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Electromagnetic Spectrum (#EM SPECTRUM)

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This Strategic Intervention Material (SIM) is intended for Grade 10 Science students.

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Electromagnetic Spectrum (#EM SPECTRUM)

  1. 1. A Strategic Intervention Material in Science 10
  2. 2. Guide Card Have you ever heard the song “Tatlong Bibe” played over the radio? How about the voice of your friend calling through your cellphone? What will be your reaction when you are watching your favorite teleserye movie and suddenly your brother turned to another channel? How about when your mom cook a snack using your microwave oven? All your answers are correct! The more you will be fascinated how things happened through studying the electromagnetic spectrum. Through this Strategic Intervention Material, you will understand better the different regions of the electromagnetic spectrum; their applications and effects to living things and the environment.
  3. 3. LEAST MASTEREDCOMPETENCY 1.Trace the development of the electromagnetic theory. 2. Compare the relative wavelengths, frequencies and energies of the different regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. 3. Cite examples of practical applications of the different regions of EM waves. 4.Explain the effects of electromagnetic radiation on living things and the environment.
  4. 4. TOTHE LEARNERS: Use this SIM as your… ADVIL – to relieve your pain CENTRUM - to make you complete ENERVON – to give you more energy MYRA E – to keep you glowing LACTUM – to make you 100% panatag COKE – so you can open happiness NESCAFE - para sa akin kayo bumabangon COFFEEMATE – to make your day perfect! 1. Read each page carefully. 2. Do the assigned task/activity to the best of your ability 3. Use the reference card to answer the difficult ones. 4. Answer the Assessment Cards. 5. Check your work. 6. Enjoy the SciTrail. Good luck!
  5. 5. Hans Christian Oersted 1777-1851 JamesClerk Maxwell 1831-1879 ACTIVITY 1: KNOW ME http://www.rare-earth-magnets.com/hans-christian-oersted/ Heinrich Hertz 1857-1894 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heinrich_Hertz http://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michael_Faraday Michael Faraday 1791-1867 http://soulconnection.net/glossary_in_depth/maxwell.html Image credit: Fill-in the comic strips on the contributions of the scientists in the development of the electromagnetic theory. Fit me where I belong! OMG!The compass needle move near the current- carrying wire. This shows electric current creates magnetic field. Hey Hans, the opposite could be true! A changing magnetic field produces an electric field. You both got it right!An electromagnetic wave exists when the changing magnetic field causes a changing electric field, which then causes another changing magnetic field, and so on. You got it right Maxwell. I proved the existence of EM waves!
  6. 6. 1. A moving charge creates ____________________________. 2. A changing magnetic field causes a changing _____________________. 3. The successive production of electric and magnetic field results to the creation of _______________wave. 4. An EM wave propagates __________________ from the source. 5. The ________________ and 6. ___________________ vibrate at right angles to the direction the wave travels so it is a 7. ____________________ wave. 8. Electromagnetic waves do not need _________________to transfer energy. 9. All matter contains charged particles that are always moving; therefore, all _____________________ emit EM waves. 10. The modern understanding of light and color begins with _____________________________.. Image credit: http://www.school-for- champions.com/science/magnetic_f ield_moving_charges.htm#.VThZiy aKCM8 Image credit: http://www.astronomynotes.com/li ght/s2.htm 1. ctngmaei ldfie 2. eeilctrc iedfl 3. ME 4. wardout 5 cctrleei 6. aeimgntc sdlfei 7. eeatrnsvrs 8. ttaemr 9. oestcjb 10. aacsI eoNnwt ACTIVITY 2. FILL ME DIRECTIONS: Unscramble the word/s and fill-in to the appropriate blanks to complete the statements below. Know more about EM Waves
