranging wordsinterest in telling a story, in arranging words in artistic forms, in describing in words somein artistic forms, in describing in words some aspects of human experiences.aspects of human experiences.
  4. 4. 2. Why we read Literature?2. Why we read Literature?  PleasurePleasure  RelaxationRelaxation  KnowledgeKnowledge
  5. 5. Literature 1. Histories 2. Romances – pose and verse (Metrical Romances) 3. Tales 4. Dramas 5. Lyric poetry 6. Ballads
  6. 6. Prose Poetry Drama Sonnet Tudor Literature Courtly Literature - romantic by nature Citizen literature – more realistic by nature
  7. 7. Indo-European languagesIndo-European languages
  8. 8. Overview of English InfluencesOverview of English Influences Pre-History-1066 A.D.Pre-History-1066 A.D. C.R.A.V.N.C.R.A.V.N. Celts (Brythons and Gaels) up to 55Celts (Brythons and Gaels) up to 55 B.C.B.C. Roman Conquest 55 B.C. - 407 A.D.Roman Conquest 55 B.C. - 407 A.D. Anglo-Saxon Period 407 A.D. - 787Anglo-Saxon Period 407 A.D. - 787 A.D.A.D. Viking Invasions 787 A.D. - 1066Viking Invasions 787 A.D. - 1066 A.D.A.D. Noman Conquest begins in 1066Noman Conquest begins in 1066 A.D.A.D.
  9. 9. History of English LiteratureHistory of English Literature Old English Literature Medieval English Literature Renaissance English Literature 17th century English Literature 18th century English Literature Romantic English Literature 19th century English Literature 20th century English Literature
  10. 10. Old English LiteratureOld English Literature  449A.D.---1066449A.D.---1066  Formation of EnglandFormation of England  Formation of Old EnglishFormation of Old English  Poetic traditionPoetic tradition  The Song of BeowulfThe Song of Beowulf---the national epic---the national epic  Anglo-Saxon period: from tribal society toAnglo-Saxon period: from tribal society to feudalismfeudalism
  11. 11. Medieval English LiteratureMedieval English Literature  About five centuriesAbout five centuries  Feudal system, Roman Catholic churchFeudal system, Roman Catholic church  Literary forms: romance, popular balladLiterary forms: romance, popular ballad  Representatives:Geoffrey Chaucer,Representatives:Geoffrey Chaucer, William LanglandWilliam Langland
  12. 12. Renaissance English LiteratureRenaissance English Literature  Late 15Late 15thth century---early 17century---early 17thth centurycentury  The rise of bourgeois classThe rise of bourgeois class  Renaissance: the rebirth of lettersRenaissance: the rebirth of letters the key: humanismthe key: humanism  Thomas More: the greatest humanistThomas More: the greatest humanist  Representatives:Representatives: --William Shakespeare: drama--William Shakespeare: drama --Edmund Spencer: poetry--Edmund Spencer: poetry --Francis Bacon: essay--Francis Bacon: essay
  13. 13. 1717thth century English Literaturecentury English Literature  English Revolution, Restoration, the “GloriousEnglish Revolution, Restoration, the “Glorious Revolution”--constitutional monarchyRevolution”--constitutional monarchy  Literature of the Revolution:Literature of the Revolution: --Poetry: John Milton--Poetry: John Milton Metaphysical poetryMetaphysical poetry --Prose: John Bunyan--Prose: John Bunyan  Literature of the Restoration:Literature of the Restoration: --comedies (comedy of manners)--comedies (comedy of manners) --John Dryden--John Dryden
  14. 14. 1818thth century English Literaturecentury English Literature  The industrial revolution, the rise of bourgeois middleThe industrial revolution, the rise of bourgeois middle classclass  The Enlightenment—the struggle of bourgeoisieThe Enlightenment—the struggle of bourgeoisie against feudalismagainst feudalism  Neoclassicism: Alexander Pope, Joseph Addison,Neoclassicism: Alexander Pope, Joseph Addison, Richard SteeleRichard Steele  Realistic novel: Daniel Defoe, Jonathan Swift, HenryRealistic novel: Daniel Defoe, Jonathan Swift, Henry FieldingFielding  Sentimentalism: Laurence Stern, Thomas GraySentimentalism: Laurence Stern, Thomas Gray  Pre-Romanticism: William Blake, Robert BurnsPre-Romanticism: William Blake, Robert Burns
  15. 15. Romantic English LiteratureRomantic English Literature  The French Revolution & the industrialThe French Revolution & the industrial revolutionrevolution  PoetryPoetry William Wordsworth, S. T. ColeridgeWilliam Wordsworth, S. T. Coleridge Robert Southey; Byron, Shelley, KeatsRobert Southey; Byron, Shelley, Keats  Prose: Charles LambProse: Charles Lamb  Novel: Walter Scott, Jane AustenNovel: Walter Scott, Jane Austen
  16. 16. 1919thth century English Literaturecentury English Literature  The Victorian periodThe Victorian period  The struggle between the working classThe struggle between the working class and the capitalistsand the capitalists  Critical realism: novel (Critical realism: novel (the 40s and early 50sthe 40s and early 50s)) Charles Dickens, W. M. Thackeray, BronteCharles Dickens, W. M. Thackeray, Bronte sisters, George Eliot etc.sisters, George Eliot etc.  Prose & poetry: the mid and late 19Prose & poetry: the mid and late 19thth centurycentury  Chartist literatureChartist literature
