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Psych 200 Psych Disorders


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Psych Disorders

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Psych 200 Psych Disorders

  1. 1.
  2. 2. Learning Outcomes<br />Define psychological disorders and describe their prevalence.<br />Describe the symptoms and possible origins of each disorder.<br />
  3. 3. Truth or Fiction?<br /><ul><li>In the Middle Ages, innocent people were drowned as a way of proving that they were not possessed by the Devil.
  4. 4. People with schizophrenia may see and hear things that are not really there.</li></li></ul><li>Truth or Fiction?<br /><ul><li>Feeling elated may not be a good thing.
  5. 5. Some people have more than one personality dwelling within them, and each one may have different allergies and eyeglass prescriptions.
  6. 6. Some people can kill or maim others without feelings of guilt.</li></li></ul><li>What arePsychological Disorders?<br />
  7. 7. Psychological Disorders<br />Characterized by<br />Rare or unusual behavior<br />Faulty perceptions or interpretations of reality<br />Inappropriate response to the situation<br />Self-defeating behaviors<br />Dangerous behaviors<br />Socially unacceptable behaviors<br />
  8. 8. Classifying Psychological Disorders<br />Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM)<br />Includes information on medical conditions, psychosocial problems and global assessment of functioning<br />Concerns about reliability and validity of the standards<br />Predictive validity<br />
  9. 9. Prevalence of Psychological Disorders<br />50% of us will experience a psychological disorder at some time in our life<br />Most often starts in childhood or adolescence<br />25% will experience a psychological disorder in any given year<br />
  10. 10. Schizophrenia<br />
  11. 11. Schizophrenia<br />Severe psychological disorder characterized by disturbances in <br />thought and language<br />perception and attention<br />motor activity<br />mood<br />social interaction<br />
  12. 12. Schizophrenia<br />Afflicts nearly 1% of the population worldwide<br />Onset occurs relatively early in life<br />Adverse effects tend to endure<br />
  13. 13. Positive Versus Negative Symptoms<br />Positive symptoms<br />Excessive symptoms <br />Hallucinations, delusion,looseness of association<br />Negative symptoms<br />Deficiencies <br />Lack of emotional expressionand motivation<br />Social withdrawal<br />Poverty of speech<br />
  14. 14. Positive Versus Negative Symptoms<br />Positive symptoms<br />More likely an abrupt onset<br />Retain intellectual abilities<br />More favorable response to antipsychotic medication<br />
  15. 15. Positive Versus Negative Symptoms<br />Negative symptoms<br />More likely a gradual onset<br />Severe intellectual impairments<br />Poorer response to antipsychotic medication<br />
  16. 16. Types of Schizophrenia<br />Paranoid Schizophrenia<br />Systematized delusions<br />Disorganized Schizophrenia<br />Incoherence; extreme social impairment<br />Catatonic Schizophrenia<br />Motor impairment; waxy flexibility<br />
  17. 17. Origins of Schizophrenia <br />Biological Perspectives<br />Brain abnormality<br />Risk factors<br />Heredity<br />Complications during pregnancy and birth<br />Birth during winter<br />Dopamine theory of schizophrenia<br />
  18. 18. Origins of Schizophrenia <br />Psychological perspectives<br />Conditioning and social situations<br />Sociocultural perspectives<br />Relationship between schizophrenia and lower socioeconomic status<br />Biopsychosocial perspective<br />Genetic predisposition<br />
  19. 19. The Biopsychosocial Model of Schizophrenia<br />
  20. 20. Mood Disorders<br />
  21. 21. Mood Disorders <br />Characterized by disturbance in expressed emotions<br />
  22. 22. Types of Mood Disorders <br />Major Depressive Disorder<br />Persistent feelings of sadness, loss of interest, feelings of worthlessness or guilt, and inability to concentrate<br />Bipolar disorder<br />Mood swings from ecstatic elation to deep depression<br />
  23. 23. Origins of Mood Disorders <br />Biological<br />Genetic factors<br />Psychological<br />Learned helplessness<br />Perfectionism and unrealistic expectations<br />Attributional styles<br />Biopsychosocial<br />Biologically predisposed interact with self-efficacy expectations and attitudes<br />
  24. 24. Mood Disorders<br />
  25. 25. Compare & Contrast<br />Dementia<br />De mens means “out of mind”<br />Not reversible; may be slowed with meds<br />Does not meet inpatient admission criteria unless substantial psychiatric symptoms are present<br />Depression<br />De premere means “pressed down”<br />Often reversible<br />High priority because of suicide risk<br />Delirium<br />De lira means “off the path”<br />Often reversible<br />High priority because it can kill you<br />
  26. 26. Depression<br />Onset – weeks to months<br />Biological brain disorder<br />Not part of normal aging<br />7-12% of population<br />Suicide one of top ten causes of death<br />Some medicines cause depression<br />30-40% SMI persons have depression<br />70-90% depressed improve with medicationsand “talk” therapy<br />