  7. 7. EM WAVE Wavelength (m) Frequency (Hz) Energy (J) Radio wave > 1 x 10-1 < 3 x 109 < 2x 10-24 Microwave 1 x 10-3 – 1 x 10-1 3 x 109 – 3 x 1011 2 x 10-24 – 2 x 10-22 Infrared 7 x 10-7 – 1 x 10-3 3 x 1011 – 4 x 1014 2 x 10-22 – 3 x 10-19 Visible 4 x 10-7 – 7 x 10-7 4 x 1014 – 7.5 x 1014 3 x 10-19 – 5 x 10-19 Ultraviolet (UV) 1 x 10-8 – 4 x 10-7 7.5 x 1014 – 3 x 1016 5 x 10-19 – 2 x 10-17 X-ray 1 x 10-11 – 1 x 10- 8 3 x 1016 – 3 x 1019 2 x 10-17 – 2 x 10-14 Gamma ray < 1 x 10-8 > 3 x 1019 > 2 x 10-14 The electromagnetic waves’ wavelengths, frequencies, and energies ACTIVITY 3 COMPARE ME Compare the following EM waves. Description (lower, higher, longer, shorter) 1.Radio wave is ______ in wavelength than the gamma-ray. _____________ 2. Microwave is _______ in energy than Infrared. _____________ 3. Visible light is ________ in frequency than X-ray. _____________ 4. Radio wave is ________ in energy than gamma-ray. _____________ 5.Infrared is ________ in wavelength than UV. _____________ 6. Visible light is ________ in frequency than radio wave. ____________ Which of the EM wave has the following characteristics : 8. highest energy? 9. lowest energy? 10.longest wavelength? 11. shortest wavelength? 12. lowest frequency? 12. highest frequency? _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ Compare the relative wavelengths, frequencies and energies of the different regions of the electromagnetic spectrum.
  8. 8. EM WAVES RADIO WAVES MICROWAVES INFRARED VISIBLE LIGHT UV X- RAYS GAMMA RAY APPLICATIONS /USES PICKYOURANSWER HERE ACTIVITY 4. USE ME DIRECTION: Complete the chart by using the words in the word bank. Medical treatment Artificial lighting, optical fibers in medical uses, screen of electronic devices Radio and television communicat ion Satellite communications RADAR, television transmission Cooking Remote control, household electrical appliances, autofocus cameras, night- vision goggles Sterilization, Fluorescence Medical use, engineering applications
  9. 9. ACTIVITY 5 EXPLAIN IT TO ME What are the effects of the following EM waves on living things and the environment? ULTRAVIOLET (UV) X-RAYS GAMMA RAYS _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ Write your answers to the spaces provided below.
  10. 10. ASSESSMENT 1 DIRECTIONS: Match the scientists given below with their contribution. Write the letter of the correct answer in the space provided below. SCIENTISTS CONTRIBUTIONS ANSWER 1. Ampere a. Contributed in developing equations showing the relationship of electricity and magnetism. 2. Faraday b. Showed experimental evidence of electromagnetic waves and their link to light. 3. Hertz c. Demonstrated the magnetic effect based on the direction of current. 4. Maxwel d. Formulated the principle behind electromagnetic induction. 5. Oersted e. Showed how a current-carrying wire behaves like a magnet.
  11. 11. ASSESSMENT 2 I. Multiple Choice Direction: Write the letter of the best answer on the space provided before the number. _____1. Electromagnetic waves are produced by __________ A. currents B. voltage source C. any disturbance D. vibrating charge _____2. Which of the following forms of electromagnetic waves is used mostly in communication? A. X-ray B. Infrared C. Radio wave D. Gamma rays _____3. In the electromagnetic wave, the direction of the propagation of the wave is __________ A. always to the right. B. cannot be determined. C. parallel to electric and magnetic field directions. D. perpendicular to the electric and magnetic field directions. _____4. Which of the following forms of electromagnetic waves has the widest frequency range? A. x-ray B. microwave C. ultraviolet D. radio waves ____ _5. What happens to the frequency of the electromagnetic wave if its wavelength increases? A. decreases B. increases as well C. remains the same D. can not tell; frequency and wavelength are two different concepts . No Application Type of EM Wave 1 Satellite communications 2 Texting 3 TV Broadcasting 4 RADAR 5 Checking bankbook signature II. Below are the applications of electromagnetic waves. State the type of electromagnetic waves used by completing the table below.