  17. 17.  Literary trends at the end of the 19Literary trends at the end of the 19thth centurycentury --Naturalism: George Gissing--Naturalism: George Gissing --Neo-romanticism: Robert Louis--Neo-romanticism: Robert Louis StevensonStevenson --Aestheticism: Oscar Wilde, Walter Pater--Aestheticism: Oscar Wilde, Walter Pater
  18. 18. 2020thth century English Literaturecentury English Literature  The two world warsThe two world wars  New ideas and new theoriesNew ideas and new theories  Realistic writing: early 20Realistic writing: early 20thth centurycentury --poetry: Thomas Hardy, war poets--poetry: Thomas Hardy, war poets --novel: John Galsworthy, H. G. Wells,--novel: John Galsworthy, H. G. Wells, Arnold BennettArnold Bennett --drama: George Bernard Shaw--drama: George Bernard Shaw  Modernism: the 20s and 30sModernism: the 20s and 30s --a movement of experiments in--a movement of experiments in techniquestechniques
  19. 19. -- poetry: W.B. Yeats and T.S. Eliot.-- poetry: W.B. Yeats and T.S. Eliot. -- novel: D.H. Lawrence, E.M. Foster, James Joyce-- novel: D.H. Lawrence, E.M. Foster, James Joyce and Virginia Woolfand Virginia Woolf --drama: J.M. Synge--drama: J.M. Synge  English literature since 1945English literature since 1945 --postmodernism--postmodernism --drama: Samuel Becket, John Osborne,Harold--drama: Samuel Becket, John Osborne,Harold PinterPinter --novel: William Golding, John Fowles, Kingsley Amis--novel: William Golding, John Fowles, Kingsley Amis (the Angry Yong man), Martin Amis etc.(the Angry Yong man), Martin Amis etc. --poetry: Dylan Thomas, Philip Larkin, Ted Hughes--poetry: Dylan Thomas, Philip Larkin, Ted Hughes and Seamus Heaneyand Seamus Heaney
  20. 20. BEOWULF: c. 1000BEOWULF: c. 1000  Written in alliterative verse and uses kennings, as doesWritten in alliterative verse and uses kennings, as does Caedmon’s Hymn.  An epic poem in the elegiac mode.  Caedmon’s Hymn.  An epic poem in the elegiac mode.    Deals with the Danish King, Hrothgar, whose court is attackedDeals with the Danish King, Hrothgar, whose court is attacked by the monster Grendel and his mother, who kill Many of theby the monster Grendel and his mother, who kill Many of the kings men. kings men.   Beowulf , a young Great, comes boasting to Hrothgar’s court,Beowulf , a young Great, comes boasting to Hrothgar’s court, and avenges these deaths by fighting Grendel and his mother,and avenges these deaths by fighting Grendel and his mother, receiving rich rewards from Hrothgar—his ring-bearer—forreceiving rich rewards from Hrothgar—his ring-bearer—for these deeds.   these deeds.    He then fights a dragon to save his own people, but dies inHe then fights a dragon to save his own people, but dies in slaying it.  The poem ends in a lament for Beowulf.slaying it.  The poem ends in a lament for Beowulf. Contributions to Literature 1. Epic and War poetry
  21. 21. Norman conquest led by William of Normandy “The Conqueror”Norman conquest led by William of Normandy “The Conqueror” EFFECTS/INFLUENCESEFFECTS/INFLUENCES  Love of law and orderLove of law and order  William drew up the code of laws and prepared theWilliam drew up the code of laws and prepared the Domesday BookDomesday Book w/c includes a gigantic survey of all the real estate & other taxablew/c includes a gigantic survey of all the real estate & other taxable property of Englandproperty of England  great increase in the growth and importance of towns in Englandgreat increase in the growth and importance of towns in England  French or Anglo- Norman which is based on Latin.French or Anglo- Norman which is based on Latin.  Many words were introduced.Many words were introduced.  English grammar was simplified.English grammar was simplified.  Standard English languageStandard English language
  22. 22. The Canterbury TalesThe Canterbury Tales nextnext  ChaucerChaucer’’s masterpiece and one of thes masterpiece and one of the monumental works in English literaturemonumental works in English literature  Outline of the storyOutline of the story  The tales: The Wife of BathThe tales: The Wife of Bath
  23. 23. GEOFFREY CHAUCER (1343 – 1400)GEOFFREY CHAUCER (1343 – 1400) The Canterbury TalesThe Canterbury Tales (1380s)   (1380s)    24 tales and a framing prologue that sets up the fiction of pilgrims24 tales and a framing prologue that sets up the fiction of pilgrims meeting at a tavern as they begin their pilgrimage to the shrine ofmeeting at a tavern as they begin their pilgrimage to the shrine of St. Thomas a Becket in Canterbury. St. Thomas a Becket in Canterbury.  Each agrees to tell a tale.  The tales are inked by prologues.  TheEach agrees to tell a tale.  The tales are inked by prologues.  The narrator begins the prologue by describing the fine April day andnarrator begins the prologue by describing the fine April day and each of the pilgrims in his entourage. each of the pilgrims in his entourage.  Some characters:  Knight, Miller, Wife of Bath, Prioress, Nun’s Priest,Some characters:  Knight, Miller, Wife of Bath, Prioress, Nun’s Priest, Squire, Reeve, Pardoner, Summoner, Cook, Man of Law, OxfordSquire, Reeve, Pardoner, Summoner, Cook, Man of Law, Oxford Scholar, etc. Scholar, etc. 
