A variety of fuels can be made from biomassi resources including the liquid fuels ethanol, methanol, biodiesel, Fischer-Tropsch diesel, and gaseous fuels such as hydrogen and methane. Biofuels research and development is composed of three main areas: producing the fuels, applications and uses of the fuels, and distribution infrastructure.
Biofuels are primarily used to fuel vehicles, but can also fuel engines or fuel cells for electricity generation. For information about the use of biofuels in vehicles, see the Alternative Fuel Vehicle page under Vehicles. See the Vehicles page for information about the biofuels distribution infrastructure. See the Hydrogen and Fuel Cells page for more information about hydrogen as a fuel.
BIPUL JYOTI DAS
ROLL NO: 17
CENTRE FOR STUDIES IN BIOTECHNOLOGY
Less dependence on fossil fuels
Predicted earlier for Alternative
• “ The use of vegetable oil as fuel might seem of no
importance in our times. However, such products can gain
importance in the course of time and reach an equal
status compared with today’s petroleum and these coal-
tar product”, said Dr. Rudolf Diesel in 1912.
WHAT TYPE OF ALGAE
• Botryococcus braunii
– Converts 61% of its
biomass into oil
– 86% of it is long chain
– Drops to only 31% oil
– Grows best between 22-
GENETICALLY ENGINEERED SPECIES OF Botryococcus braunii
ALGAL SPECIES AND THEIR OIL
Micro algal species Oil content(% dw)
Botryococcus braunii 29-75
Chlorella sp. 29
Nitzschia TR-114 28-50
Neochloris oleoabundans 35-54
Scenedesmus TR-84 45
Hantzschia DI-160 66
Steps for the production of algal
1. Sample collection:
Two types of Algae(Oedogonium and Spirogyra sp., 26.5 and 20.0 g) were
recollected. Oil extraction: Algae were ground with motor and pestle as much as
possible. The ground algae were dried for 20 min at 80°C in a incubator for releasing
water. Hexane and ether solution (20 and 20 mL) were mixed with the dried ground
algae to extract oil. Then the mixture was kept for 24 h for settling.
2. Biomass collection:
The biomass was collected after filtration and weighted. Evaporation: The
extracted oil was evaporated in vacuum to release hexane and ether solutions using
3. Mixing of catalyst and methanol: 0.25 g NaOH was mixed with 24 mL methanol and
stirred properly for20 min. Biodiesel production: The mixture of catalyst and
methanol was poured into the algal oil in a conical flask.
4. Transesterification: The reaction process is called transesterification. The conical flask
containing solution was shaken for 3 h by electric shaker at 300rpm alcohol+
ester=different alcohol + different ester
5. Settling: After shaking the solution was kept for 16 h to settle the biodiesel and
sediment layers clearly.
1. The transesterification is the reversible reaction of fat or
2. oil (which is composed of triglyceride) with an alcohol to form
fatty acid alkyl ester and glycerol.
3. Stoichiometrically, the reaction requires a 3M:1M alcohol to
oil ratio, but excess alcohol is (usually methyl alcohol is used)
added to drive the equilibrium toward the product side.
4. The reaction occurs stepwise:
a) triglycerides are first converted to diglycerides.
b) then to diglycerides are converted to mono glycerides
and finally to glycerol.
• Bio-based fuel with essentially carbon neutral combustion
• Drop in replacement for petroleum-based liquid fuels
• Inherently renewable
• Absorbs carbon dioxide as it grows
• Both waste CO2 and wastewater can be used as nutrients
• Higher energy per-acre than other bio-fuels
• Can be grown on land unsuitable for other types of agriculture
• Scalable: Study found that 17 percent of U.S. oil imports could be met with algae
• Investments are being made
• Production is presently scaling up (Navy buying 100,000 gallons this year)
• Research has been underway for 50 years
• Need to be grown under controlled temperature conditions
• Requires a considerable amount of land and water
• Cold flow issues with algal biofuel
• Some researchers using genetic engineering to develop optimal algae strains
• Requires phosphorus as a fertilizer which is becoming scarce
• Fertilizer production is carbon dependent
• Relatively high upfront capital costs
• Not clear yet what the ultimate cost per gallon will be. Presently too high.
Biofuel Vehicles “Green” Buildings
More Research & Development
Further Private & Government Investment
Clearer Regulatory & Statutory Guidelines
for Algae Businesses
• Enhanced Biofuels & Technologies Ltd. 2007. Accessed:
ALGAL BIODIESEL: the next generation biofuel for India
A. K. Bajhaiya, S. K Mandotra, M.R. Suseela*, Kiran Toppo and S. Ranade. ASIAN J. EXP.
BIOL. SCI. VOL 1(4) 2010:- 728- 739
• Mumford, T.F. and Miura, A. 1988. 4. Porphyra as food: cultivation and economics. p.87 —
117. In Lembi, C.A. and Waaland, J.R. (Ed.) Algae and Human Affairs. 1988. Cambridge
University Press. ISBN 0 521 32115 8
• John Sheehan, Terri Dunahay, John Benemann and Paul Roessler, "A Look Back at the U.S.
Department of Energy's Aquatic Species Program-Bio-diesel from Algae, Closeout Report",
July 1998, NREL/TP-580-24 190
• Michael Briggs, Widescale Biodiesel Production from Algae, University of New Hampshire,
Physics Department, revised August 2004. Sheehan, J., T. Dunahay, J. Benemann, and P.
Roessler. 1998. A look back at the U.S. Department of Energy’s aquatic species program -
Biodiesel from algae. US Dept. Energy, Office of Fuels Development, Nat. Renewable Energy
Lab., Golden, CO.
• Even with few challenges taken into consideration , algae biofuel’s natural
advantages look to make it one of the foremost players in the clean energy market .
•Algae biofuel production holds future promise for developing countries.
• more jobs