  12. 12. ASSESSMENT 3 1.Look at the electromagnetic spectrum more closely this time. What do you notice? Are the divisions of the regions distinct? Write your answer on the spaces provided. ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ 2.Using the same spectrum, determine the frequency and wavelength ranges of each of the forms of electromagnetic waves. Enter your data on the table. EM WAVE Frequency (cycle/sec or Hz)) Wavelength (m) Radio wave Microwave Infrared Visible Ultraviolet (UV) X-ray Gamma ray
  13. 13. ENRICHMENTACTIVITYComplete the label of the electromagnetic spectrum ( the type in yellow & the size in blue)
  14. 14. EM WAVES AT A GLANCE The higher the frequency, the more energy the wave has. EM waves do not require media in which to travel or move. EM waves are considered to be transverse waves because they are made of vibrating electric and magnetic fields at right angles to each other, and to the direction the waves are traveling. Inverse relationship between wave size and frequency: as wavelengths get smaller, frequencies get higher. Electromagnetic Waves How they are formed Waves made by vibrating electric charges that can travel through space where there is no matter Kind of wave Transverse with alternating electric and magnetic fields. Sometimes behave as waves or as particles (photons). REFERENCE CARD EM WAVES 1. RADIOWAVES Radio waves have the longest wavelengths of all the electromagnetic waves. They range from around a foot long to several miles long. Radio waves are often used to transmit data and have been used for all sorts of applications including radio and television communication. 2. MICROWAVES Microwaves are shorter than radio waves with wavelengths measured in centimeters. We use microwaves to cook food, transmit information, and in radar that helps to predict the weather. Microwaves are useful in communication because they can penetrate clouds, smoke, and light rain. The universe is filled with cosmic microwave background radiation that scientists believe are clues to the origin of the universe they call the Big Bang.
  15. 15. 3. INFRARED WAVES Between microwaves and visible light are infrared waves. Infrared waves are sometimes classified as "near" infrared and "far" infrared. Near infrared waves are the waves that are closer to visible light in wavelength. These are the infrared waves that are used in your TV remote to change channels. Far infrared waves are further away from visible light in wavelength. Far infrared waves are thermal and give off heat. Anything that gives off heat radiates infrared waves.This includes the human body! 4.VISIBLE LIGHT The visible light spectrum covers the wavelengths that can be seen by the human eye. This is the range of wavelengths from 390 to 700 nm which corresponds to the frequencies 430-790THz 5. ULTRAVIOLETWAVES Ultraviolet waves have the next shortest wavelength after visible light. It is ultraviolet rays from the Sun that cause sunburns. We are protected from the Sun's ultraviolet rays by the ozone layer. Some insects, such as bumblebees, can see ultraviolet light. Ultraviolet light is used by powerful telescopes like the Hubble Space Telescope to see far away stars. 6. X-RAYS X-rays have even shorter wavelengths than ultraviolet rays. At this point in the electromagnetic spectrum, scientists begin to think of these rays more as particles than waves. X-rays were discovered by German scientist Wilhelm Roentgen. They can penetrate soft tissue like skin and muscle and are used to take X-ray pictures of bones in medicine. REFERENCE CARD
  16. 16. 7. GAMMA RAYS As the wavelengths of electromagnetic waves get shorter, their energy increases. Gamma rays are the shortest waves in the spectrum and, as a result, have the most energy. Gamma rays are sometimes used in treating cancer and in taking detailed images for diagnostic medicine. Gamma rays are produced in high energy nuclear explosions and supernovas. REFERENCE CARD This picture is a “scintigram”  It shows an asthmatic person’s lungs. The patient was given a slightly radioactive gas to breath, and the picture was taken using a gamma camera to detect the radiation. The colors show the air flow in the lungs.
