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Neolithic monument in present day TurkeyOccupied between 6300 BC to 5400 BCSupported a population of up to 6000 peopleIt was the largest and most cosmopolitan city of its time
Commodity, firmness, delight
The hotel had several design features that made up for its foundation:The reflecting pool (visible in the picture above) also provided a source of water for fire-fighting, saving the building from the post-earthquake firestorm;Cantilevered floors and balconies provided extra support for the floors;A copper roof, which cannot fall on people below the way a tile roof can;Seismic separation joints, located about every 20 m along the building;Tapered walls, thicker on lower floors, increasing their strength;Suspended piping and wiring, instead of being encased in concrete, as well as smooth curves, making them more resistant to fracture.
The MIT project, they were interviewing me for MIT and they sent their facilities people to Bilbao. I met them in Bilbao. They came for three days.W: This is the computer building.G: They were there for three days and it rained every day. And they kept walking around. I noticed they were looking under things and looking for things, and they wanted to know where the buckets were hidden, people putting buckets out. I was clean. There wasn't a bloody leak in the place. It was just fantastic. But you've got to -- yeah, well, up until then, every building leaked.W: Frank had a sort of -- sort of had a fame -- his -- his fame was built on that in L.A. for a while. You know, Frank, you've all heard the Frank Lloyd Wright story when the guy -- the woman called and said, "Mr. Wright, my -- I'm sitting in the couch and the water's pouring in on my head," and he said, "Madame, move your chair."G: So, some years later I was doing a little house on the beach for Norton Simon, and his secretary was kind of a hell-on-wheels type lady -- called me and said, Mr. Simon's sitting at his desk, and the water's coming in on his head, and I told him the Frank Lloyd Wright story.W: Didn't get a laugh.G: No. Not now either.
It's the "Then What?" that most clients who hire architects -- most clients aren't hiring architects for that. They're hiring them to get it done, get it on budget, you know, and not -- you know, be polite -- and they're missing out on the -- the real value of an architect.
Usonian houses were beautiful, human scaled.. And didn’t have closet space. Should we choose beauty over usability sometimes?
Durability“Durability will be assured when foundations arecarried down to the solid ground and materialswisely and liberally selected” Vitruvius
The hotel had several desigfeatures that made up for ifoundation:The reflecting pool (visiblethe picture above) alsoprovided a source of waterfor fire-fighting, saving thebuilding from the post-earthquake firestorm;Cantilevered floors andbalconies provided extrasupport for the floors;A copper roof, which cannoon people below the way aroof can;Seismic separation joints,located about every 20 m athe building;Tapered walls, thicker on lofloors, increasing their streSuspended piping and wirininstead of being encased inconcrete, as well as smoothcurves, making them moreresistant to fracture.
I’m searching for “my architect, not “movies, directors, actors”Technical Earthquakes
Social Earthquakes If people post jobs in discussion areas, any user can move them to job board If people useconnection invites to spam/market, they can be reported.
Convenience“When the arrangement of the apartments is faultless and presents no hindrance to use, and when each class of building is assigned to its suitable and appropriate exposure” Vitruvius Sound familiar? We’re talking usability!
