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msc nursing management

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  1. 1. Common Delegation and Delegation Errors Divyanshi M.Sc. Nursing 2nd year Ms. Divyanshi
  2. 2. •Never tell people how to do things, tell them what to do and they will surprise you with their ingenuity - George. S. Patton Ms. Divyanshi
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION • Delegation is the use of personnel to accomplish a desired objective through allocation of authority and responsibility. • Delegation is not merely distributing care. • It is a significant success factor for professional practice. • Delegation is a link that joins organizational concepts with the management process; it is that which allows a manager to manage. Ms. Divyanshi
  4. 4. • In the past, effective delegation has not been an activity emphasized in nursing. As a result many nurses do not value this skill. • Educational programme has emphasized primary nursing as the dominant method of delivering nursing care which focuses on the skill of individual nurse. • As a nurse for the managerial purpose it is essential to know about the principles, purposes, steps, and concepts of delegation. Ms. Divyanshi
  5. 5. DEFINITIONS: Delegation • Delegation is transferring to a competent individual, the authority to perform a selected nursing task in a selected situation. (The National Council of State Boards in Nursing, 1995). Delegator: • The delegator possesses the authority to delegate by virtue of both positions in the agency. Delegate: The delegate receives direction for what to do from the delegator. Ms. Divyanshi
  6. 6. PURPOSES OF DELEGATION • To achieve organizational goal. • Time and cost savings. • Professional growth of employees and it mears imparting training for them. • Professional growth of the manager and decrease the burden of tasks. • Helps the chief executive to devote more time in decision making, policy formulation and planning. Ms. Divyanshi
  7. 7. PURPOSES OF DELEGATION • Helps in creation of managerial class and develops a sense of responsibility in subordinate. • Delegation avoid delay and helps in succession. • Makes the organization to act efficiently and economically and bring flexibility in it. Ms. Divyanshi
  8. 8. THREE FOUNDATIONS FOR DELEGATION • Delegation depends on a balance of responsibility, accountability and authority • 4.1. Authority: It is the right and the power to determine, influence or evaluate. • 4.2.Responsibility: It is the condition of accepting important duties or obligations • 4.3.Accountability: It is the condition of being answerable. Ms. Divyanshi
  9. 9. STEPS IN DELEGATION • Plan ahead • Identify needed skills and levels • Select most capable personnel • Communicate clearly • Set deadlines and monitor the progress • Empower the delegate • Evaluate the job performance • Reward accomplishments Ms. Divyanshi
  10. 10. KINDS OF DELEGATIONS • Full delegation • Partial delegation • Conditional delegation • Formal delegation • Informal delegation Ms. Divyanshi
  11. 11. PRINCIPLES OF DELEGATION Whelton and Cameron in 1998 identified 14 principles for delegation they are: • Begin with the end in mind • Delegate completely • Allow participation in the delegation of assignments • Establish parity between authority and responsibility • Work within the organizational structure • Provide adequate support for delegated task Ms. Divyanshi
  12. 12. PRINCIPLES OF DELEGATION • Focus accountability on results • Delegate consistently • Avoid upward delegation • Clarify consequences • Communicate clearly and completely • Make your availability clear to the resource group • Retain control • Express progress reports Ms. Divyanshi
  13. 13. Errors in Delegation • Under delegation • Over delegation • Improper delegation • Upward delegation Ms. Divyanshi
  14. 14. ERRORS IN DELEGATION Under delegation • The manager may become over worked and overwhelmed. This frequently comes from his/her assumption that delegation may be interpreted as the lack of ability on his/her part to do a correct or complete job. Another frequent cause for under delegating is the manager desire to ‘do the whole job by myself’ because of the belief that he/she needs experience or the belief that he/she can do it better and faster than anyone else. Over delegation • Some managers over delegate as they are poor monitors of time and spend most of their time just trying to get organized. Others over delegate because they feel insecure in their ability to perform a task Ms. Divyanshi
  15. 15. Errors in Delegation Improper delegation • It includes delegating at the wrong time, wrong person for a wrong reason. It may include assigning the task and responsibility that are beyond the capability of the person Upward delegation • When the manager delegated a task to a subordinate, the subordinate makes use of the manager to complete the task Ms. Divyanshi
  16. 16. OBSTACLES IN DELEGATION • Fear of being disliked • Inability to give up any control of the situation • Inability to prioritize using Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. • Lack of confidence to move beyond their level. • Tendency to isolate oneself and choosing to complete all tasks alone. Ms. Divyanshi
  17. 17. OBSTACLES IN DELEGATION • Lack of confidence to delegate to staff who were previously one’s peers. • Ineffective to communicate effectively and develop working relationships with other team members. • Thinking of oneself as the only one who can complete the task. • Lack of knowledge about staff’s capability. Ms. Divyanshi
  18. 18. BARRIERS OF DELEGATION IN DIFFERENT LEVEL Organizational level • Lack of established methods and procedures • Lack of means of coordination and communication • Unstable and changing nature of work • Size and location of an organization Ms. Divyanshi
  19. 19. BARRIERS OF DELEGATION IN DIFFERENT LEVEL Managerial level • Superiors are afraid that others will not make proper decisions or carry them in a desired manner • Fear that disloyal centers will develop among strong subordinate • In public administration political consideration often make delegation difficult • At time who desire to delegate do not know how to do it • “I can do it better myself” fallacy • Lack of ability to direct • Lack of confident in staff • Absence of control that warn of impending difficulties • Aversion of taking risk Ms. Divyanshi
  20. 20. Subordinate level • Easier to ask the boss • Fear of criticism • Lack of necessary information and resources • Lack of self-confident • May have more work than the employee can do • Positive incentive may be inadequate • More work than once capacity to work • Lack of resources and information to do a good job Ms. Divyanshi
  21. 21. SYMPTOMS OF POOR DELEGATION • Long queue before boss room • Boss is always busy • Subordinate unhappy • Disorganized resource • Always delay in work Ms. Divyanshi
  22. 22. FIVE RIGHTS FOR DELEGATION • Right person • Right task • Right circumstances • Right communication • Right supervision Ms. Divyanshi
  23. 23. DEVELOPMENT OF DELEGATION PROCESS IN PATIENT CARE • Know the patient • Know the staff member • Know the task delegated • Explain the task and expected outcome • Expect responsible action from the delegates • Assess and supervise job performance • Evaluate and follow Ms. Divyanshi
  24. 24. DELEGATION SKILLS • Create an environment of trust and co operation • Create environment of teaching and learning • Promote client satisfaction • Communicate effectively • Provide feedback and follow-up evaluation. Ms. Divyanshi
  25. 25. RESPONSIBILITIES OF DELEGATOR • As the delegator, the supervisor/ incharge nurse must have a view of the big picture in the care of the assigned patients. • Select the appropriate activities to delegate • Select the appropriate staff to carry out the activities. • Clearly communicate the expectations and required follow up Follow up periodically while the task is being completed • Evaluate and provide feedback on the effectiveness of the delegation to staff. Ms. Divyanshi
  26. 26. RESPONSIBILITIES OF DELEGATE • The delegate also has responsibilities including – • Accepting the delegated activities as directed by the nurse supervisor Give report to supervisor on the delegated task • Give feedback to delegator on the effectiveness of the delegation process Ms. Divyanshi
  27. 27. LEGAL AUTHORITY TO DELEGATION • Legal responsibility for the incharge nurse to delegate a task is determined by • Nurse Practice Act • Employer’s statements including job descriptions, policies, and procedures. • National standards of care American Nurses Association (ANA) and Other national organizations. Ms. Divyanshi
  28. 28. Thank you Ms. Divyanshi