  17. 17. REFERENCE CARD 20-50 km above earth; absorbs Sun’s harmful UV rays Ozone layer is decreasing due to CFCs in AC, refrigerators, & cleaning fluids
  18. 18. Forms of Electromagnetic Wave Sources Source Uses/Applications Radio waves Vibrating electrons Wireless communication Microwaves Vibrating electrons Communication particularly long distance radio relay systems, microwave ovens Infrared Hot objects Missile guidance, long distance photography, medical treatment, burglar alarms Visible Light Very hot objects Vision Ultraviolet Arcs and gas discharges Medical treatments, sanitation process X-rays Electrons striking a target Medical purposes, security Gamma Rays Nuclei of radioactive atoms Cancer treatment, metal defect detection, beneficial mutations, food preservation REFERENCE CARD
  19. 19. REFERENCE CARD  The EM spectrum is the ENTIRE range of EM waves in order of increasing frequency and decreasing wavelength.  As you go from left  right, the wavelengths get smaller and the frequencies get higher. This is an inverse relationship between wave size and frequency. (As one goes up, the other goes down.) This is because the speed of ALL EM waves is the speed of light (300,000 km/s).
  20. 20. REFERENCE CARD For more information, read the following reference materials and websites: Acosta, Hermana D. et.al. (2015) Science 10 Learner’s Material, Department of Education EASE Physics. Module 17. Lesson Dangat, Alfonso S. Lecture on Positive Mind Set www.wsfcs.k12.nc.us/cms/lib/.../C12-Electromagnetic_Waves.ppt www.ducksters.com/science/.../types_of_electromagnetic_waves.php imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov/science/toolbox/emspectrum1.html teacherplant.weebly.com/.../5/0/.../g10_ntot_physics_em_spectrum.pptx https://www.boundless.com › ... › The Electromagnetic Spectrum https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electromagnetic_spectrum http://imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov/science/toolbox/emspectrum1.html
  21. 21. Hey Hans, the opposite could be true! A changing magnetic field produces an electric field. Hans Christian Oersted 1777-1851 JamesClerk Maxwell 1831-1879 OMG!The compass needle move near the current- carrying wire. This shows electric current creates magnetic field. ACTIVITY 1: How it came about… http://www.rare-earth-magnets.com/hans-christian-oersted/ You both got it right! An electromagnetic wave exists when the changing magnetic field causes a changing electric field, which then causes another changing magnetic field, and so on. Heinrich Hertz 1857-1894 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heinrich_Hertz http://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michael_Faraday Michael Faraday 1791-1867 http://soulconnection.net/glossary_in_depth/maxwell.html You got it right Maxwell. I proved the existence of EM waves! Image credit: ANSWER CARD
  22. 22. 1. A moving charge creates magnetic field 2. A changing magnetic field causes a changing electric field . 3. The successive production of electric and magnetic field results to the creation of EM wave. 4. An EM wave propagates outward from the source. 5. The electric and 6. magnetic fields vibrate at right angles to the direction the wave travels so it is a 7. transverse wave. 8. Electromagnetic waves do not need matter to transfer energy. 9. All matter contains charged particles that are always moving; therefore, all objects emit EM waves. 10. The modern understanding of light and color begins with Isaac Newton. Image credit: http://www.school-for- champions.com/science/magnetic_f ield_moving_charges.htm#.VThZiy aKCM8 Image credit: http://www.astronomynotes.com/light/s 2.htm 1. ctngmaei ldfie 2. eeilctrc iedfl 3. ME 4. wardout 5 cctrleei 6. aeimgntc sdlfei 7. eeatrnsvrs 8. ttaemr 9. oestcjb 10. aacsI eoNnwt ACTIVITY 2. FILL- IN ME DIRECTIONS: Unscramble the word/s and fill-in to the appropriate blanks to complete the statements below. Know more about EM Waves ANSWER CARD
