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Digital Green Overview


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Digital Green: Technology and social organization to amplify the effectiveness of development

Published in: Technology, Education
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Digital Green Overview

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  2. 2. Agriculture in India600M agriculture-dependent livesMajority small landholders (<3 acres)<$2 a day ($750 a year)Growing debts ($300 per year per farmer)Earlier technology intervention… – Green revolution had mixed results • Increased yields, but… • Led to rising input costs, declining soil fertility • Due to excessive use of A farmer from Yellachavadi village, fertilizers/pesticides outside of BangaloreIndiscriminate use of technology partiallyresponsible for current agrarian crisis 2
  3. 3. Agricultural Systems? farmer expert Low literacy in local lang Expensive No unique IDNo bank account Credit card credit Poor roads Market Quantity Poor quality buyers control Computing device and connectivity not enough!
  4. 4. Agriculture Extension Dissemination of expert agriculture information and technology to farmers “Training & Visit” extension popularized by the World Bank in 1970s – Face-to-face interactions of extension officers and farmers 100,000 extension officers in India – Extension agent-to-farmer ratio is 1: 2,000 – 610,000 villages in India with average 1,000-person populationExtension officer “commuting” between farms 4
  5. 5. Agricultural Social Networks ? Main source of information about new technology and farm practices over the past 365 days (India: NSSO 2005) 5
  6. 6. The ProblemHow can the speed and effectivenessof agriculture extension be improvedat a reasonable cost? Extension officer on-field demonstration 6
  7. 7. Digital Video for ExtensionVideo provides… – Resource-savings: human, cost, time – Accessibility for non-literate farmers 7
  8. 8. Early ExperimentationEarly ExperimentationParameters Varied Background of actors in video, Types of content, Background of actors in video, Types of content, Location and timing field trying various combinations Six months in of screening, Method of dissemination, Over 200Degree of mediation,Background of mediator, etc. design Degree surveys, ethnographic investigation, and iterative days of of mediation, Background of mediator, etc. 8
  9. 9. Digital Green SystemParticipatory Content ProductionIntroduction to innovations – Standard extension procedureRough “storyboarding” – Repetitive pattern; easy to learn – Minimize post-productionLocal farmers on their own fields – Reduce perception of “teachers” – Promote “local stars” 9
  10. 10. Digital Green SystemVideo DatabaseOnline videodatabase>2,100 videos of 8-10 minutes eachQuality-control, minor video editing,and metadata taggingIndexed by type, topic, locale,season, crop, etc.Distributed via memory cards 10
  11. 11. Digital Green SystemMediated InstructionLocal mediator – Performance-based honorariumHuman engagement – Field questions, capture feedback, encourage participation – Balance gendersOn-demand screenings – Choice time and place – Not “stand-alone” kioskSupport and monitoring – Daily metrics and feedback – Official extension staff 11
  12. 12. Digital Green SystemStructured SequencingCommunity Practices with Practices withAssessment short-term longer-term visible rewards visible rewards Group ParticipationAudienceAwarenessSeasonLocation Time 12
  13. 13. Digital Green System1. Participatory content production2. Video database3. Mediated instruction4. Structured sequencing 13
  14. 14. Preliminary EvaluationExperimental Set-Up15-month study21 villages in Karnataka: Classical GREEN (8) – Language: Kannada Expert Same as usual – Crops: Ragi, banana, mulberry, coconut Digital Green (9) Research Assistant – Population: 50-80 households 3 sessions per week – Irrigation: 10-20 households with access Extension Cost: Rs. 9,500 ($240) for TV/DVD – Television: 15-20 households Officer per village PC / camera costs shared Extension officer sharedMetrics: Mediator salary – Knowledge: Before-and-afterLocal Mediator Local Mediator Local Mediator Accountability: – Attendance: Farmers at each screening Daily metrics and feedback Official extension staff – Interest: Intent to take-up a practice Poster Green(3) – FarmingAdoption: Number of households Farming up Farming taking Same as Digital Green with local each new farming practice or technology Community Community Community mediator, but no TV/DVD Mediator makes posters and holds regular group sessions Audio Green (1) Same as Poster Green with MP3 audio tracks from videos 14
