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Eukaryotic promoters

molecular biology

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Eukaryotic promoters

  1. 1. EUKARYOTIC PROMOTER Presented by: Manish Gaud. Department: Pharmaco-Informatics(PI-291) NIPER HAJIPUR. 1
  2. 2. Eukaryotic Promoters In genetics: A promoter is a DNA sequence that can recruit transcriptional machinery and lead to transcription of the downstream DNA sequence. Location: located near the transcription start sites of genes, on the same strand and upstream on the DNA (towards the 5' region of the sense strand). Size: Promoters can be about 100–1000 base pairs long. 2
  3. 3. Importance of promoter • Promoter is a binding site for RNA polymerase. • RNA polymerase bind only on promoter. • It helps in transcription. • A promoter may include a binding site for a protein presence or absence of that protein will affect the strength of the promoter. Such a promoter is known as a regulated promoter. 3
  4. 4. •Three kind of RNA polymerase can bind on promoter… • RNA polymerase I • RNA polymerase II • RNA polymerase III 4
  5. 5. Types of promoters • 1)Constitutive promoter :- • These promoters are always active for gene expression and environment independent. •2)Tissue-specific :- • These promoters direct the gene expression in a specific tissues or at certain stage of development. 5
  6. 6. Types of promoters •3)Synthetic promoter :- • These promoters are made by primary element of a particular region from diverse origin. •4)Inducible promoter :- • These promoters dependent upon the external stimuli & environmental factors for gene expression . 6
  7. 7. Method to determine promoter site. • DNase footprint assay method: 7
  8. 8. Online promoter prediction tools • There are many online tools available for predicting promoter .. • For example, • Promoter 2.0 prediction server. • Neural Network Promoter Prediction. • PROMOSER. • Etc. 8
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  10. 10. •Promoter 2.0 Prediction Results • gi_186429_gb_J00265.1_HUMINS01 Human insulin gene, complete 4044 nucleotides • Position Score likelihood • 2300 1.118 Highly likely prediction • 2900 0.620 Marginal prediction • 3700 0.521 Marginal prediction 10
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