  24. 24. RENAISSANCE LITERATURE (1485 – 1660)RENAISSANCE LITERATURE (1485 – 1660)  ““Renaissance” means “Rebirth”--Rebirth of interest in theRenaissance” means “Rebirth”--Rebirth of interest in the Greek and Latin classics.Greek and Latin classics.  Emphasis on humanistic education for statesmanship Emphasis on humanistic education for statesmanship   Focus on the individual and a concern with the fullestFocus on the individual and a concern with the fullest possible cultivation of human potential through properpossible cultivation of human potential through proper educationeducation  Focus on individual consciousness and the interior mind Focus on individual consciousness and the interior mind  concern with the refinement of the language and theconcern with the refinement of the language and the development of a national, vernacular literature development of a national, vernacular literature  Reformation- movement that aimed for reformation in the Roman Catholic church which gave rise to the Protestant domination empowered by Martin Luther.
  25. 25. Christopher MarloweChristopher Marlowe Christopher Marlowe (1564Christopher Marlowe (1564––1593) was an1593) was an English dramatist, poet and translator of theEnglish dramatist, poet and translator of the Elizabethan era. He is known for hisElizabethan era. He is known for his magnificentmagnificent blank verseblank verse, his overreaching, his overreaching protagonists, and his own mysterious andprotagonists, and his own mysterious and untimely death.untimely death.
  26. 26. Christopher MarloweChristopher Marlowe  ““University WitsUniversity Wits””  The Tragical History of Doctor FaustusThe Tragical History of Doctor Faustus
  27. 27. The Tragical History of Doctor FaustusThe Tragical History of Doctor Faustus nextnext  1. It is based on a German legend.1. It is based on a German legend.  The hero of the play is Doctor Faustus, a young andThe hero of the play is Doctor Faustus, a young and brilliant scholar. The chief feature of his character is abrilliant scholar. The chief feature of his character is a thirst for knowledge.thirst for knowledge.  Faustus takes one by one the chief subjects ofFaustus takes one by one the chief subjects of academic curriculum, philosophy, medicine and law.academic curriculum, philosophy, medicine and law. He is bored with the orthodox curriculum, and turns toHe is bored with the orthodox curriculum, and turns to the study of magic in order to understand andthe study of magic in order to understand and possess the kingdoms of the earth.possess the kingdoms of the earth.  Then he meet the Devil and the doctor must sell hisThen he meet the Devil and the doctor must sell his soul to the Devil so he may live 24 years, with thesoul to the Devil so he may live 24 years, with the Devil at his command. Then Faustus signs the bondDevil at his command. Then Faustus signs the bond with his own blood.with his own blood.
  28. 28. The Tragical History of Doctor FaustusThe Tragical History of Doctor Faustus backback  After the contract with the Devil, Faustus makes aAfter the contract with the Devil, Faustus makes a tour in the universe on a dragontour in the universe on a dragon’’s back. Then hes back. Then he gives a display of his magic art and plays tricks upongives a display of his magic art and plays tricks upon the Pope at a banquet.the Pope at a banquet.  Meanwhile Faustus is drawing near his doom. It isMeanwhile Faustus is drawing near his doom. It is the scholars who are his companions on his last nightthe scholars who are his companions on his last night on earth. Even in his painful expectation of theon earth. Even in his painful expectation of the coming of the devils, he thinks of his friends safety:coming of the devils, he thinks of his friends safety: ““ Gentlemen, away, lest you perish with me.Gentlemen, away, lest you perish with me.”” So oneSo one hour before midnight, Faustus is left to face his awfulhour before midnight, Faustus is left to face his awful destiny alone until he is carried away by the Devil.destiny alone until he is carried away by the Devil.