ckspace headquarters in in a former mall. The lding is so usable for moving people around, itssily repurposed.bert Venturi calls this a “decorated shed”
Malls onlineepitomizeconvenience,and are typicallyextremelyusable.Anthropologie iselegant andfunctional.This simplemodel could berepurposed forany side dealingwith objects andmetadata
The MIT project, they were interviewing me for MIT and they sent their facilities people to Bilbao. I met them in Bilbao. They came for three days. W: This is the computer building.Bilbao did not G: They were there for three days and it rained every day. And they kept walkingleak. I was so around. I noticed they were looking under things and looking for things, and proud. they wanted to know where the buckets were hidden, people putting buckets out. I was clean. There wasnt a bloody leak in the place. It was just fantastic. But youve got to -- yeah, well, up until then, every building leaked. W: Frank had a sort of -- sort of had a fame -- his -- his fame was built on that in L.A. for a while. You know, Frank, youve all heard the Frank Lloyd Wright story when the guy -- the woman called and said, "Mr. Wright, my -- Im sitting in the couch and the waters pouring in on my head," and he said, "Madame, move your chair." G: So, some years later I was doing a little house on the beach for Norton Simon, and his secretary was kind of a hell-on-wheels type lady -- called me and said, Mr. Simons sitting at his desk, and the waters coming in on his head, and I told him the Frank Lloyd Wright story. W: Didnt get a laugh. G: No. Not now either. http://www.ted.com/talks/frank_gehry _asks_then_what.html
I call it the "Then What?" Okay, you solved all the problems, you did all the stuff, you made nice, you loved your clients, you loved the materials, you loved the city, youre a good guy, youre a good person... and then what? What do you bring to it?See his great TED talk http://www.ted.com/talks/frank_gehry_asks_then_what.html
“Early in life I had to choose between honest arroganceand hypocritical humility. I chose honest arrogance andhave seen no occasion to change.” Frank Lloyd Wright
Beauty (delight)“when the appearance of the work is pleasing and in good taste, andwhen its members are in due proportion according to correct principlesof symmetry.” Vitrvius
SEAGRAM BUILDING (Philip Johnson did interiors, 1957) SeagramThis logical and elegant 38- Building story skyscraper (525 H) has alternating horizontal bands of bronze plating and bronze-tinted glass New York City and decorative bronze I- beams which emphasize its verticality. Placed to the rear of its site and set 1957 back from Park Avenue, it incorporates a large plaza in the front as part of the design--thus avoiding the need for set-backs. It uses granite pillars at the Is this Beautiful? base and has a two-story glass-enclosed lobby.
Information Architecture Architecture Retrieval29
Information Architects• What is IA?• IAI definition 1. The art and science of organizing and labeling web sites, intranets, online communities and software to support usability and findability. 2. The structural design of shared information environments. 3. An emerging community of practice focused on bringing principles of design and architecture to the digital landscape.
In the physical world• Things that have fixed locations – We find with maps and signs- - wayfinding• Things that don’t – We find with organization and wayfinding
In the digital world• Nothing is fixed• Wayfinding and organization is the two keys to findability• Role of IA is to shape the digital space to enable findability.
Make things findable• Organization – Build on Metadata – Browse systems – Search systems• Wayfinding – Labels – Visual cues
Make things appear• Serendipity systems – See also – Related – Popularity relationships – Also built on metadata
Definition The structural design of an information space to facilitate task completion and intuitive access to content. Information Architecture for the World-Wide Web Louis Rosenfeld & Peter Morville
Sort into groups. Name groupsPLAY WITH YOUR BALLS
Metadata: what is it? “metadata is data about data"81
Metadata: what is it? “Metadata tags are used to describe documents, pages, images, software, video and audio files, and other content objects for the purposes of improved navigation and retrieval” ‘Information Architecture for the World Wide Web’, 2nd ed., (2002) Rosenfeld, L. & Morville, P.82
Not all Metadata is equal• What are users interested in?• What do you want users to be able to find?• What metadata makes management easy?• Tag content for findability• Tag content for management86
Exercise• BALL• Write as many descriptive words (or short phrases) on your post-it• One word (or phrase) per post-it• Don’t share– yet! Hold on!87
But computers are literal Acid ? reggae No matches found99
And need help ? Acid Reggae? IA Let’s give them “Reggae” and “Trance”100