  23. 23. EM WAVE Wavelength (m) Frequency (Hz) Energy (J) Radio wave > 1 x 10-1 < 3 x 109 < 2x 10-24 Microwave 1 x 10-3 – 1 x 10-1 3 x 109 – 3 x 1011 2 x 10-24 – 2 x 10-22 Infrared 7 x 10-7 – 1 x 10-3 3 x 1011 – 4 x 1014 2 x 10-22 – 3 x 10-19 Visible 4 x 10-7 – 7 x 10-7 4 x 1014 – 7.5 x 1014 3 x 10-19 – 5 x 10-19 Ultraviolet (UV) 1 x 10-8 – 4 x 10-7 7.5 x 1014 – 3 x 1016 5 x 10-19 – 2 x 10-17 X-ray 1 x 10-11 – 1 x 10- 8 3 x 1016 – 3 x 1019 2 x 10-17 – 2 x 10-14 Gamma ray < 1 x 10-8 > 3 x 1019 > 2 x 10-14 The electromagnetic waves’ wavelengths, frequencies, and energies ACTIVITY 3 COMPARE ME Compare the following EM waves. Description (lower, higher, longer, shorter) 1.Radio wave is ______ in wavelength than the gamma-ray. longer 2. Microwave is _______ in energy than Infrared. lower 3. Visible light is ________ in frequency than X-ray. lower 4. Radio wave is ________ in energy than gamma-ray. lower 5.Infrared is ________ in wavelength than UV. longer 6. Visible light is ________ in frequency than radio wave. higher Which of the EM wave has the following characteristics : 8. highest energy? 9. lowest energy? 10.longest wavelength? 11. shortest wavelength? 12. lowest frequency? 12. highest frequency? Gamma ray Radio wave Radio wave Gamma ray Radio wave Gamma ray Compare the relative wavelengths, frequencies and energies of the different regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. ANSWER CARD
  24. 24. EM WAVES RADIO WAVES MICROWAVES INFRARED VISIBLE LIGHT UV X- RAYS GAMMA RAY APPLICATIONS /USES Radio and television communicat ion Satellite communications RADAR, television transmission Cooking Remote control, household electrical appliances, autofocus cameras, night- vision goggles Artificial lighting, optical fibers in medical uses, screen of electronic devices Sterilization, Fluorescence Medical use, engineering applications Medical treatment ACTIVITY 4. USE ME DIRECTION: Complete the chart by using the words in the word bank. ANSWER CARD
  25. 25. ACTIVITY 5 EXPLAIN IT TO ME What are the effects of the following EM waves on living things and the environment? ULTRAVIOLET (UV) X-RAYS GAMMA RAYS UV produces vitamin D in the skin and gives us tanning effect. However, it could burn the skin, hurt our eyes. Overexposure can cause skin cancer. The ozone layer of the Earth filters the dangerous UV rays from the sun. All X-rays are dangerous because they can damage healthy living cells in the body. Too much exposure can damage body tissues and can cause cancer. Gamma rays carry the highest amount of energy, thus, they are more dangerous. They can kill living cells. ANSWER CARD
  26. 26. I. Multiple Choice 1. D 2. C 3. D 4. D 5. A II. 1. Microwaves 2. Microwaves 3. Radiowaves 4. Microwaves 5. Ultraviolet ASSESSMENT 2 2. EM Wave Frequency Wavelength Range (hertz) Range (meters) Radio Waves 102 –1012 10-4 -106 Microwaves 109-1010 10-1-10-3 Infrared 1011-1014 10-6-10-3 Visible Light 1014-1015 10-7-10-3 Ultraviolet 1015-1017 10-9-10-7 X-rays 1017-1019 10-12-10-8 Gamma rays 1018-1025 10-17-10-11 ASSESSMENT 3 1. Different forms of electromagnetic waves are used for different purposes, although some have common uses. For instance, X-rays, gamma rays and ultraviolet rays are used for medical purposes. Radio waves and microwaves are both used in wireless communication. In terms of properties, the different forms also have different frequency and hence different wavelengths. The gamma rays are high frequency waves and the radio waves are the low frequency waves. ASSESSMENT 1 1. c 2. d 3. b 4. a 5. e ANSWER CARD
  27. 27. ENRICHMENT ACTIVITY Complete the label of the electromagnetic spectrum ANSWER CARD
  28. 28. If you got : 91-100 Excellent 81-90 Very Good 71-80 Good 61-70 Fair 60 & below Take the challenge again

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