  29. 29. William ShakespeareWilliam Shakespeare  William Shakespeare (1564William Shakespeare (1564––1616) was1616) was anan EnglishEnglish poetpoet andand playwrightplaywright, widely, widely regarded as the greatest writer in theregarded as the greatest writer in the English languageEnglish language and the world'sand the world's preeminent dramatist. He is often calledpreeminent dramatist. He is often called England'sEngland's national poetnational poet and the "and the "BardBard of Avonof Avon" (or simply "The Bard")." (or simply "The Bard").
  30. 30. Shakespeare in LoveShakespeare in Love
  31. 31. William ShakespeareWilliam Shakespeare Shakespeare’s BirthplaceShakespeare’s Birthplace
  32. 32. William ShakespeareWilliam Shakespeare  His surviving works consist of 38 plays,His surviving works consist of 38 plays, 154 sonnets, two long narrative poems,154 sonnets, two long narrative poems, and several other poems. His plays haveand several other poems. His plays have been translated into every major livingbeen translated into every major living language, and are performed more oftenlanguage, and are performed more often than those of any other playwright.than those of any other playwright.  Historical playsHistorical plays  Great comediesGreat comedies  Great tragediesGreat tragedies
  33. 33. William ShakespeareWilliam Shakespeare backback Historical plays:Historical plays:  Henry ⅣHenry Ⅳ  Richard IIIRichard III  Henry ⅤHenry Ⅴ  Henry VIIIHenry VIII
  34. 34. William ShakespeareWilliam Shakespeare backback Great comedies:Great comedies:  The Merchant of VeniceThe Merchant of Venice  As You Like ItAs You Like It  Twelfth NightTwelfth Night  A Midsummer NightA Midsummer Night’’s Dreams Dream
  35. 35. William ShakespeareWilliam Shakespeare backback Great tragedies:Great tragedies:  HamletHamlet  OthelloOthello  King LearKing Lear  MacbethMacbeth
  36. 36. Francis BaconFrancis Bacon  He is the founder of English materialistHe is the founder of English materialist philosophy, founder of modern science inphilosophy, founder of modern science in England and the first English essayist.England and the first English essayist. His works:His works:  Essays (Essays (Of StudyOf Study, Of Truth), Of Truth)  New InstrumentNew Instrument  Advancement of LearningAdvancement of Learning
  37. 37. Of StudyOf Study  Studies serve for delight, for ornament, andStudies serve for delight, for ornament, and for ability.for ability.  Reading makes a full man; conference aReading makes a full man; conference a ready man; and writing an exact man.ready man; and writing an exact man.  Histories make men wise; poets witty; theHistories make men wise; poets witty; the mathematics subtle; natural philosophy deep;mathematics subtle; natural philosophy deep; moral grave; logic and rhetoric able tomoral grave; logic and rhetoric able to contend.contend.
  38. 38. John MiltonJohn Milton  About the authorAbout the author  AboutAbout Paradise LostParadise Lost  Major worksMajor works
  39. 39. John MiltonJohn Milton  With the Restoration of Charles II, Milton wasWith the Restoration of Charles II, Milton was arrested and imprisoned. His book werearrested and imprisoned. His book were burnt. But he was saved, he probably owedburnt. But he was saved, he probably owed his escape from death to his blindness. A firehis escape from death to his blindness. A fire in London destroyed his house. He movedin London destroyed his house. He moved from place to place until he settled down onfrom place to place until he settled down on the outskirts of London.the outskirts of London.  His blindness forced him to depend on hisHis blindness forced him to depend on his daughters for an assistance with his readingdaughters for an assistance with his reading and writing. Everyday he dictated his epicand writing. Everyday he dictated his epic Paradise LostParadise Lost 10 or 20 lines at a time.10 or 20 lines at a time.
  40. 40. Paradise LostParadise Lost  It is a long epic of 12 books. The story was takenIt is a long epic of 12 books. The story was taken from the Bible.from the Bible.  The Old TestamentThe Old Testament  The New TestamentThe New Testament  The story was taken from the Old Testament, theThe story was taken from the Old Testament, the Creation.Creation.
  41. 41. Paradise LostParadise Lost  Content:Content:  1. the rebellion of Satan and his fellow-angles in1. the rebellion of Satan and his fellow-angles in Heaven.Heaven.  2. the Creation of the earth and of Adam and Eve2. the Creation of the earth and of Adam and Eve by God.by God.  3. Satan3. Satan’’s temptation of Eve and the departure ofs temptation of Eve and the departure of Adam and Eve from the Garden of Eden.Adam and Eve from the Garden of Eden.
  42. 42. Paradise LostParadise Lost  Satan and his followers are banished fromSatan and his followers are banished from Heaven and driven into the hell.Heaven and driven into the hell.  Satan fearlessly withstands all pains andSatan fearlessly withstands all pains and passionately strives for victory. He choose forpassionately strives for victory. He choose for his battlefield the most perfect spot everhis battlefield the most perfect spot ever created by God--the Garden of Eden, wherecreated by God--the Garden of Eden, where live the first man and woman--Adam and Eve.live the first man and woman--Adam and Eve. They were not permit to eat the fruit thatThey were not permit to eat the fruit that grows on the Tree of Knowledge.grows on the Tree of Knowledge.
