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Vector Graphics on the Web                    Pascal Rettig                    @cykod
Vector vs. RasterRaster = Pixels = Bitmaps = .PNG, .JPEG ...Vector = Primitives = Shapes = .AI, .SVGVectors can easily be ...
Why do we care?
Why do we care?• Designers often create as vectors anyway.
Why do we care?• Designers often create as vectors anyway.• Resolution independent
Why do we care?• Designers often create as vectors anyway.• Resolution independent• Smaller file size (when used appropriat...
Why do we care?• Designers often create as vectors anyway.• Resolution independent• Smaller file size (when used appropriat...
What are the options:
What are the options:• Two W3C approved: SVG, Canvas
What are the options:• Two W3C approved: SVG, Canvas•   One “IE Special”: VML
What are the options:• Two W3C approved: SVG, Canvas•   One “IE Special”: VML•   One “Sorta-kinda-vectorlike”: CSS3
Scalable Vector Graphics
SVG• XML based format• SVG 1.1 W3C Recommendation since 2003• Not something you generally write by hand -  Create with Ill...
The Dream  (not reality)
The Dream                  (not reality)Use as an image:<img src=‘images/tiger.svgz’/>
The Dream                    (not reality)Use as an image:<img src=‘images/tiger.svgz’/>or Embed Directly:<html xmlns:svg=...
The reality
The reality              http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comparison_of_layout_engines_(Scalable_Vector_Graphics)
The Reality (TL;DR)
The Reality (TL;DR)• Only Chrome, FF4 support gzipped SVG• Only Chrome, FF4 support HTML5 Direct  Embedding• IE Support on...
The Solution?Use a library!SVG WebUse’s Native SVG or FlashYou still write SVG files / datahttp://code.google.com/p/svgweb/...
SVG Web<script src="svg.js"></script>Then embed with an object tag or:<script type="image/svg+xml">  <svg width="400" heig...
Raphael.jsvar paper = Raphael(10, 50, 320, 200);var circle = paper.circle(50, 40, 10);circle.attr("fill", "#f00");circle.a...
Other Common usesProtovis - the graphing library you always wanted   Cufon - font replacement with SVG/VML
Attack Vector B:   <canvas>
HTML5 Canvas Tag• Standardized by the WHATWG (2007)• Grew out of WebKit (Dashboard Widgets)• Javascript interface to a bun...
Pixels?Where are the Vectors?
Pixels?Where are the Vectors?<canvas> only stores pixel data.But, <canvas> has drawing primitives for:Rectangles, Lines, Q...
Canvas Example<canvas id=”canvas” width=”150″ height=”150″>   Your Browser don’t be supporting canvas</canvas>var canvas =...
Example #2: JS1K                     http://marijnhaverbeke.nl/js1k/     c=document.body.children[0];h=t=150;L=w=c.width=8...
Canvas Reality...
Canvas Reality...• No native IE support
Canvas Reality...• No native IE support• Current browser implementations are slow
Canvas Near future...
Canvas Near future...• IE Support in IE9 (IE6-IE8 w/ excanvas.js)
Canvas Near future...• IE Support in IE9 (IE6-IE8 w/ excanvas.js)• Next-gen browser support hardware-  accelerated-awesome...
Canvas Near future...• IE Support in IE9 (IE6-IE8 w/ excanvas.js)• Next-gen browser support hardware-  accelerated-awesome...
Canvas StatusQ1 2010   Q4 2010   Q2 2011   Q4 2011
The pseudo-option:      CSS3
CSS3 features that replace      bitmap hacks:Rounded corners - *-border-radiusDrop shadows: *-box-shadowText Shadows: text...
CSS3 Caveats You probably want to use a CSS Frameworksuch as SASS/LESS to DRY the vendor prefixes.    IE6-8 - fake it with ...
What also can be done:   http://graphicpeel.com/cssiosicons
How• Gradients, Rounded Corners, Shadows +• Borders• Rotations• Pseudo-elements• Transforms• Z-index Masking• A bunch of n...
A Good idea? Maybe.      • CSS3 Icons probably not worth the markup        complexity.      • But a re-scalable pure CSS l...
So SVG or Canvas?
SVG vs. Canvas
SVG vs. CanvasSVG
SVG vs. CanvasSVG         Canvas
SVG vs. Canvas         SVG             CanvasPersistent Scene Graph  Hover, Click EventsBrowser does the work
SVG vs. Canvas         SVG                    CanvasPersistent Scene Graph    Just Pixels (can R/W)  Hover, Click Events  ...
Bonus
Yo Dawg, I heard youlike vector graphics...    http://burst.bocoup.com/
Yo Dawg, I heard youlike vector graphics...So I put SVG in your Canvas so you could       animate while you rasterize.    ...