  27. 27. Depression<br />Under diagnosed and therefore under treated<br />not recognized as treatable by senior adult <br />reported as physical symptoms to MD<br />seen as weakness<br />Effects everything<br />feelings<br />thoughts<br />behaviors<br />Cannot just “pull themselves together”<br />Without treatment, depression can last months or even years<br />
  28. 28. Symptoms of Depression<br />Feelings – mood, loss of pleasure, hopeless, wish to die<br />Behaviors – crying, uncooperative, withdrawn<br />Appetite – eating less, eating more<br />Thoughts – memory problems, poor self esteem, difficulty making decisions, poor concentration<br />Sleep – poor sleep, “sleep all the time<br />Energy – loss of energy, apathy, “tired all the time”<br />
  29. 29. Depression Affects . . . .<br />My ability to cope<br />My mood<br />My relationships<br />How I feel about myself<br />How I interpret my world<br />My health<br />My attitude about the future<br />How I spend my time<br />My activity level<br />My eating habits<br />
  30. 30. Depression<br />Three Types of Depression<br />Situational<br />Example: Loss of health<br />Biological / organic<br />Example: “runs in the family”<br />Medication side effect<br />
  31. 31. Coping with Depression<br />Be with others<br />Positive thinking<br />Exercise<br />Do things you enjoy<br />Eat a balanced diet<br />Talk about your feelings<br />Medication<br />
  32. 32. Risk Factors in Suicide<br />Feelings of depression, hopelessness<br />Stressful life events<br />Anxiety over “discovery”<br />Poor problem solver<br />Familial experience with psychological disorders and/or suicide<br />
  33. 33. Sociocultural Factors in Suicide<br />Third leading cause of death among young people aged 15 to 24<br />More common among college students than people of the same age who do not attend college<br />Older people are more likely to commit suicide than teenagers<br />
  34. 34. Sociocultural Factors in Suicide<br />One in six Native Americans has attempted suicide<br />African Americans are least likely to attempt suicide<br />Three times as many females attempt suicide<br />Four times as many males succeed in suicide<br />
  35. 35. Myths about Suicide<br />Individuals who threaten suicide are only seeking attention. <br />You should never mention suicide to a depressed person because you might give them an idea.<br />
  36. 36. Anxiety Disorders<br />
  37. 37. Anxiety Disorders <br />Psychological features of anxiety<br />Worrying, fear of worst case scenario, nervousness, inability to relax<br />Physical features of anxiety<br />Arousal of sympathetic branch of autonomic nervous system<br />
  38. 38. Phobias <br />Specific phobias<br />Irrational fears of specific objects or situations<br />Social phobias<br />Persistent fears of scrutiny by others<br />Agoraphobia<br />Fear of being in places from which it would be difficult to escape or receive help<br />
  39. 39. Panic Disorder <br />Abrupt attack of acute anxiety not triggered by a specific object or situation<br />Physical symptoms<br />Shortness of breath, heavy sweating, tremors, pounding of the heart<br />Other symptoms that may “feel” like a heart attack<br />
  40. 40. Generalized Anxiety Disorder <br />Persistent anxiety<br />Cannot be attributed to object, situation, or activity<br />Symptoms include<br />Motor tension<br />Autonomic overarousal<br />Excessive vigilance<br />
  41. 41. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder <br />Obsessions<br />Recurrent, anxiety-provoking thoughts or images that seem irrational and beyond control<br />Compulsions<br />Thoughts or behaviors that tend to reduce the anxiety connected with obsessions<br />Irresistible urges to engage in specific acts, often repeatedly<br />
  42. 42. Stress Disorders<br />Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTDS)<br />Caused by a traumatic event<br />May occur months or years after event<br />Acute stress disorder<br />Unlike PTDS, occurs within a month of event and lasts 2 days to 4 weeks<br />
  43. 43. Sleep Problems Among Americans<br />Before and After September 11, 2001<br />
  44. 44. Origins of Anxiety Disorders<br />Biological<br />Genetic factors<br />Psychological and Social<br />Phobias as conditioned fears<br />Cognitive bias toward focusing on threats<br />Biopsychosocial <br />Interaction between biological, psychological, social factors<br />
  45. 45. Somatoform Disorders<br />
  46. 46. Somatoform Disorders<br />Physical problems (such as paralysis, pain, or persistent belief of serious disease) with no evidence of a physical abnormality<br />
  47. 47. Conversion Disorder<br />Major change in, or loss of, physical functioning, although there are no medical findings to explain the loss of functioning.<br />Not intentionally produced<br />la belle indifférence<br />
  48. 48. Hypochondriasis<br />Insistence of serious physical illness, even though no medical evidence of illness can be found<br />May seek opinion of one doctor after another<br />