  43. 43. Paradise LostParadise Lost  Satan persuade her to break GodSatan persuade her to break God’’s command,s command, Eve eats an apple from the forbidden tree and pickEve eats an apple from the forbidden tree and pick for Adam. Adam and Eve were expelled from thefor Adam. Adam and Eve were expelled from the Garden of Eden and doomed to an earthly life fullGarden of Eden and doomed to an earthly life full of hardships and sufferings.of hardships and sufferings.
  44. 44. John MiltonJohn Milton backback His masterpiece:His masterpiece:  Paradise LostParadise Lost  Paradise RegainedParadise Regained  Samson AgonistSamson Agonist
  45. 45. William WordsworthWilliam Wordsworth His works:His works:  Lyrical BalladsLyrical Ballads  To the CuckooTo the Cuckoo  Lines Written in Early SpringLines Written in Early Spring  I Wandered Lonely as a CloudI Wandered Lonely as a Cloud  Lucy PoemsLucy Poems
  46. 46. Samuel Taylor ColeridgeSamuel Taylor Coleridge  Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1772Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1772––1834) was an1834) was an English poet, critic and philosopher who was,English poet, critic and philosopher who was, along with his friend William Wordsworth, onealong with his friend William Wordsworth, one of the founders of theof the founders of the Romantic MovementRomantic Movement inin England and one of theEngland and one of the Lake PoetsLake Poets..  He is probably best known for his poemsHe is probably best known for his poems The Rime of the Ancient MarinerThe Rime of the Ancient Mariner, as well as, as well as his major prose workhis major prose work Biographia LiterariaBiographia Literaria..
  47. 47. Samuel Taylor ColeridgeSamuel Taylor Coleridge
  48. 48. George Gordon ByronGeorge Gordon Byron  George Gordon Byron (1788George Gordon Byron (1788––1824) was a British1824) was a British poet and a leading figure inpoet and a leading figure in RomanticismRomanticism..  He is regarded as one of the greatest EuropeanHe is regarded as one of the greatest European poets and remains widely read and influential,poets and remains widely read and influential, both in the English-speaking world and beyond.both in the English-speaking world and beyond.  Byron's fame rests not only on his writings butByron's fame rests not only on his writings but also on his life, which featured extravagant living,also on his life, which featured extravagant living, numerous love affairs, debts, separation, andnumerous love affairs, debts, separation, and marital exploits. He was famously described bymarital exploits. He was famously described by Lady Caroline LambLady Caroline Lamb as "mad, bad, andas "mad, bad, and dangerous to know."dangerous to know."
  49. 49. George Gordon ByronGeorge Gordon Byron His major works:His major works:  Child HaroldChild Harold’’s Pilgrimages Pilgrimage  Don JuanDon Juan
  50. 50. Percy Bysshe ShelleyPercy Bysshe Shelley  Percy Bysshe Shelley (1792Percy Bysshe Shelley (1792––1822) was1822) was one of the majorone of the major EnglishEnglish Romantic poetsRomantic poets and is widelyand is widely considered to be among the finestconsidered to be among the finest lyric poetslyric poets in the English language.in the English language.  He was famous for his association withHe was famous for his association with John KeatsJohn Keats and Lord Byron. Theand Lord Byron. The novelist Mary Shelley was his secondnovelist Mary Shelley was his second wife.wife.
  51. 51. Percy Bysshe ShelleyPercy Bysshe Shelley His major works:His major works:  Prometheus UnboundPrometheus Unbound  A Defence of PoetryA Defence of Poetry  Ode to the West WindOde to the West Wind  The Revolt of IslamThe Revolt of Islam
  52. 52. Percy Bysshe ShelleyPercy Bysshe Shelley  The trumpet of a prophecy ! O, Wind,The trumpet of a prophecy ! O, Wind, If winter comes, can Spring be far behind?If winter comes, can Spring be far behind?
  53. 53. John KeatsJohn Keats  John Keats (1795John Keats (1795––1821) was one of the1821) was one of the principal poets of the English Romanticprincipal poets of the English Romantic movement. During his short life, hismovement. During his short life, his work received constant critical attackswork received constant critical attacks from periodicals of the day, but hisfrom periodicals of the day, but his posthumous influence on poets hasposthumous influence on poets has been immense.been immense.  Elaborate word choice and sensualElaborate word choice and sensual imagery characterize Keats's poetry.imagery characterize Keats's poetry.