Of course, the IA can’t always be there… Thus Controlled vocabularies (CV) Amy Warner defines a controlled vocabulary (CV) as “organized lists of words and phrases, or notation systems, that are used to initially tag content, and then to find it through navigation or search.”101
Controlled Vocabularies I define them as Documented relationships of words and concepts to assist people finding stuff. Same dif.102
Controlled vocabularies • Relationships B A=B A A B Equivalence Hierarchal Associative Christmas= Winter Holidays > Christmas Xmas Christmas Tree | Santa Claus104
Synonym rings • Simplest type • Helps with search, indexing • Simplifies maintenance105
Synonym rings include • Acronyms: BBC, British Broadcasting Company; MPG, miles per gallon • Variant spellings: cancelled, canceled; honor, honour • Scientific terms versus popular use terms: acetylsalicylic acid, aspirin; lilioceris, lily beetle – From Synonym Rings and Authority Files by Karl Fast, Fred Leise and Mike Steckel106
Why Bother? I’m tired of typing “Controlled Vocabulary--- CV is shorter. • Sometimes on intranets, CV’s are skipped • You think you can force people to use proper terms • But people are lazy107
Why Bother? I want a cannon camera. • On the internet you want to be found • Plus users use short queries – Average queries are 2.5 words– 30% of searches are one word queries • On large scale sites, there is enough data to do this programmatically, but on small sites, not.108
Bizrate built a business off mispellings It may be the Canon PowerShot S30109
But what do people call it? Canon S30 Cannon S30 S30PowershotS30110
Content Inventory Identify all content and attributes • Link ID • Maintainer • ROT • Expiration • Document type • Access • Topics/Keywords • Author • Location • Existing/planned121
Term harvesting• Look Inward • Log harvesting – Your site – Search engines – Current keywords – Overture• Look outward • Ask people – Magazines – Interviews – Competitors – Card sorts – Discussion lists – Free Listing124
Sorting TermsA Card Sort for Architects• Multiple Groupings – Equivalent UF cheese=fromage – Broader terms BT cheese | dairy – Narrower terms NT cheese | cheddar – Related term RT cheese | crackers125
Sleeping Bags BT Camping NT Down Sleeping Bags NT Synthetic Sleeping Bags NT Family Sleeping Bags NT Cold Weather Sleeping Bags NT 2-Season Sleeping Bags NT 3-Season Sleeping Bags NT Back Packing Sleeping Bags NT Expedition Class Sleeping Bags NT Ultralight Sleeping Bags RT Backpacks RT Ultralight Backpacking RT Sleeping Bag Liners RT Sleeping Pads RT Stuff Sacks RT Pillows From Creating a Controlled Vocabulary by Karl Fast, Fred Leise and Mike Steckel http://www.boxesandarrows.com/archives/creating_a_controlled_vocabulary.php126
Sorting conflicts• Cheese goes in dairy or in sandwich materials?• A cheese basket?• String cheese?Choices fit strategy127
Associations• What is related• What is required?• What else is interesting?Relevancy is king128
Possible Relationships • Process/agent (camp fires/matches) • Action/product of action (baking/cakes) • Agent/counteragent (allergies/antihistamine) • Raw material/product (wool/sweater).129
Implement• Implementation dependant on situation and tools.• May be slow painful data entry– know this and prepare.130
Test• Test with users – did you get it right? – Browse Testing – Search Testing – Monitor quantitative – Refine, refine, refine131
Maintain• Who maintains it?• What the rules for new terms?• Document your decisions.132
Is that all? NO! Life beyond enumerative classification….133
Faceted Classification was developed, prior to the existence of computers, by S. R. Ranganathan, a Hindu mathematician working as a librarian.134
Ranganathan’s 5 Facets • who: personality • what: matter • how: energy • where: space • when: time135
Essential Qualities of a Facet • Mutually exclusive; represents a characteristic of division not found in any other facet • Cannot be further sub-divided • Relationships between facets are non- hierarchical (though within facets…)136
Facets The broad categories into which the subject area is divided. A facet consists “... of a group of terms that represents one, and only one, characteristic of division of a subject field....no two facets may contain terms that could represent the same concepts.” —Louise Spiteri138
Ordinary stuff? Epicurious uses facets to help users find recipes139
Yahoo! Personals• Faceted classification by Yahoo! Personas• Content by the users140
What’s the difference? Electronics Camera facets Camera Pixels Digital Zoom Film Price PDAs Televisions141
MusicEnumerative Faceted• Modern • Mood – Rock • Tempo • Alternative – Seattle • Artist – Atlanta • Use142
Making Facets 1. Consider the universe of documents to be indexed. 2. Consider user finding strategies. 3. Analyze each document to identify the facets. 4. Group isolates (simple-concept subjects) into the facets. 5. Apply the notational system. (I skipped some steps, to avoid wonking out….)144