April 22, 2009
Air Barrier Paper
Sheet like material
applied to the exterior
sheathing. It permits
water vapor to drain
and limits water and
air flow into the house.
Attic Ventilation 1
The vent allows air to flow
into the attic or under the roof
sheathing. This air helps
accumulation by circulation. It
also helps moderate the
temperature in the
attic, which in turns helps with
energy efficiency in the house.
Attic Ventilation 2
This vent allows for the passage of air to
exit that initially came from the soffit or
Attic Ventilation 3
These are positioned on both sides
of the gables. They allow for
passage of air in the attic area.
Attic Ventilation 4
Air flow and wind will cause this
propeller device to spin. The spin
pulls air out of the attic space
A machine used by many
trades that has a mechanical
elbow arm with a scoop type
bucket on the end. It is used
to excavate earth at a very
efficient rate. Operator must
be trained. Some examples
would be foundation
work, footers, underground
piping, and trenching. This
particular bucket measures
Batter boards form a
temporary frame around the
construction site that mark the
foundation perimeter for
underground work. Strings are
pulled tight and strung between
them to illustrate where the
where the surface planes of the
foundation will be.
Brick Arches 3
Centering is the temporary
frame under an archway
so the bricks can be laid
up without falling. The
keystone or center bricks
would be put in last and
then the centering
removed so the arch
Brick Bonds 1
Brick bond 2
Brick bond 1
Running bond- each course is all
Flemish bond- each course repeats
the pattern of stretcher, header.
Standard 3 ¾ x 2 ¼ x 8 ½ Modular 3 ½ x 2 ¼ x 7 ½
A piece of heavy machinery
used in construction and
demolition. It has a large flat
blade on the front. It clears
by pushing the material out
of the way. Site clearing and
leveling are some popular
uses. Requires skilled
Wood shake cladding
Wood shakes have a rough, uneven, split wood appearance.
Wood shingles have a smooth, geometrical, even appearance.
Code Requirements 1
Measurements W35”x H23 ½”
Area: 822 ½ sq. inches or 5.71 sq. feet
Sill height: 27 ½”
IBC Requirements: 20” minimum
width, 24” minimum height, 5.7 sq. ft.
minimum area, and less than/or equal
to 44” sill height
This window has a sill height within
the requirement , and measurements
that meet the minimum and total 5.71
sq. ft. It meets Egress code.
Code Requirements 2
Tread: 11 ½”, Riser: 7”, Nosing: 1”
IBC Requirements: Tread must be
a minimum depth of 10”. Riser
can only measure to a maximum
height of 7 ¾”.
This stairs riser length is within
the maximum and the tread
length is over the minimum. This
stair meets code.
An isolation joint is when a space is
A control joint is an intentional
left between a foundation system
line of weakness put in
and another system due the
structures to allow cracking to difference in forces between the
occur due to force. It allows the two. For example, below, the side
structure to crack there and not walk system needs to move
randomly elsewhere. independently of the buildings
foundation system. This permits
movement with out damage.
Concrete Masonry Unit 1
CMU is concrete formed into
stackable building blocks.
The nominal of CMU is
8”x8”x16”. The actual size is
7 5/8”x7 5/8”x15 5/8”. It
comes in a variety of sizes
and can be used
decoratively. Typically the
block is stacked using
reinforced, then grouted.
1 CMU = 3 courses of brick
Concrete Masonry Unit 2
15 5/8” x 7 ½” x 7 ½” 15 ½” x 7 5/8” x 5 ¾”
Decorative Concrete Masonry Units
Installed Split-block Installed Ribbed-faced
Exterior Panel Door
Top Rail Stile
Transom- a window directly over a
door, can be several different sizes.
Sidelight- a tall, narrow window
along the side of the door. Typically
one on each side.
Electrical Components 1
Power pole with a transformer
This element steps down the voltage
of electricity so it will be safer for
occupational use at a house or office.
Electrical Components 2
This assembly conducts the
electricity from outside power lines
to the meter.
Electrical Components 3
The meter measures the amount
of power usage for the house.
Electrical Components 4
The service panel is the control
center for electricity. It contains a
main service switch and circuit
breakers for the separate circuits.
These act like individual fuses.
Electrical Components 5
The duplex receptacle is a power
source supplier within the house.
Anything from water heaters to
lamps and blenders can be plugged
into these. They are a constant
source of power that can only be
used by a special plug converter.