  54. 54. John KeatsJohn Keats Major works:Major works:  IsabellaIsabella  The Eve of St. AgnesThe Eve of St. Agnes,,  LamiaLamia  Ode to a NightingaleOde to a Nightingale
  55. 55. 19th Century Novels19th Century Novels  Mary ShelleyMary Shelley  Walter ScottWalter Scott  Jane AustenJane Austen  Bronte SistersBronte Sisters  Charles DickensCharles Dickens  William Makepeace ThackerayWilliam Makepeace Thackeray  Thomas HardyThomas Hardy
  56. 56. Jane AustenJane Austen Her major works:Her major works:  Pride and PrejudicePride and Prejudice  Sense and SensibilitySense and Sensibility  EmmaEmma  Northanger AbbeyNorthanger Abbey  Mansfield ParkMansfield Park  PersuasionPersuasion
  57. 57. Jane AustenJane Austen  Jane Austen(1775-1817), is a famous EnglishJane Austen(1775-1817), is a famous English novelist. With detail, Austen portrayed thenovelist. With detail, Austen portrayed the quiet, day-to-day life of members of the upperquiet, day-to-day life of members of the upper middle class.middle class.  Her works combine romantic comedy withHer works combine romantic comedy with social satire and psychological insight.social satire and psychological insight.
  58. 58. Charles DickensCharles Dickens  Charles John Huffam Dickens(1812Charles John Huffam Dickens(1812––1870),1870), pen-name "Boz", was one of the most popularpen-name "Boz", was one of the most popular English novelists of the Victorian era.English novelists of the Victorian era.  Many of Dickens's novels first appeared inMany of Dickens's novels first appeared in periodicals and magazines in serialized form.periodicals and magazines in serialized form.  Unlike many other authors who completedUnlike many other authors who completed entire novels before serial productionentire novels before serial production commenced, Dickens often composed hiscommenced, Dickens often composed his works in parts, in the order in which they wereworks in parts, in the order in which they were meant to appear. Such a practice lent hismeant to appear. Such a practice lent his stories a particular rhythm.stories a particular rhythm.
  59. 59. Charles DickensCharles Dickens His Major works:His Major works:  Oliver TwistOliver Twist  A Tale of Two CitiesA Tale of Two Cities  Great ExpectationsGreat Expectations  David CopperfieldDavid Copperfield Charles DickensCharles Dickens
  60. 60. Thomas HardyThomas Hardy  Thomas Hardy(1840Thomas Hardy(1840–– 1928) was an English1928) was an English novelist, short storynovelist, short story writer, and poet of thewriter, and poet of the naturalist movement,naturalist movement, though he saw himselfthough he saw himself as a poet and wroteas a poet and wrote novels mainly fornovels mainly for financial gain only.financial gain only.
  61. 61. Thomas HardyThomas Hardy His Major works:His Major works:  Tess of the DTess of the D’’urbervillesurbervilles  Under the Greenwood TreeUnder the Greenwood Tree  Far from the Madding CrowdFar from the Madding Crowd  Major of CasterbridgeMajor of Casterbridge  Jude the ObscureJude the Obscure
  62. 62. The 20The 20thth Century LiteratureCentury Literature  ModernismModernism  Joseph ConradJoseph Conrad  Virginia WoolfVirginia Woolf  D. H. LawrenceD. H. Lawrence  E. M. ForsterE. M. Forster  T. S. EliotT. S. Eliot  William Butler YeatsWilliam Butler Yeats  Oscar WildeOscar Wilde
  63. 63. Virginia WoolfVirginia Woolf  Virginia Woolf (1882Virginia Woolf (1882––1941) was an English1941) was an English novelist and essayist, regarded as one ofnovelist and essayist, regarded as one of the foremost modernist literary figures of thethe foremost modernist literary figures of the twentieth century.twentieth century.  During the interwar period, Woolf was aDuring the interwar period, Woolf was a significant figure in London literary societysignificant figure in London literary society and a member of the Bloomsbury Group.and a member of the Bloomsbury Group.
  64. 64. Virginia WoolfVirginia Woolf  The Bloomsbury GroupThe Bloomsbury Group was an Englishwas an English collectivity of friends and relatives who livedcollectivity of friends and relatives who lived in or near London during the first half of thein or near London during the first half of the twentieth century.twentieth century.  Their work deeply influenced literature,Their work deeply influenced literature, aesthetics, criticism, and economics as wellaesthetics, criticism, and economics as well as modern attitudes towards feminism,as modern attitudes towards feminism, pacifism, and sexuality. Its best knownpacifism, and sexuality. Its best known members were Virginia Woolf, John Maynardmembers were Virginia Woolf, John Maynard Keynes, E. M. Forster, and Lytton Strachey.Keynes, E. M. Forster, and Lytton Strachey.
  65. 65. Virginia WoolfVirginia Woolf  She sometimes used theShe sometimes used the ““stream ofstream of consciousnessconsciousness”” technique.technique. ▶▶Stream of Consciousness isStream of Consciousness is a psychologicala psychological termterm indicating the flux of conscious andindicating the flux of conscious and subconscious thoughts and impressionssubconscious thoughts and impressions moving in the mind at any given timemoving in the mind at any given time independently of the personindependently of the person’’s will.s will. ▶▶In the 20th century, under the influence ofIn the 20th century, under the influence of FleudFleud’’s theory of psychological analysis , as theory of psychological analysis , a number of writers adopted the Stream ofnumber of writers adopted the Stream of Consciousness as a method of novel writing.Consciousness as a method of novel writing.
