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What Is Culture ?
Culture as “ways of living”
Culture is learned, not innate
MEXICO - Wards off hunger
INDIA - Wards off evil
importance of local
Dimensions of Culture
Hofstedes culture Dimensions
• The degree of inequality that exists – and is
accepted by the people with or without the power.
Characteristics of PD
• Large Gap in Compensation
• Flatter Organisation
• Supervisors and Employees
are almost equal
• Refers to the Strength of the ties people have to
others within the community.
Characteristics of Individualism
• Respect For Privacy
• An Enjoyment of Challenges,
and an expectation of rewards
• Emphasis on building skills and
becoming masters of something
• Work for Intrinsic rewards
Masculinity Vs Femininity
• Refers how the society sticks with and
values, traditional male and female roles
• A masculine culture emphasizes status
derived from wages and positions.
• A Feminine culture emphasizes on human
relations and quality of life.
• Relates to the degree of anxiety
society members feel when in
uncertain and unknown situations.
Characteristics Of Uncertainty Avoidance
• Very formal Business conduct with
lots of rules and regulations
• Need and expect structure
• Difference are avoided
• Informal Business Attitude
• More concern with the long term
• Accepting of change and risk
Long term Orientation
• Refers to how much society values long standing –
as opposed to short term – traditional values
Characteristics Of Long Term Orientation
• Strong work ethic
• High value placed on education
• Hesitant to introduce changes
• High Creativity and mind set to
Culture & Management
Styles in Selected Countries
Cultural Patterns of CHINA
• Investments in work organizations,
both in human and monetary terms
are regarded as long term.
• Four Cultural Characteristics
• Respect for relationship
• Sense of Shame