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Structuralism, Post-structuralism, and Structuration

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Structuralism, Post-structuralism, and Structuration

  1. 1. STRUCTURALISMPOST-STRUCTURALISMSTRUCTURATION
  2. 2. OBJECTIVESDistinguish three schoolsIdentify theoristsUnderstand major concepts*Outline criticisms *Focus on Foucault
  3. 3. STRUCTURALISM
  4. 4. THEORISTS*de SaussureBarthesFoucault
  5. 5. ORIGINSCritique of humanist view:Self-directingAutonomousAgents of free will
  6. 6. ORIGINSStructural Linguistics
  7. 7. GOALUnderstand impersonal effects of social structures
  8. 8. STRUCTURALISMOur lives structured bySocialCulturalHistoricalPolitical
  9. 9. STRUCTURALISMThese structures determineDecisionsBeliefsValuesChoices
  10. 10. STRUCTURALISMThese structures/systemsPre-exist usConstitute usMake us assimilate
  11. 11. SIGNSSignals that informExist independently of usSystem of meaning, symbolism, interpretation
  12. 12. Examples of signs?
  13. 13. SEM IOTICSStudy of signsVital to social critique of capitalism (Barthes)
  14. 14. STRUCTURALISMAs a social theory concerned withPowerDomination
  15. 15. CRITICISMSArbitrary world?Difference is context dependent*Ahistorical
  16. 16. POST-STRUCTURALISM
  17. 17. What should we make ofthe “post” inpost-structuralism?
  18. 18. THEORISTSLacanAlthusserZizekDerridaBourdieu*Foucault
  19. 19. ORIGINSRejection of Enlightenment reasonGrew out of and in reaction to structuralism
  20. 20. GOALSResolve ahistoricism
  21. 21. POWER - KNOWLEDGENew form - interconnectedPower without a subjectHow disciplinary codes and punishment imprint on human body
  22. 22. DISCIPLINARY POWERPower that isHiddenMonotonousInvisible
  23. 23. PA N O P T I C O N
  24. 24. PANOPTICAL SURVEILLANCESurveillance thatMonitors all actionsKeeps records
  25. 25. Examples of panopticalsurveillance?
  26. 26. PANOPTICAL SURVEILLANCERepresents reorganization of power
  27. 27. CARCERAL SOCIETYPanopticon metaphor forIron cageTotally administered society
  28. 28. DOCILE BODIESA body that can beSubjectedUsedImprovedTransformed
  29. 29. CRITICISMSSchools, hospitals = prisons?Discourse > action?Resistance to disciplinary power?
  30. 30. STRUCTURATION
  31. 31. THEORISTSGiddens
  32. 32. ORIGINSCritique of functionalism
  33. 33. GOALHow can we link “structure” and “agency” together to understand social world?
  34. 34. STRUCTUREPatterns and forms that make up society
  35. 35. AGENCYActions taken by individual actors
  36. 36. STRUCTURATIONNo strict dichotomyRelationship between “structure” and “agency” is interactive
  37. 37. STRUCTURATIONStructure and agency do not constrain each otherEnable each other
  38. 38. CRITICISMS“Structuration” = fancy label?Never synthesizes structure + agencyDoes not solve problems
  39. 39. CONCLUSION
  40. 40. CITEDCuff et al (2009)Perspectives in SociologyElliott (2009)Contemporary Social TheoryFoucault (1995)Discipline and Power
  41. 41. THANK YOU!Danielle Dirks, Ph.D.Assistant Professor of SociologyOccidental Collegedirks@oxy.edudanielledirks.com@danielledirks
  42. 42. ADDITIONALCONCEPTS
  43. 43. STRUCTURALISM
  44. 44. SIGNIFIEDSIGNIFIER
  45. 45. BARTHESConcerned withMythFashionCultureMass communication
  46. 46. M YTHRendersSocial reality “natural”Structure invisible
  47. 47. Examples of myths?What do they signify?
  48. 48. POST-STRUCTURALISM
  49. 49. BIOPOWERExercise of control overBodiesPopulations
  50. 50. G O V E R N M E N TA L I T YPreparing self to beGovernedRegulated

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