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  1. 1. HEALTHY SOILS FOR A HEALTHY LIFE Sudhis Kumar. K Assistant Director –SS-NC Department of Soil Survey & Soil Conservation
  2. 2. Topics • Soil pollution • soil quality monitoring • soil health card • Remote sensing and GIS • Soil Based Plant Nutrient Information System • Quality of irrigation water
  3. 3. Soil The unconsolidated mineral or organic material on the immediate surface of the Earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of plants.
  4. 4. Soil Formation
  5. 5. Young soil Developed soil
  6. 6. Soil Survey • Soil survey is the study and mapping of soils in their natural environment • It is the systematic examination, description, classification and mapping of soils in an area
  7. 7. SOIL SURVEY A soil survey describes the characteristics of the soils, classifies them, plots the boundaries of the soils on an appropriate base map, and makes predictions about the behavior of soils. Thus soil survey provide basic information on soils for planning developmental programmes.
  8. 8. KINDS OF SOIL SURVEYS 1. Detailed soil survey Low intensity detailed soil survey High intensity detailed soil survey 2. Reconnaissance soil survey 3. Detailed-Reconnaissance soil survey
  9. 9. Field survey and mapping (Detailed soil survey) Identification and location of survey area on soil and cadastral maps, Traverse the area and identify correctly the field plots and subplots by starting from a known point present both on map and field, Selection and location of transects, Study and classification of profiles, Preparation of preliminary soil mapping legend,
  10. 10. Topography has a major role in soil development
  11. 11. Survey and mapping Identification of soil series –have same differentiating characters and horizons Identification of dominant phases for each series, surface texture, gravelly/stony/rocky, slope, depth, erosion, calcareousness, salinity, Surface crusting, etc.,
  12. 12. Entisols Mollisols Alfisols Spodosols Ultisols Inceptisols Histosols Vertisols Soil variability
  13. 13. Oxisols Aridisols Gelisols Andisols
  14. 14. Soil Pollution
  15. 15. Soil, and pollution POLLUTION- An undesirable change in the physical chemical or biological characteristics of air, water or soil. SOIL POLLUTION- The undesirable change in physical, chemical and biological characteristics of soil, which are harmful for all living beings.
  16. 16. KINDS OF SOIL POLLUTION- 1) Agricultural pesticides 2) Disposal of solid wastes on land 3) Mining activities 4) Biological agents 5) Radioactive pollutants 6) Heavy metal pollutants
  17. 17. Agricultural practices-  The use of indiscriminate use of inorganic nutrients for a long time gradually declines the soil fertility.  The intensive inappropriate tillage practices lowers the capability of soil.
  18. 18. Disposal of solids wastes on land  The solid wastes are mostly generated from industrial, domestic and urban and agricultural sources.  The solid wastes generated in indian cities mainly contains sludge, glass materials, metallic cans, fibres, waste paper, packing materials, leather.
  19. 19. Mining activities-  The top layer of soil is generally damaged or destroyed during both shaft and strip mining practices.  The uncontrolled mine fires may also destroy the productivity of the areas near mines.
  20. 20. Biological agents-  The major sources of biological agents causing soil pollution are human excreta, animal and bird excreta, muncipal wastes, faulty sanitation.  The industrial parasites are among the most threatening biological agents.
  21. 21. Radioactive pollutants-  Huge amounts of radio-active substances result from nuclear device explosion, nuclear testing laborateries, nuclear power plants and weapons.  All these are responsible for enhancing soil pollution.
  22. 22. Heavy metal pollutants • Heavy metals in soil are basically due to industrial discharges. • Certain heavy metals eg. Zn, Cu, Ni, Cd and Pb are also present in significant levels in sewage sludge and reach the soil where they become part of life cycle and affects adversely.
  25. 25. Effects of soil pollution 1. Soil fertility is adversely affected if pesticide remain in soil for longer period. 2. Excessive use of fertilizers and pesticide chemicals does not allow microbial flora and fauna in soil to flourish. 3. Excessive use of nitrogen and phosphatic fertilizer makes the soil deficient in other micronutrients like Zn, Cu etc. and causes nutrition imbalance. 4. Pesticides like DDT, dieldrin etc. are known to seep gradually through soil into ground water and thus contaminate public drinking water supplies.
  26. 26. 5. People in contact with pesticides are extremely prone to get poisoned. 6. Some of the industrial wastes are extremely toxic for organisms. 7. Solid urban wastes and industrial wastes produce foul and offensive odour. 8. Heavy metals and other toxic substances can destroy benefecial microorganisms of the soil. 9. Radioactive pollutants can cause a number of undesirable disease of digestive system if they enter our body through food chain.
  27. 27. Control of soil pollution- 1. Adoption of sustainable agriculture having organic farming and use of biofertilizers, biointegrated pest management and proper water management, composting etc. 2. Adoption of suitable and proper industrial and urban wastes management. 3. Adequate controlled use of heavy metal and toxic substances. 4. Non-biodegradable wastes can be recycled and used again 5. Biomedical wastes should be carefully disposed off so that it does not create any health hazard.
