Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
BIOFUEL PRODUCTION
FROM ALGAE
PRESENTED BY
BIPUL JYOTI DAS
M.Sc BIOTECHNOLOGY
2ND SEMESTER
ROLL NO: 17
CENTRE FOR STUDIES ...
Less dependence on fossil fuels
Predicted earlier for Alternative
• “ The use of vegetable oil as fuel might seem of no
im...
PROCESSES OF BIOFUEL PRODUCTION
Why Microalgae?
• Slow growth of higher plants
• High fresh water requirement of higher plants
• High cost of land for gro...
BIOFUEL FEEDSTOCK TREE
WHAT TYPE OF ALGAE
• Botryococcus braunii
– Converts 61% of its
biomass into oil
– 86% of it is long chain
hydrocarbons
– ...
GENETICALLY ENGINEERED SPECIES OF Botryococcus braunii
ALGAL SPECIES AND THEIR OIL
CONTENT
Micro algal species Oil content(% dw)
Botryococcus braunii 29-75
Chlorella sp. 29
Nitz...
Steps for the production of algal
Biofuel
1. Sample collection:
Two types of Algae(Oedogonium and Spirogyra sp., 26.5 and ...
3. Mixing of catalyst and methanol: 0.25 g NaOH was mixed with 24 mL methanol and
stirred properly for20 min. Biodiesel pr...
TRANSESTERIFICATION
1. The transesterification is the reversible reaction of fat or
2. oil (which is composed of triglycer...
TRANSESTERIFICATION STEPS
Advantages
• Bio-based fuel with essentially carbon neutral combustion
• Drop in replacement for petroleum-based liquid fu...
Disadvantages
• Need to be grown under controlled temperature conditions
• Requires a considerable amount of land and wate...
Genetically-Engineered Algae
Regulations
 Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA)
 Plant Protection Act (PPA)
 Conflicting ...
Future Aspects
Biofuel Vehicles “Green” Buildings
 More Research & Development
 Further Private & Government Investment
...
• Enhanced Biofuels & Technologies Ltd. 2007. Accessed:
ALGAL BIODIESEL: the next generation biofuel for India
A. K. Bajha...
• Websites:
– http://www.ecology.com/dr-jacks-natural-world/most-important-
organism/index.html
– http://journeytoforever....
CONCLUSION
• Even with few challenges taken into consideration , algae biofuel’s natural
advantages look to make it one of...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Biofuel production from algae

23,092 views

Published on


A variety of fuels can be made from biomassi resources including the liquid fuels ethanol, methanol, biodiesel, Fischer-Tropsch diesel, and gaseous fuels such as hydrogen and methane. Biofuels research and development is composed of three main areas: producing the fuels, applications and uses of the fuels, and distribution infrastructure.
Biofuels are primarily used to fuel vehicles, but can also fuel engines or fuel cells for electricity generation. For information about the use of biofuels in vehicles, see the Alternative Fuel Vehicle page under Vehicles. See the Vehicles page for information about the biofuels distribution infrastructure. See the Hydrogen and Fuel Cells page for more information about hydrogen as a fuel.