Yo Dawg, I heard youlike vector graphics...So I put SVG in your Canvas so you could       animate while you rasterize.    ...
Thanks!pascal@cykod.com     @cykod
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Vector Graphics on the Web: SVG, Canvas, CSS3

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An overview of the current state of Vector graphics on the web, why we would want to use them, what the options are. Presented to the Boston Ruby group at the January 2011 meeting.

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Vector Graphics on the Web: SVG, Canvas, CSS3

  1. 1. Vector Graphics on the Web Pascal Rettig @cykod
  2. 2. Vector vs. RasterRaster = Pixels = Bitmaps = .PNG, .JPEG ...Vector = Primitives = Shapes = .AI, .SVGVectors can easily be “Rasterized” at acertain resolution into BitmapsRasters cannot easily be “Vectorized”without a whole lot of work
  3. 3. Why do we care?
  4. 4. Why do we care?• Designers often create as vectors anyway.
  5. 5. Why do we care?• Designers often create as vectors anyway.• Resolution independent
  6. 6. Why do we care?• Designers often create as vectors anyway.• Resolution independent• Smaller file size (when used appropriately)
  7. 7. Why do we care?• Designers often create as vectors anyway.• Resolution independent• Smaller file size (when used appropriately)Hmm, sounds like they would be good for mobile...
  8. 8. What are the options:
  9. 9. What are the options:• Two W3C approved: SVG, Canvas
  10. 10. What are the options:• Two W3C approved: SVG, Canvas• One “IE Special”: VML
  11. 11. What are the options:• Two W3C approved: SVG, Canvas• One “IE Special”: VML• One “Sorta-kinda-vectorlike”: CSS3
  12. 12. Scalable Vector Graphics
  13. 13. SVG• XML based format• SVG 1.1 W3C Recommendation since 2003• Not something you generally write by hand - Create with Illustrator or Inkscape• Paths, Shapes, Fonts,Text, Fills, Gradients, Patterns,
  14. 14. The Dream (not reality)
  15. 15. The Dream (not reality)Use as an image:<img src=‘images/tiger.svgz’/>
  16. 16. The Dream (not reality)Use as an image:<img src=‘images/tiger.svgz’/>or Embed Directly:<html xmlns:svg="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg">...<svg:svg width="300" height="100" version="1.1" > <svg:circle cx="100" cy="50" r="40" stroke="black" stroke-width="2"fill="red" /></svg:svg>
  17. 17. The reality
  18. 18. The reality http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comparison_of_layout_engines_(Scalable_Vector_Graphics)
  19. 19. The Reality (TL;DR)
  20. 20. The Reality (TL;DR)• Only Chrome, FF4 support gzipped SVG• Only Chrome, FF4 support HTML5 Direct Embedding• IE Support only coming in IE9
  21. 21. The Solution?Use a library!SVG WebUse’s Native SVG or FlashYou still write SVG files / datahttp://code.google.com/p/svgweb/Raphael.jsUses Native SVG or VMLJavascript APIhttp://raphaeljs.com/
  22. 22. SVG Web<script src="svg.js"></script>Then embed with an object tag or:<script type="image/svg+xml"> <svg width="400" height="300" id="svg11242"> ... </svg></script>Scriptable from JavaScript pretty much normally
  23. 23. Raphael.jsvar paper = Raphael(10, 50, 320, 200);var circle = paper.circle(50, 40, 10);circle.attr("fill", "#f00");circle.attr("stroke", "#fff");
  24. 24. Other Common usesProtovis - the graphing library you always wanted Cufon - font replacement with SVG/VML
  25. 25. Attack Vector B: <canvas>
  26. 26. HTML5 Canvas Tag• Standardized by the WHATWG (2007)• Grew out of WebKit (Dashboard Widgets)• Javascript interface to a bunch o’ Pixels
  27. 27. Pixels?Where are the Vectors?