  28. 28. Soil Mapping Using Remote Sensing Techniques
  29. 29. • Remote Sensing: – The art and science of obtaining information about an object without physically contact between the object and sensor – The processes of collecting information about Earth surfaces and phenomena using sensors not in physical contact with the surfaces and phenomena of interest. – There is a medium of transmission involved i.e. Earth’s Atmosphere. Remote Sensing
  30. 30. Energy Source or Illumination (A) Radiation and the Atmosphere (B) Interaction with the Target (C) Recording of Energy by the Sensor (D) Transmission, Reception, and Processing (E) Interpretation and Analysis (F) Application (G) Source: Canadian Centre for Remote Sensing Remote Sensing Process Components
  31. 31. Types of REMOTE SENSING Active Remote Sensing Passive Remote Sensing
  32. 32. • Agriculture • Forestry • Geology • Hydrology • Sea Ice • Land Cover & Land Use • Mapping • Oceans & Coastal Monitoring Area: APPLICATION:
  33. 33. Source: Jensen (2000) Application Domain
  34. 34.  Urbanization & Transportation ◦ Updating road maps ◦ Asphalt conditions ◦ Wetland delineation  Agriculture ◦ Crop health analysis ◦ Precision agriculture ◦ Compliance mapping ◦ Yield estimation  Natural Resource Management ◦ Habitat analysis ◦ Environmental assessment ◦ Pest/disease outbreaks ◦ Impervious surface mapping ◦ Lake monitoring ◦ Hydrology ◦ Landuse - Landcover monitoring ◦ Mineral province ◦ Geomorphology Applications of remote sensing and GIS
  35. 35. Agriculture • Crop acreage estimation • Crop modeling for yield & production forecast / estimation • Crop & Orchard monitoring Scope • Timely availability of crop statistics for decision making & planning • Crop growth monitoring • Soil status monitoring • Regular reports regarding total area under cultivation Benefits Banana Plantation – Muhammad Pur (Ghotki) FFC Goth Macchi Mar 05, 2006, RecoveryJan 12, 2006, DamageDec 16, 2005, Pre-Frost
  36. 36. Forestry • Satellite image based forest resource mapping and updation • Forest change detection • Forest resource inventory • GIS database development Scope • Availability of baseline information • Planning for aforestation strategies • Futuristic resource planning • Sustainability of environment • Wild life conservation & development for recreation purpose Benefits Sarhad Reserve Forest (Ghotki) Nausharo Firoz
  37. 37. Landuse / Landcover Mapping • Monitoring dynamic changes • Urban/Rural infrastructure • Waterlogging & salinity Scope • Assessment of spatial distribution of land resources • Infrastructure monitoring • Availability of usable land • Future planning for better land management for socio-economic development Benefits
  38. 38. • Use of Remote Sensing and GIS technology in these areas of sustainable agricultural management. • Cropping System Analysis Cropping system map generated through integrated use of temporal digital satellite data and GIS
  39. 39. Urban & Regional Planning • Mapping & updation of city/town maps • Urban sprawl monitoring • Town planning • Facility management • GIS database development Scope • Better decision support, planning & management • Rapid information updation • Infrastructure development monitoring • Spatial information analysis Benefits
  40. 40. What is GIS? • GIS = Geographic Information System – Links databases and maps – Manages information about places – Helps answer questions such as: • Where is it? • What else is nearby? • Where is the highest concentration of ‘X’? • Where can I find things with characteristic ‘Y’? • Where is the closest ‘Z’ to my location?
  41. 41. • Geographic Information System • A GIS is a computer system capable of capturing, storing, analyzing, and displaying geographically referenced information; that is, data identified according to location. • Practitioners also define a GIS as including the procedures, operating personnel, and spatial data that go into the system. What is a GIS?
  42. 42. • A GIS makes it possible to link, or integrate, information that is difficult to associate through any other means. • Thus, a GIS can use combinations of mapped variables to build and analyze new variables. • GIS is most useful when used to perform data analysis
  43. 43. Why Does GIS Matter? “Almost everything that happens, happens somewhere. Knowing where something happens is critically important.” Longley et al. (2001, 6) Because location is so important, it is an issue in many of the problems
  44. 44. • the real world has a lot of spatial data – manipulation, analysis and modeling can be effective and efficiently carried out with a GIS • the neighborhood of the intended purchase of house • the route for fire-fighting vehicles to the fire area • location of historical sites to visit • the earth surface for purposes of army • the earth surface is a limited resource • rational decisions on space utilization • fast and quality information in decision making THE NEED FOR GIS
  45. 45.  complexity of management – due to the need to combine and process many sets of data, in addition to judge as many as possible, situation that might happen.  intense competition – the need to use technology in making decisions and strategy in the world of intense competition. ... THE NEED FOR GIS
  47. 47. Basic functions of GIS •Data Acquisition and prepossessing •Database Management and Retrieval •Spatial Measurement and Analysis •Graphic output and Visualization
  48. 48. • Maximize the efficiency of planning and decision making • Provide efficient means for data distribution and handling • Elimination of redundant data base - minimize duplication • Capacity to integrate information from many sources • Complex analysis/query involving geographical referenced data to generate GIS OBJECTIVES
  49. 49. Geospatial data are better maintained in a standard format. Revision and updating are easier. Geospatial data and information are easier to search, analysis and represent. More value added product. Geospatial data can be shared and exchanged freely. Productivity of the staff improved and more efficient. Time and money are saved. Better decision can be made.
