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Final project report on Solar street light

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Solar powered LED street light using charge controller circuit with auto intensity control using Arduino uno using RTC(REAL TIME CLOCK) and PWM.

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Final project report on Solar street light

  1. 1. i Darshil H Shah Vinit G Parikh A PROJECT REPORT Submitted By Darshil Shah (IU1241090051) Vinit Parikh (IU1241090031) Department of Electronics & communication Indus Institute of Engineering and Technology Ahmedabad November 2015 Under The guidance of Prof. Omkar Pabbati Solar Powered LED Street Light with Auto intensity control
  2. 2. ii Darshil H Shah Vinit G Parikh INDUS UNIVERSITY Where Practice Meets Theory Indus Campus, Rancharda, Via: Thaltej, Ahmedabad-382115. Gujarat (INDIA) CERTIFICATE DATE: 16/11/2015 This is to certified that the project entitled “Solar Powered LED Street Light with auto intensity control” submitted to Indus Institute of Engineering and Technology is bonafide record of work done by DARSHIL H SHAH (IU1241090051) under my supervision during the academic year 2015 Project supervisor Head of department
  3. 3. iii Darshil H Shah Vinit G Parikh INDUS UNIVERSITY Where Practice Meets Theory Indus Campus, Rancharda, Via: Thaltej, Ahmedabad-382115. Gujarat (INDIA) CERTIFICATE DATE: 16/11/2015 This is to certified that the project entitled “Solar Powered LED Street Light with auto intensity control” submitted to Indus Institute of Engineering and Technology is bonafide record of work done by Vinit G Parikh (IU1241090031) under my supervision during the academic year 2015 Project supervisor Head of department
  4. 4. iv Darshil H Shah Vinit G Parikh ACKNOWLEDGEMENT It is us privilege to express our sincerest regards to our project coordinator, Mr. Omkar Pabbati, for their valuable inputs, able guidance, encouragement, whole-hearted cooperation throughout the duration of our project. We deeply express sincere thanks to our Head of Department Prof. R N Mutagi for encouraging and allowing us to present the project on the topic “Solar powered LED Street light with auto intensity control” We take this opportunity to thank all lecturers who contributed their valuable advice and helped to complete this project successfully.
  5. 5. v Darshil H Shah Vinit G Parikh ABSTRACT This report describes the design of the “Solar Powered LED street Light with auto- intensity control” The project based on 2 modules. 1. Charge controller circuit 2. Load intensity control circuit Using 18v solar panel we will charge 12v battery. The charge controller circuit can prevent the battery to flow high current through it after than we will convert 12v to 5v using voltage divider circuit Using RTC (Real Time Control) can generate seconds, minutes, hours, date of the month, month, day of the week, and year with leap-year To perform PWM we can generate different analogue voltages Using ArduinoUNO software. The circuit of the Project is designed, simulated and built with hardware. The simulation results and design details are provided. Circuit diagram of our project is successfully tested on hardware.