Published in: Science, Technology, Business
  • Login to see the comments

Biofuel production from algae

  1. 1. BIOFUEL PRODUCTION FROM ALGAE PRESENTED BY BIPUL JYOTI DAS M.Sc BIOTECHNOLOGY 2ND SEMESTER ROLL NO: 17 CENTRE FOR STUDIES IN BIOTECHNOLOGY DIBRUGARH UNIVERSITY ASSAM,INDIA
  2. 2. Less dependence on fossil fuels Predicted earlier for Alternative • “ The use of vegetable oil as fuel might seem of no importance in our times. However, such products can gain importance in the course of time and reach an equal status compared with today’s petroleum and these coal- tar product”, said Dr. Rudolf Diesel in 1912.
  3. 3. PROCESSES OF BIOFUEL PRODUCTION
  4. 4. Why Microalgae? • Slow growth of higher plants • High fresh water requirement of higher plants • High cost of land for growing higher plants • No competition with food supply
  5. 5. BIOFUEL FEEDSTOCK TREE
  6. 6. WHAT TYPE OF ALGAE • Botryococcus braunii – Converts 61% of its biomass into oil – 86% of it is long chain hydrocarbons – Drops to only 31% oil under stress – Grows best between 22- 25o C (71-77o F)
  7. 7. GENETICALLY ENGINEERED SPECIES OF Botryococcus braunii
  8. 8. ALGAL SPECIES AND THEIR OIL CONTENT Micro algal species Oil content(% dw) Botryococcus braunii 29-75 Chlorella sp. 29 Nitzschia TR-114 28-50 Neochloris oleoabundans 35-54 Schiochytrium 50-77 Scenedesmus TR-84 45 Hantzschia DI-160 66
  9. 9. Steps for the production of algal Biofuel 1. Sample collection: Two types of Algae(Oedogonium and Spirogyra sp., 26.5 and 20.0 g) were recollected. Oil extraction: Algae were ground with motor and pestle as much as possible. The ground algae were dried for 20 min at 80°C in a incubator for releasing water. Hexane and ether solution (20 and 20 mL) were mixed with the dried ground algae to extract oil. Then the mixture was kept for 24 h for settling. 2. Biomass collection: The biomass was collected after filtration and weighted. Evaporation: The extracted oil was evaporated in vacuum to release hexane and ether solutions using rotary evaporator
  10. 10. 3. Mixing of catalyst and methanol: 0.25 g NaOH was mixed with 24 mL methanol and stirred properly for20 min. Biodiesel production: The mixture of catalyst and methanol was poured into the algal oil in a conical flask. 4. Transesterification: The reaction process is called transesterification. The conical flask containing solution was shaken for 3 h by electric shaker at 300rpm alcohol+ ester=different alcohol + different ester 5. Settling: After shaking the solution was kept for 16 h to settle the biodiesel and sediment layers clearly.
  11. 11. TRANSESTERIFICATION 1. The transesterification is the reversible reaction of fat or 2. oil (which is composed of triglyceride) with an alcohol to form fatty acid alkyl ester and glycerol. 3. Stoichiometrically, the reaction requires a 3M:1M alcohol to oil ratio, but excess alcohol is (usually methyl alcohol is used) added to drive the equilibrium toward the product side. 4. The reaction occurs stepwise: a) triglycerides are first converted to diglycerides. b) then to diglycerides are converted to mono glycerides and finally to glycerol.
  12. 12. TRANSESTERIFICATION STEPS
  13. 13. Advantages • Bio-based fuel with essentially carbon neutral combustion • Drop in replacement for petroleum-based liquid fuels • Inherently renewable • Absorbs carbon dioxide as it grows • Both waste CO2 and wastewater can be used as nutrients • Higher energy per-acre than other bio-fuels • Can be grown on land unsuitable for other types of agriculture • Scalable: Study found that 17 percent of U.S. oil imports could be met with algae • Investments are being made • Production is presently scaling up (Navy buying 100,000 gallons this year) • Research has been underway for 50 years
  14. 14. Disadvantages • Need to be grown under controlled temperature conditions • Requires a considerable amount of land and water • Cold flow issues with algal biofuel • Some researchers using genetic engineering to develop optimal algae strains • Requires phosphorus as a fertilizer which is becoming scarce • Fertilizer production is carbon dependent • Relatively high upfront capital costs • Not clear yet what the ultimate cost per gallon will be. Presently too high.
  15. 15. Genetically-Engineered Algae Regulations  Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA)  Plant Protection Act (PPA)  Conflicting Regulatory Agencies – E.P.A. v. U.S.D.A?
  16. 16. Future Aspects Biofuel Vehicles “Green” Buildings  More Research & Development  Further Private & Government Investment  Clearer Regulatory & Statutory Guidelines for Algae Businesses
  17. 17. • Enhanced Biofuels & Technologies Ltd. 2007. Accessed: ALGAL BIODIESEL: the next generation biofuel for India A. K. Bajhaiya, S. K Mandotra, M.R. Suseela*, Kiran Toppo and S. Ranade. ASIAN J. EXP. BIOL. SCI. VOL 1(4) 2010:- 728- 739 • Mumford, T.F. and Miura, A. 1988. 4. Porphyra as food: cultivation and economics. p.87 — 117. In Lembi, C.A. and Waaland, J.R. (Ed.) Algae and Human Affairs. 1988. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0 521 32115 8 • John Sheehan, Terri Dunahay, John Benemann and Paul Roessler, "A Look Back at the U.S. Department of Energy's Aquatic Species Program-Bio-diesel from Algae, Closeout Report", July 1998, NREL/TP-580-24 190 • Michael Briggs, Widescale Biodiesel Production from Algae, University of New Hampshire, Physics Department, revised August 2004. Sheehan, J., T. Dunahay, J. Benemann, and P. Roessler. 1998. A look back at the U.S. Department of Energy’s aquatic species program - Biodiesel from algae. US Dept. Energy, Office of Fuels Development, Nat. Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO. REFERENCES
  18. 18. • Websites: – http://www.ecology.com/dr-jacks-natural-world/most-important- organism/index.html – http://journeytoforever.org/biodiesel_yield.html – http://www.oilgae.com/blog/2008/12/defence-research-laboratory-drl- tezpur.html – http://www.oilgae.com/blog/2007/11/algae-bio-diesel-from-sunderbans- india.html – http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/biofuel-of-the-future/ – http://www.ebtplc.com/c4c.htm – http://www.nrel.gov/docs/legosti/fy98/24190.pdf – http://www.unh.edu/p2/biodiesel/article_alge.html
  19. 19. CONCLUSION • Even with few challenges taken into consideration , algae biofuel’s natural advantages look to make it one of the foremost players in the clean energy market . •Algae biofuel production holds future promise for developing countries. • more jobs •Energy independence

×