  50. 50.  Facilities Management:  Locating underground pipes & cables, planning facility maintenance, telecommunication network services  Environmental and Natural Resources Management: Environmental impact analysis, disaster management and mitigation  Street Network:  Locating houses and streets, car navigation, transportation planning  Planning and Engineering:  Urban planning, regional planning, development of public facilities  Land Information:  Taxation, zoning of land use, land acquisition Area: GIS Application:
  51. 51. Courses conducted at the Directorate of Soil Survey and Soil Conservation • Basics of Remote sensing and GIS & Global Navigation System • Applications of RS & GIS for Natural Resources • Applications of Microwave Remote Sensing for Natural Resource Management • Contact Number 0471 2339800
  52. 52. Irrigation water quality
  53. 53. Water Uses Use Typical quality parameters Public Water Supply Turbidity, TDS, inorganic and organic compounds, microbes Water contact recreation Turbidity, bacteria, toxic compounds Fish propagation and wildlife DO, chlorinated organic compounds Industrial water supply Suspended and dissolved constituents Agricultural water supply Sodium, TDS Shellfish harvesting DO, bacteria
  54. 54. Basic Water Quality Parameters • pH • Specific conductance (EC) • Salinity • Total dissolved solids (TDS) • Turbidity • Dissolved oxygen (DO) • Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) • Temperature
  55. 55. pH • Measures hydrogen ion concentration • Negative log of hydrogen ion concentration • Ranges from 0 to 14 std. units • pH – 7 neutral – 0 - 7 acidic – 7 - 14 alkaline Thanks to Phil Brown
  56. 56. Solubility of Specific Ions Based on Water pH Toxic metals less available in water at pH 6 to 8.
  57. 57. Conductivity • Measures electric conductivity (EC) of water • Higher value means water is a better electrical conductor • Increases when more salt (e.g., sodium chloride) is dissolved in water • Indirect measure of salinity • Units are μmhos/cm at 25o C or μsiemens/cm Thanks to Phil Brown
  58. 58. Salinity • Classification of Ground Water • Composition Based on Total Dissolved Solids Content Salts in Sea Water Type of Water Dissolved salt content (mg/l) Fresh water < 1,000 mg/l Brackish water 1,000 - 3,000 mg/l Moderatly saline water 3,000 - 10,000 mg/l Highly saline water 10,000 - 35,000 mg/l Sea water > 35,000 mg/l
  59. 59. Salinity and irrigation • Low salinity water – used for most crops • Medium salinity water – used with moderate amount of leaching (potatoes, corn, wheat, oats, and alfalfa) • High salinity water – Cannot be used on soils having restricted drainage. • Very high salinity water – Can be used only on certain crops only if special practices are followed
  60. 60. Designated-Best-Use Class of water Criteria Drinking Water Source without conventional treatment but after disinfection A  Total Coliforms Organism MPN/100ml shall be 50 or less  pH between 6.5 and 8.5  Dissolved Oxygen 6mg/l or more  Biochemical Oxygen Demand 5 days 20°C 2mg/l or less Outdoor bathing (Organised) B  Total Coliforms Organism MPN/100ml shall be 500 or less pH between 6.5 and 8.5 Dissolved Oxygen 5mg/l or more  Biochemical Oxygen Demand 5 days 20°C 3mg/l or less Drinking water source after conventional treatment and disinfection C  Total Coliforms Organism MPN/100ml shall be 5000 or less pH between 6 to 9 Dissolved Oxygen 4mg/l or more  Biochemical Oxygen Demand 5 days 20°C 3mg/l or less Propagation of Wild life and Fisheries D  pH between 6.5 to 8.5 Dissolved Oxygen 4mg/l or more  Free Ammonia (as N) 1.2 mg/l or less Irrigation, Industrial Cooling, Controlled Waste disposal E  pH betwwn 6.0 to 8.5  Electrical Conductivity at 25°C micro mhos/cm Max.2250  Sodium absorption Ratio Max. 26  Boron Max. 2mg/l Below-E Not Meeting A, B, C, D & E Criteria Standards fixed by Central Pollution Control Board
  61. 61. • Soil Based Plant Nutrient Information System
  62. 62. 94957 79388