  6. 6. vi Darshil H Shah Vinit G Parikh Table of Contents INTRODUCTION.......................................................................................................................................1 Chapter 1.................................................................................................................................................2 Functional block diagram with explanation of each Block.....................................................................2 1.1 Block Diagram:.......................................................................................................................3 1.2 Explanations of Each Block: ....................................................................................................4 Chapter 2.................................................................................................................................................5 Charge controller circuit .........................................................................................................................5 2.1 Operation of circuit diagram:..................................................................................................6 2.2 Advantages:.............................................................................................................................6 2.3 Limitations: .............................................................................................................................6 2.4 Application:.............................................................................................................................6 Chapter 3.................................................................................................................................................7 Software Implementation.......................................................................................................................7 3.1 Simulation of charge controller circuit: ..................................................................................8 3.2 Simulation of Voltage divider circuit:......................................................................................9 3.3 Coding of Controller in Arduino UNO for RTC (Real Time Clock):.........................................10 3.4 Coding of Controller in Arduino UNO for PWM:...................................................................13 Chapter 4...............................................................................................................................................14 Hardware Implementation ...................................................................................................................14 4.1 Operation of circuit diagram:................................................................................................15 4.2 Testing of Hardware:.............................................................................................................16 4.3 Hardware component List: ...................................................................................................17 Chapter 5...............................................................................................................................................18 Applications, References, Future Scopes..............................................................................................18 5.1 Advantages:...........................................................................................................................19 5.2 Disadvantages:......................................................................................................................19 5.3 Applications: .........................................................................................................................19 5.4 Conclusion:............................................................................................................................20 5.5 Future Scope:........................................................................................................................21 References: ...........................................................................................................................................22 APPENDIX-A - LIST OF FIGURES.............................................................................................................23 APPENDIX-B - LIST OF TABLE.................................................................................................................23
  7. 7. 1 Darshil H Shah Vinit G Parikh INTRODUCTION The project is designed for LED based street lights with auto intensity control using solar power from photovoltaic cells. As awareness for solar energy is increasing, more and more individuals and institutions are opting for solar energy. Photovoltaic panels are used for charging batteries by converting the sunlight into electricity. A charge controller circuit is used to control the charging and prevent the battery to overcharging from the solar panel. Battery charger should have over voltage protection, short circuit protection and reversed polarity protection. Intensity of street lights is required to be kept high during the peak hours. At late night intensity of light should be max after some time the intensity can be reduced progressively till morning to save energy. Thus final it completely shuts down at morning 6, and again resumes at 6pm in the evening. The process repeats every day. We Used voltage divider circuit to convert 12V to 5V because controller can understand 5V. The microcontroller contains programmable instructions which controls the intensity of street lights based on the PWM (Pulse width modulation) signals generated. To generate PWM signal at different time we used RTC. Real-time clock (RTC) counts seconds, minutes, hours, date of the month, month, day of the week, and year with leap-year. RTC will consume power from microcontroller. RTC is use to detect Automatic power-fail in the circuitry. From the dusk with full intensity till 11pm from 6pm and at 6’o clock to 8’o clock 60%, 8’o clock to 12’o clock 70% 12 mid night it is 100% duty cycle, 1’o clock to 4’o clock 60%, 4’o clock to 6’o clock 60% and finally OFF at the dawn. LED lights are the future of lighting, because of their low energy consumption and long life they are fast replacing conventional lights world over Hence we used LEDs to control the intensity of light.
  8. 8. 2 Darshil H Shah Vinit G Parikh Chapter 1 Functional block diagram with explanation of each Block
  9. 9. 3 Darshil H Shah Vinit G Parikh 1.1 Block Diagram: LED BANK FIG. 1.1 Block diagram Solar Panel Charge Controller Circuit Rechageable Battery Voltage Divider Circuit Arduino UNO
  10. 10. 4 Darshil H Shah Vinit G Parikh 1.2 Explanations of Each Block: Solar Panel: A solar panel is a collection of solar cells. The solar panel converts the solar energy into electrical energy. Output of the solar panel is its power which is measured in terms of Watts or Kilo watts. Solar power uses multiple reflectors to collect more sun’s thermal energy. Thermal energy collected through the day to perform different operations. Performance of the solar panel depends on a number of factors like climate, conditions of the sky, orientation of the panel, intensity and duration of sunlight and its wiring connections. Charge controller circuit: If the battery voltage is below 12V, then the current from LM317 IC flows to the battery. The current flow to the battery stops when the battery voltage rises to 13.5V. Hence charge controller circuit will prevent the battery to flow high current through it. Rechargeable Battery: A rechargeable battery, storage, secondary battery or accumulator is a type of electrical battery which can be charged, discharged into a load, and recharged many times, while a non-rechargeable or primary battery is supplied fully charged, and discarded once discharged. Several different combinations of electrode materials and electrolytes are used, including lead–acid, nickel cadmium (NiCd), nickel metal hydride (Ni-MH), lithium ion (Li-ion), and lithium ion polymer (Li-ion polymer). Voltage Divider circuit: A voltage divider is a simple circuit which turns a large voltage into a smaller one. Using just two series resistors and an input voltage, we can create an output voltage that is a fraction of the input. Voltage dividers are one of the most fundamental circuits in electronics equation of circuit is shown in fig. Arduino UNO: Micro-controller will control the intensity of light at different time slots. Micro controller circuit will generate PWM waves at a particular time using RTC (Real Time Clock) these system provide sets of digital and analog I/O pins that can be interfaced to the street light circuit. Operating voltage of Arduino UNO is 5v so that we will convert 12v from Battery to 5v.