  49. 49. Body Dysmorphic Disorder<br />Preoccupation with a fantasized or exaggerated physical defect in their appearance<br />May assume others see them as deformed<br />
  50. 50. Origins of Somatoform Disorders<br />Biopsychosocial perspective<br />Psychologically, the disorder has to do with what one focuses on to the exclusion of conflicting information<br />Tendencies toward perfectionism and rumination (heritable)<br />
  51. 51. Dissociative Disorders<br />
  52. 52. Dissociative Disorders<br />A separation of mental processes such as thoughts, emotions, identity, memory, or consciousness<br />
  53. 53. Types of Dissociative Disorders<br />Dissociative Amnesia<br />Suddenly unable to recall important personal information; not due to biological problems<br />Dissociative Fugue<br />Abruptly leaves home or work and travels to another place, no memory of previous life<br />
  54. 54. Types of Dissociative Disorders<br />Dissociative Identity Disorder<br />Two or more identities, each with distinct traits, “occupy” the same person<br />Formerly known as multiple personality disorder<br />
  55. 55. Origins of Dissociative Disorders<br />Biopsychosocial<br />Learning/cognitive – may help keep disturbing ideas out of one’s mind<br />Biological – Trauma (abuse) related dissociation may have neurological basis<br />
  56. 56. Personality Disorders<br />
  57. 57. Personality Disorders<br />Characterized by enduring patterns of behavior that are maladaptive and inflexible<br />Impair personal or social functioning<br />Source of distress<br />
  58. 58. Types of Personality Disorders<br />Paranoid Personality Disorder<br />Interpret other’s behavior as threatening or demeaning<br />Schizotypal Personality Disorder<br />Peculiarities of thought, perception, or behavior<br />Schizoid Personality Disorder<br />Indifference to relationships and flat emotional response<br />
  59. 59. Types of Personality Disorders<br />Borderline Personality Disorder<br />Instability in relationships, self-image, and mood<br />Antisocial Personality Disorder<br />Persistently violate the law<br />Show no guilt or remorse and are largely undeterred by punishment<br />Avoidant Personality Disorder<br />Avoid relationships for fear of rejection<br />
  60. 60. Origins of Personality Disorders<br />Biological<br />Genetic factors<br />Personality traits that may be inherited<br />Antisocial personality – less gray matter in prefrontal cortex<br />
  61. 61. Origins of Personality Disorders<br />Psychological<br />Learning theory<br />Childhood experiences<br />Cognitive<br />Misinterpretation of other people’s behaviors<br />Sociocultural<br />Borderline personality – may reflect the fragmented society in which one lives<br />
  62. 62. Beyond The Book<br />Slides To Help Expand Your Lectures<br />
  63. 63. Explaining Psychological Disorders<br />Biological Perspective<br />Genetics, evolution, the brain, neurotransmitters, hormones<br />Psychological Perspective<br />Focuses on behavior and mental processes<br />
  64. 64. Explaining Psychological Disorders<br />Psychodynamic theory<br />Disorders are symptoms of underlying unconscious processes that stem from childhood conflicts<br />
  65. 65. Explaining Psychological Disorders<br />Behavioral perspective<br />Disorders reflect the learning of maladaptive responses<br />Cognitive perspective<br />Focus on faulty thinking and misperceptions and beliefs<br />
  66. 66. Explaining Psychological Disorders<br />Humanistic perspective<br />Disorders result when tendencies toward self-actualization are frustrated<br />Sociocultural perspective<br />Social ills can contribute to development of disorders<br />Some disorders may be culture-bound<br />
  67. 67. Three Dimensional Model <br />of Schizophrenic Symptoms<br />Psychotic dimension<br />Delusions and hallucinations<br />Negative dimension<br />Negative symptoms (affect, poverty of speech and thought)<br />Disorganized dimension<br />Inappropriate affect and disordered thought and speech<br />
  68. 68. What types of methods do clinicians and researchers use to determine whether or not a person is experiencing hallucinations? <br />Do you consider these methods to be valid or foolproof?<br />Suffering From Schizophrenia<br />
  69. 69. Warning Signs of Suicide<br />Changes in eating and sleeping patterns<br />Difficulty concentrating on school or the job<br />A sharp decline in performance and attendance at school or on the job<br />Loss of interest in previously enjoyed activities<br />Giving away prized possessions<br />Complaints about physical problems when no medical basis for problems can be found<br />
  70. 70. Warning Signs of Suicide<br />Withdrawal from social relationships<br />Personality or mood changes<br />Talking or writing about death or dying<br />Abuse of drugs or alcohol<br />An attempted suicide<br />Availability of a handgun<br />A precipitating event<br />
  71. 71. Warning Signs of Suicide<br />In the case of adolescents, knowing or hearing about another teenager who has committed suicide (which can lead to “cluster” suicides)<br />Threatening to commit suicide<br />