  28. 28. Pixels?Where are the Vectors?<canvas> only stores pixel data.But, <canvas> has drawing primitives for:Rectangles, Lines, Quadtratic & Beizer Curves, Arcs,Fills, Text, Gradients...All drawing is done via a Javascript API
  29. 29. Canvas Example<canvas id=”canvas” width=”150″ height=”150″> Your Browser don’t be supporting canvas</canvas>var canvas = document.getElementById(“canvas”);if (canvas.getContext) { var ctx = canvas.getContext(“2d”); ctx.fillStyle = “rgb(100,0,0)”; ctx.fillRect (0, 0, 100, 100);} https://developer.mozilla.org/en/ drawing_graphics_with_canvas
  30. 30. Example #2: JS1K http://marijnhaverbeke.nl/js1k/ c=document.body.children[0];h=t=150;L=w=c.width=800;u=D=50;H=[];R=Math.random;for($ in C=c.getContext(2d))C[$[J=X=Y=0]+($[6]||)]=C[$];setInterval("if(D)for(x=405,i=y=I=0;i<1e4;)L=H[i++]=i<9|L<w&R()<.3?w:R()*u+80|0;$=++t%99-u;$=$*$/8+20;y+=Y;x+=y-H[(x+X)/u|0]>9?0:X;j=H[o=x/u|0];Y=y<j|Y<0?Y+1:(y=j,J?-10:0);with(C){A=function(c,x,y,r){r&&a(x,y,r,0,7,0);fillStyle=c.P?c:#+ceff99ff78f86eeaaffffd45333.substr(c*3,3);f();ba()};for(D=Z=0;Z<21;Z++){Z<7&&A(Z%6,w/2,235,Z?250-15*Z:w);i=o-5+Z;S=x-i*u;B=S>9&S<41;ta(u-S,0);G=cL(0,T=H[i],0,T+9);T%6||(A(2,25,T-7,5),y^j||B&&(H[i]-=.1,I++));G.P=G.addColorStop;G.P(0,i%7?#7e3:(i^o||y^T||(y=H[i]+=$/99),#c7a));G.P(1,#ca6);i%4&&A(6,t/2%200,9,i%2?27:33);m(-6,h);qt(-6,T,3,T);l(47,T);qt(56,T,56,h);A(G);i%3?0:T<w?(A(G,33,T-15,10),fc(31,T-7,4,9)):(A(7,25,$,9),A(G,25,$,5),fc(24,$,2,h),D=B&y>$-9?1:D);ta(S-u,0)}A(6,u,y-9,11);A(5,M=u+X*.7,Q=y-9+Y/5,8);A(8,M,Q,5);fx(I+¢,5,15)}D=y>h?1:D",u);onkeydown=onkeyup=function(e){E=e.type[5]?4:0;e=e.keyCode;J=e^38?J:E;X=e^37?e^39?X:E:-E}
  31. 31. Canvas Reality...
  32. 32. Canvas Reality...• No native IE support
  33. 33. Canvas Reality...• No native IE support• Current browser implementations are slow
  34. 34. Canvas Near future...
  35. 35. Canvas Near future...• IE Support in IE9 (IE6-IE8 w/ excanvas.js)
  36. 36. Canvas Near future...• IE Support in IE9 (IE6-IE8 w/ excanvas.js)• Next-gen browser support hardware- accelerated-awesomeness across the board
  37. 37. Canvas Near future...• IE Support in IE9 (IE6-IE8 w/ excanvas.js)• Next-gen browser support hardware- accelerated-awesomeness across the board• WebGL support
  38. 38. Canvas StatusQ1 2010 Q4 2010 Q2 2011 Q4 2011
  39. 39. The pseudo-option: CSS3
  40. 40. CSS3 features that replace bitmap hacks:Rounded corners - *-border-radiusDrop shadows: *-box-shadowText Shadows: text-shadowGradients: *-gradientFonts: @font-face
  41. 41. CSS3 Caveats You probably want to use a CSS Frameworksuch as SASS/LESS to DRY the vendor prefixes. IE6-8 - fake it with http://css3pie.com/
  42. 42. What also can be done: http://graphicpeel.com/cssiosicons
  43. 43. How• Gradients, Rounded Corners, Shadows +• Borders• Rotations• Pseudo-elements• Transforms• Z-index Masking• A bunch of nested <div>’s
  44. 44. A Good idea? Maybe. • CSS3 Icons probably not worth the markup complexity. • But a re-scalable pure CSS logo...http://www.csstemplateheaven.com/articlestutorials/pure- css3-logo/
  45. 45. So SVG or Canvas?
  46. 46. SVG vs. Canvas
  47. 47. SVG vs. CanvasSVG
  48. 48. SVG vs. CanvasSVG Canvas
  49. 49. SVG vs. Canvas SVG CanvasPersistent Scene Graph Hover, Click EventsBrowser does the work
  50. 50. SVG vs. Canvas SVG CanvasPersistent Scene Graph Just Pixels (can R/W) Hover, Click Events Own Event calculationsBrowser does the work Full canvas refresh
  51. 51. Bonus
  52. 52. Yo Dawg, I heard youlike vector graphics... http://burst.bocoup.com/
  53. 53. Yo Dawg, I heard youlike vector graphics...So I put SVG in your Canvas so you could animate while you rasterize. http://burst.bocoup.com/
  54. 54. Yo Dawg, I heard youlike vector graphics...So I put SVG in your Canvas so you could animate while you rasterize. http://burst.bocoup.com/
  55. 55. Thanks!pascal@cykod.com @cykod

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