  11. 11. 5 Darshil H Shah Vinit G Parikh Chapter 2 Charge controller circuit
  12. 12. 6 Darshil H Shah Vinit G Parikh 2.1 Operation of circuit diagram:  This automatic battery charger circuit design mainly involves two sections – power supply section and load comparison section.  If the battery voltage is below 12V, then the current from LM317 IC flows through the resistor R5 and diode D5 to the battery. At this time Zener diode D6 will not conduct because battery takes all the current for charging.  When the battery voltage rises to 13.5V, the current flow to the battery stops and zener diode gets the sufficient breakdown voltage and it allows the current through it. Now the base of the transistor gets the sufficient current to turn on so that the output current from LM317 voltage regulator is grounded through the transistor Q1. As a result Red LED indicates the full of charge. 2.2 Advantages:  The battery charger circuit is simple and cost effective.  Over voltage and current protection.  Over temperature protection.  The system is easily portable.  Automatically charges the battery and stops charging when battery is fully charged.  Avoids battery discharge when power failed. 2.3 Limitations:  It takes long time for charging the battery  This circuit is tested in simulation software and may require some practical changes 2.4 Application:  This automatic battery charger is used to charge 12V Lead-acid batteries.  Used to charge car batteries since IC output voltage is variable.  Used to charge toy auto mobile batteries with a little modification.
  13. 13. 7 Darshil H Shah Vinit G Parikh Chapter 3 Software Implementation
  14. 14. 8 Darshil H Shah Vinit G Parikh 3.1 Simulation of charge controller circuit: I. When POT is 100 %( Not Charging) FIG. 3.1.1 controller circuit-I II. When POT is 30 %( Full Charge) FIG. 3.1.2 controller circuit-II
  15. 15. 9 Darshil H Shah Vinit G Parikh 3.2 Simulation of Voltage divider circuit: Controller Arduino UNO can understand 5v. So we require converting 12V from battery to 5V using Voltage divider circuit. Vout=(R2/R1+R2)*Vin FIG.3.2.1 Voltage divider circuit
  16. 16. 10 Darshil H Shah Vinit G Parikh 3.3 Coding of Controller in Arduino UNO for RTC (Real Time Clock): SET TIME: #include <Wire.h> #include <Time.h> #include <DS1307RTC.h> const char *monthName[12] = { "Jan", "Feb", "Mar", "Apr", "May", "Jun", "Jul", "Aug", "Sep", "Oct", "Nov", "Dec" }; tmElements_t tm; void setup() { bool parse=false; bool config=false; // get the date and time the compiler was run if (getDate(__DATE__) && getTime(__TIME__)) { parse = true; // and configure the RTC with this info if (RTC.write(tm)) { config = true; } } Serial.begin(9600); while (!Serial) ; // wait for Arduino Serial Monitor delay(200); if (parse && config) { Serial.print("DS1307 configured Time="); Serial.print(__TIME__); Serial.print(", Date="); Serial.println(__DATE__); } else if (parse) { Serial.println("DS1307 Communication Error :-{"); Serial.println("Please check your circuitry"); } else { Serial.print("Could not parse info from the compiler, Time=""); Serial.print(__TIME__); Serial.print("", Date=""); Serial.print(__DATE__); Serial.println("""); } }
  17. 17. 11 Darshil H Shah Vinit G Parikh void loop() { } bool getTime(const char *str) { int Hour, Min, Sec; if (sscanf(str, "%d:%d:%d", &Hour, &Min, &Sec) != 3) return false; tm.Hour = Hour; tm.Minute = Min; tm.Second = Sec; return true; } bool getDate(const char *str) { char Month[12]; int Day, Year; uint8_t monthIndex; if (sscanf(str, "%s %d %d", Month, &Day, &Year) != 3) return false; for (monthIndex = 0; monthIndex < 12; monthIndex++) { if (strcmp(Month, monthName[monthIndex]) == 0) break; } if (monthIndex >= 12) return false; tm.Day = Day; tm.Month = monthIndex + 1; tm.Year = CalendarYrToTm(Year); return true; }