  66. 66. Virginia WoolfVirginia Woolf
  67. 67. Virginia WoolfVirginia Woolf  Her most famous works include theHer most famous works include the novelsnovels Mrs DallowayMrs Dalloway (1925),(1925), To theTo the LighthouseLighthouse (1927) and(1927) and OrlandoOrlando (1928),(1928), and the book-length essayand the book-length essay A Room ofA Room of One's OwnOne's Own (1929), with its famous(1929), with its famous dictum, "a woman must have moneydictum, "a woman must have money and a room of her own if she is to writeand a room of her own if she is to write fiction."fiction."
  68. 68. OthersOthers T. S. EliotT. S. Eliot  William Butler YeatsWilliam Butler Yeats  Oscar WildeOscar Wilde
  69. 69. Another view ofAnother view of The 20The 20thth Century LiteratureCentury Literature  PostmodernismPostmodernism  George OrwellGeorge Orwell  John FowlesJohn Fowles  Graham GreeneGraham Greene
  70. 70. Let us RecapLet us Recap
  71. 71. Pre-Historical/Pre-RomanPre-Historical/Pre-Roman
  72. 72. Anglo-Saxons-JutesAnglo-Saxons-Jutes
  73. 73. Anglo-Saxon LiteratureAnglo-Saxon Literature Germanic ethos that celebrated the warrior and his exploits.Germanic ethos that celebrated the warrior and his exploits. Most storytelling was oral.Most storytelling was oral. Old English PoetryOld English Poetry became distinctive...became distinctive... 1.1. AlliterationAlliteration- repetition of consonant sounds- repetition of consonant sounds 2.2. KenningKenning- a metaphor expressed as a compound noun -- a metaphor expressed as a compound noun - “whale-path” for the seaCaesura- a break or pause in poetry“whale-path” for the seaCaesura- a break or pause in poetry 3.3. CaesuraCaesura- a break or pause in poetry- a break or pause in poetry RUNES: Anglo-Saxon alphabet/OLD ENGLISH. Runes were probablyRUNES: Anglo-Saxon alphabet/OLD ENGLISH. Runes were probably brought to Britain in the 5brought to Britain in the 5thth century by the Angles, Saxons, Jutes andcentury by the Angles, Saxons, Jutes and Frisians, and were used until about the 11Frisians, and were used until about the 11thth century. Runiccentury. Runic inscription are mostly found on jewelry, weapons, stones and otherinscription are mostly found on jewelry, weapons, stones and other objects. Very few examples of Runic writing on manuscripts haveobjects. Very few examples of Runic writing on manuscripts have survived.survived.
  74. 74. Anglo-Saxon Poetry and RiddlesAnglo-Saxon Poetry and Riddles The Book of ExeterThe Book of Exeter Contains more than 30 poems and 90Contains more than 30 poems and 90 riddles.riddles. Written down by monks in about 975, ourWritten down by monks in about 975, our primary source of Anglo-Saxon poetryprimary source of Anglo-Saxon poetry Dominant mood in poetry is elegiac, orDominant mood in poetry is elegiac, or mournfulmournful Dominant tone of riddles is light andDominant tone of riddles is light and somewhat bawdy (for entertainmentsomewhat bawdy (for entertainment purposes- think SNL).purposes- think SNL).
  75. 75. BeowulfBeowulf...... The major text we will read from this period is the EPICThe major text we will read from this period is the EPIC BeowulfBeowulf. It. It is the story of a Scandinavian (GEAT) warrior or knight probably inis the story of a Scandinavian (GEAT) warrior or knight probably in the sixth century, who comes to help a neighboring tribe, the Danes,the sixth century, who comes to help a neighboring tribe, the Danes, who are being attacked by a monster.who are being attacked by a monster. We study English history to understand the CONTEXT ofWe study English history to understand the CONTEXT of BeowulfBeowulf,, and we studyand we study BeowulfBeowulf to understand the world which was OLDto understand the world which was OLD ENGLISH.ENGLISH. Consider the fighting, hunting, farming and loving Anglo-SaxonConsider the fighting, hunting, farming and loving Anglo-Saxon heritage. The Non-Christians only hope was for fame andheritage. The Non-Christians only hope was for fame and commemoration in poetry.commemoration in poetry. BeowulfBeowulf is considered the shining star of Old English literature.is considered the shining star of Old English literature. The Book of ExeterThe Book of Exeter is the largest surviving collection of poetry.is the largest surviving collection of poetry.