Framing Elements 1
#1 Anchor Bolt #2 Sill Plate
Framing Elements 2
#3 Floor Joist #4 Subflooring
Front End Loader
Bucket: W81”x H38½”x D27”
This heavy machinery is used for
land excavation and build up. Its
front bucket can scoop dirt and
distribute it where needed, where
as the bulldozer just pushes.
Machine operator required.
Gypsum board is an interior
sheathing panel consisting of a
gypsum core. This core is
compressed in between two
pieces of paper backing.
Heat Pump 1
fan moves outdoor air across
refrigerant contained coils to
change the temperature of the
liquid. The liquid is then
transferred into the air
Heat Pump 2
Air Handling Unit
The handling unit sends the cooled
refrigerant to a coil in the air supply
duct which in turn cools the circulated
A disadvantage of a heat pump is the
fact that its very noisy.
An advantage of a heat pump is its
ability to cool and heat inside air.
Insulation is a material that is used in between spaces of a building to
reduce heat flow throughout the assembly.
Batt or Blanket Insulation Loose Fill Insulation
A lintel is a beam that carries
the load above an opening in
a wall, like a door or window.
The mortar joint in this photo is tooled and is specified as raked. It
is 9/16” wide and is used on a single family house. Probably type S
mortar was used because of some of the structural requirements of
The mortar joint in this photo was troweled initially, then each brick and
course was pushed down on to create an extruded, old-fashioned look.
This is another single family house. The mortar is ¾” thick and is
probably type N mortar. Reason is the cladding on this house is more
decorative than structural.
Oriented Strand Board
OSB is not a veneered panel product.
It is small strand-like pieces oriented
in a particular pattern and bonded
together under pressure. Typical size
is a 4’x 8’ sheet.
Lavatory Water Closet
1 ½” piping used to drain 3” piping used to drain
Plumbing Roof Vent
The VTR is stabilizing the drains and waste
lines by exposing them to atmospheric
pressure in the outside air.
Wood panel product composed of a number of layers of wood veneer.
These layers are bonded together under pressure. Typical size is 4’ x 8’
Veneer means a thin layer, sheet, or facing.
A reflective foil panel placed on the
inside of the roof sheathing to help
reflect infrared energy into the
Rebar size: ½” diameter, # 4
The deformations along the rebar are there to
add friction and help it bond tightly to the
Steep Roof Drainage 1
Downspout: this metal pipe transfers
the water from the gutter to the
ground and/or splash block
Gutter: this piece of metal acts as a
funnel for water running off the
roof. The runoff water is guided to
Steep Roof Drainage 2
Splash block: typically this piece
is made of concrete and is used
to disperse the runoff water
evenly, so erosion will not occur
Steep Roof Materials 1
Underlayment: waterproof material laid
on top of roof sheathing to help with
moisture control under the shingles
Clay Tile Roof
Shingles: small units applied to roof in
overlapping fashion with vertical grooves
Steep Roof Terms 1
Ridge: the level intersection of
two roof planes
Valley: a trough formed by the
intersection of two roof
Steep Roof Terms 2
Eave: the horizontal edge at
the low side of a sloping roof
Rake: the sloping edge of a
Steep Roof Terms 3
Soffit: the undersurface of a
horizontal element of a
building, like a roof overhang
Fascia: the exposed vertical
face of an eave
Steep Roof Terms 4
Building without Fascia: typically
this is done when the overhang
is not enclosed, which leaves the
rafter tails exposed and no
fascia. However there is still an
eave present even though its
Vapor Retarder: layer of
material intended to obstruct
the flow of water vapor
through an assembly, it is
typically installed on the
warm in winter side of
Waterproofing: an impervious
membrane applied to the exterior of
the foundation/building, it repels
water. This particular waterproofing
shown in the picture was liquid
Weep Hole: a small opening
whose sole purpose is to
permit the drainage of water
that accumulates inside a
building assembly or cladding
Welded Wire Fabric
Welded Wire Fabric: W78” x L216” x D6”
#2 Double-Hung Window: this
window has two overlapping
sashes that slide vertically in
tracks, therefore it is a double-
#1 Casement Window: this window
pivots on an axis near a vertical
edge of the sash, therefore it is a
#3 Fixed Window: this top semicircle
window is immovably mounted in the
wall, therefore it can’t open and is a