  18. 18. 12 Darshil H Shah Vinit G Parikh READ TIME: #include <Wire.h> #include <Time.h> #include <DS1307RTC.h> void setup() { Serial.begin(9600); while (!Serial) ; // wait for serial delay(200); Serial.println("DS1307RTC Read Test"); Serial.println("-------------------"); } void loop() { tmElements_t tm; if (RTC.read(tm)) { Serial.print("Ok, Time = "); print2digits(tm.Hour); Serial.write(':'); print2digits(tm.Minute); Serial.write(':'); print2digits(tm.Second); Serial.print(", Date (D/M/Y) = "); Serial.print(tm.Day); Serial.write('/'); Serial.print(tm.Month); Serial.write('/'); Serial.print(tmYearToCalendar(tm.Year)); Serial.println(); } else { if (RTC.chipPresent()) { Serial.println("The DS1307 is stopped. Please run the SetTime"); Serial.println("example to initialize the time and begin running."); Serial.println(); } else { Serial.println("DS1307 read error! Please check the circuitry."); Serial.println(); } delay(9000); } delay(1000); } void print2digits(int number) { if (number >= 0 && number < 10) { Serial.write('0'); } Serial.print(number); }
  19. 19. 13 Darshil H Shah Vinit G Parikh 3.4 PWM in Arduino UNO: FIG.3.4 PWM The green lines represent a regular time period. This duration or period is the inverse of the PWM frequency. In other words, with Arduino PWM frequency at about 500Hz, the green lines would measure 2 milliseconds each. A call to analog write () is on a scale of 0 - 255, such that analogWrite (255) requests a 100% duty cycle (always on), and analogWrite (127) is a 50% duty cycle (on half the time).
  20. 20. 14 Darshil H Shah Vinit G Parikh Chapter 4 Hardware Implementation
  21. 21. 15 Darshil H Shah Vinit G Parikh 4.1 Operation of circuit diagram: The system consists of two circuits – the Charge control circuit and the load intensity control circuit. The charge control circuit consists of 4 parts - overcharge indication, over load detection with protection and low battery voltage detection with indication. IC-LM317t adjustable three- terminal positive-voltage regulator .And it is capable of supplying more than 1.5A over an output-voltage range of 1.25 V to 37 V. The load intensity control part consists of the controller-Arduino UNO which controls the power supply to the load through the transistor and RTC (Real Time Clock). RTC can generate PWM waves at particular time. So as to vary the intensity of the led’s. Here an array of led’s is connected as the load. Timings with intensity Ratio: Timings 6’o to 8’o clock 8’o to 12’o clock 12’o clock 1’o to 4’o clock 4’o to 6’o clock Intensity 60% 80% 100% 80% 60% Table 4.1.1 Time with Intensity
  22. 22. 16 Darshil H Shah Vinit G Parikh 4.2 Testing of Hardware: 1) Controller circuit I FIG.4.2.1 Controller circuit I 2) RTC circuit FIG.4.2.2 RTC Circuit
  23. 23. 17 Darshil H Shah Vinit G Parikh 4.3 Hardware component List: PART LIST QUANTITY PRICE Solar panel (18V) 1 1000 Arduino UNO 1 400 Capacitor Box 1 70 Rechargeable Battery (12V) 1 1000 Zener diode (11v,1w) 1 5 LM317t Regulator 1 10 Potentiometer (10kohms) 1 20 Diode (1N4007) 2 5 LEDs (Small, Big) 10 40 RTC (Real Time Clock) 1 20 Crystal 1 10 Resistor Box 1 50 Transistors 2 5 Heat sink 3 5 Male to Female wire 6 30 Table 4.3.1 Component list
  24. 24. 18 Darshil H Shah Vinit G Parikh Chapter 5 Applications, References, Future Scopes