  76. 76. A Brief Glimpse of the History ofA Brief Glimpse of the History of English from “Our Father”English from “Our Father” OLD ENGLISH 400- 1066 Beowulf Fæder ure þu þe eart on heofonum  si þin nama gehalgod tobecume þin rice gewurþe þin willa on eorðan swa swa on heofonum  urne gedæghwamlican hlaf syle us to dæg  and forgyf us ure gyltas swa swa we forgyfað urum gyltendum  and ne gelæd þu us on costnunge ac alys us of yfele soþlice. Middle English 1066- 1485 Chaucer Oure fadir þat art in heuenes halwid be þi name; þi reume or kyngdom come to be. Be þi wille don in herþe as it is doun in heuene. yeue to us today oure eche dayes bred. And foryeue to us oure dettis þat is oure synnys as we foryeuen to oure dettouris þat is to men þat han synned in us. And lede us not into temptacion but delyuere us from euyl. Early Modern English 1485- 1800 Shakes- peare Our father which art in heauen, hallowed be thy name. Thy kingdom come. Thy will be done in earth as it is in heauen. Giue us this day our daily bread. And forgiue us our debts as we forgiue our debters. And lead us not into temptation, but deliuer us from euill. Amen. Modern English 1800- present Austen Extra Credit! Write “The Our Father” in Modern English.
  77. 77. So, what do I need to know about theSo, what do I need to know about the History of the Englsih Language?History of the Englsih Language? Major datesMajor dates 55 B.C.55 B.C. 43 A.D.43 A.D. 410 A.D.410 A.D. 597 A.D.597 A.D. 1066 A.D.1066 A.D.
  78. 78. Major people…Major people… Julius CaesarJulius Caesar St. AugustineSt. Augustine King Ethelbert of KentKing Ethelbert of Kent King Alfred “the great”King Alfred “the great” William the ConquerorWilliam the Conqueror William, Duke of NormandyWilliam, Duke of Normandy
  79. 79. 3. Old English Period3. Old English Period 469 AD - 1066 AD469 AD - 1066 AD  Three conquests.Three conquests.  The Song of Beowulf:The Song of Beowulf:
  80. 80. Middle English LiteratureMiddle English Literature  Bible translations,Bible translations,  Geoffrey Chaucer:Geoffrey Chaucer: The Canterbury TalesThe Canterbury Tales QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  81. 81. Renaissance LiteratureRenaissance Literature  Vernacular Literature.Vernacular Literature.  William Caxton.William Caxton.  Book of Common Prayer.Book of Common Prayer.
  82. 82. Early Modern PeriodEarly Modern Period  Elizabethan EraElizabethan Era  Jacobean LiteratureJacobean Literature  Caroline and Cromwellian LiteratureCaroline and Cromwellian Literature  Restoration LiteratureRestoration Literature  Augustan Literature.Augustan Literature.
  83. 83. Elizabethan EraElizabethan Era  William ShakespeareWilliam Shakespeare  Hamlet,Hamlet,  Romeo and Juliet,Romeo and Juliet,  The Merchant of VeniceThe Merchant of Venice  MacbethMacbeth QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  84. 84. Jacobean LiteratureJacobean Literature  Post-Shakespeare.Post-Shakespeare.  Dramatist Ben Jonson:Dramatist Ben Jonson: TTheory of Humorsheory of Humors Beaumont and FletcherBeaumont and Fletcher The Knight of the Burning PestleThe Knight of the Burning Pestle
  85. 85. Caroline and CromwellianCaroline and Cromwellian LiteratureLiterature  Commonwealth.Commonwealth.  Samuel Pepys.Samuel Pepys.  Great Plague.Great Plague.  Great Fire of London.Great Fire of London. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  86. 86. Restoration LiteratureRestoration Literature  John Milton:John Milton:  Paradise LostParadise Lost  The Country WifeThe Country Wife  Pilgrim’s ProgressPilgrim’s Progress QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  87. 87. Augustan LiteratureAugustan Literature  Jonathan Swift:Jonathan Swift:  A Tale of a TubA Tale of a Tub  Gulliver’s TravelsGulliver’s Travels QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  88. 88. 18th Century18th Century  Age of Enlightment.Age of Enlightment.  Age of Sensibility.Age of Sensibility.  Horace Walpole:Horace Walpole: The Castle of OtrantoThe Castle of Otranto
  89. 89. RomanticismRomanticism  Industrialism.Industrialism.  William Blake: Romantic AgeWilliam Blake: Romantic Age  Oscar WildeOscar Wilde  Mary Shelley:Mary Shelley: QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  90. 90. Victorian LiteratureVictorian Literature  Charles Dickens.Charles Dickens.  Arthur Conan Doyle:Arthur Conan Doyle: Sherlok HolmesSherlok Holmes QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  91. 91. English Literature since 1900English Literature since 1900  Modernism: Rudyard Kipling, James Joyce,Modernism: Rudyard Kipling, James Joyce, Virginia WoolfVirginia Woolf  Post-Modern Literature: Truman CapotePost-Modern Literature: Truman Capote  Post World War II: J.R.R. TolkienPost World War II: J.R.R. Tolkien QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
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