  15. 15. Digital Green: Early Results7 times more adoptions over classical extensionSustained local presence 90 80Mediation 70 Adoption Rate (%) 60Repetition (and novelty) 50 Classic GREEN 40 30 Digital GreenIntegration into existing extension Poster Green 20operations 10 Audio Green 0Social homophily between mediator, Jun-07 Oct-07 Jan-08 Mar-08 Jun-08 May-07 May-08 Apr-07 Jul-07 Aug-07 Sep-07 Feb-08 Apr-08 Nov-07 Cumulative Dec-07actor, and farmerDesire to be “on TV”Trust built from identities of farmers 15 months:and villages in videos 13 villages, 3 nights a week, 1,000 regulars 15
  16. 16. Cost-Benefit Cost (USD) Adoption (%) Cost/Adoption System /Village/Year /Village/Year (USD) Classical GREEN $840 11% $38.18 Digital Green $630 85% $3.70 Poster Green $490 59% $4.15 Note: Decreasing amortized cost of hardware with time and scale Digital Green is at least 10 times more effective per dollar spent than classical extension! 16
  17. 17. Incremental Adoptions, Incremental Incomes$250$200$150 In first 8 months, adoption of improved practices increased the incomes of farmers by$100 an average of $242!$50 $0 Jun-10 Jul-10 Aug-10 Sep-10 Oct-10 Nov-10 Dec-10 Jan-11 Chili - NurseryChili Line Beans Line Sowing Bitter Gourd Pest & Ginger Rot Potato Line Sowing, Tomato IntercroppingSeed Poultry Rearing Raising, Sowing, Beans FertilizerRice Intensification System of Application Management _ Improved Onion Improved 17
  18. 18. Digital Green SystemNetwork EffectViral Web 2.0 in the Web-less world - Content ecosystem: education, entrepreneurship, entertainment - Cost-realistic access: pico projectors, TVs, DVD players, and camcordersReinforce existing social networks to diffuse innovations through communitiesLocal “idol” competitions to be a better farmer 3 1 19 2
  19. 19. Digital Green SystemPlatform Online Offline (no/low connectivity) Browser-based input Cloud-based central database Data stored in local database Synchronized with local databases Synchronized when connectivity available 21
  20. 20. Digital Green SystemCOCO | Connect Online, Connect Offline
  21. 21. Digital Green SystemPlatformRobust system to share, track, and analyse data to manage operations andtarget interventions over timeAnalytics dashboard built on top of a simple yet robust dataentry system that can toggle between online and offline connectivity modes 100,000 simultaneous offline users Offline mode 10x faster than online 23
  22. 22. Digital Green SystemAnalytics
  23. 23. Digital Green SystemAnalytics
  24. 24. Non-Non-Profit Digital GreenSubsidize agriculture Digital Green’s value to farmers is established – viewers contribute Rs. 2-4extension with ads? per screening. Could DG also be supported by ads? Advertisers get access to a distributed, captive audience with demonstrated interest in better agriculture. Ads follow Digital Green’s distribution channels. To do: – Scale Digital Green – Devise mechanism for ensuring appropriate ads – Quantify ad effectiveness Digital Green DVD title screen – Quantify ad value to advertisers
  25. 25. Digital Green SystemWonder Village
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  28. 28. Ministry ofRural Development (Govt of India) 30
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  31. 31. Agricultural Systems? farmer expert Low literacy in local lang Expensive No unique IDNo bank account Credit card credit Poor roads Market Quantity Poor quality buyers control Technology not enough!
  32. 32. Technology magnifies human intent and capability.Technology itself requires support fromwell-intentioned, competent people or organizations.Successful technology interventions work as a part ofwell-intentioned, competent organizations.
  33. 33. Thanks!