  25. 25. 19 Darshil H Shah Vinit G Parikh 5.1 Advantages:  Solar street lights are independent of the utility grid. Hence, the operation costs are minimized.  Solar street lights require much less maintenance compared to conventional street lights.  Since external wires are eliminated, risk of accidents is minimized.  This is a non-polluting source of electricity.  Separate parts of solar system can be easily carried to the remote areas. 5.2 Disadvantages:  Initial investment is higher compared to conventional street lights.  Risk of theft is higher as equipment costs are comparatively higher.  Snow or dust, combined with moisture can accumulate on horizontal pv-panels and reduce or even stop energy production.  Rechargeable batteries will need to be replaced several times over the lifetime of the fixtures adding to the total lifetime cost of the light.  The batteries have to be replaced from time to time. 5.3 Applications: This system is designed for outdoor application in un-electrified remote rural areas. This system is an ideal application for campus and village street lighting. Solar Street Lighting System is an ideal lighting system for Roads, Yards, Residential Colonies, Townships, Corporate Offices, Hospitals, Educational Institutions and Rural Electrification.
  26. 26. 20 Darshil H Shah Vinit G Parikh  Street Lighting  Pathway Lighting  Private Road Lighting  Sidewalk Lighting  Farm & Ranch Lighting  Perimeter Security Lighting  Campus Lighting  Gate Lighting  Park Lighting  Wildlife Area  Remote Area Lighting  Jogging and Bike Path Lighting 5.4 Conclusion: The solar energy is one of the important and major renewable sources of energy and has also proven it useful in functioning of applications like street lights. Solar powered automatic street light controller is one of the applications of electronics to increase the facilities of life. The use of new electronic theories has been put down by expertise to increase the facilities given by the existing appliance. Here the facility of ordinary street light is increased by the making it controlled automatically The charge control is necessary in order to achieve safety and increase the capacity of the battery. In cities, currently thousands of street lights are operated and the yearly electricity maintenance cost is very high. The initial cost and maintenance can be the draw backs of this project. With the advances in technology and good resource planning the cost of the project can be cut down and also with the use of good equipment the maintenance can also be reduced in terms of periodic checks. It saves around 40% of electricity from per street light. So throughout the world if we use this concept then it will eliminate the energy crisis to a larger extent. It is eco-friendly and utilizes the renewable source of energy very well.
  27. 27. 21 Darshil H Shah Vinit G Parikh 5.5 Future Scope: The Solar Powered LED Streetlight with Auto Intensity Control can control the electric charge and intensity of lights. This project can be enhanced by using with timer based products and photo sensor based products. We can use solar tracking system for fast charging. In monsoon season solar light is more difficult so that we use extra batteries in series to save more power. To improve lighting we use LED Panel.
  28. 28. 22 Darshil H Shah Vinit G Parikh References: http://www.ijireeice.com/upload/2015/june-15/IJIREEICE%206.pdf http://www.kslubiwmp.com/docs/Watershed%20works/SolarStreetLight.pdf http://www.timeanddate.com/astronomy/india/ahmadabad https://www.sparkfun.com/datasheets/Components/DS1307.pdf http://www.ti.com/lit/ds/symlink/lm317.pdf
  29. 29. 23 Darshil H Shah Vinit G Parikh APPENDIX-A - LIST OF FIGURES NO. TITLE PAGE NO. 1.1 Block Diagram 2 3.1.2 controller circuit-I(simulated) 8 3.1.2 controller circuit-II(simulated) 8 3.2.1 Voltage divider circuit 9 3.4 PWM 13 4.2.1 Controller circuit 17 4.2.2 RTC circuit 17 APPENDIX-B - LIST OF TABLE 4.1.1 Time with Intensity 13 4.3.1 Hardware Component 15

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