Dr Anupkumar T N
Dept of Community Medicine
Govt Medical College,Thrissur
MERITS AND DEMERITS
SOCIOECONOMIC SURVEY REPORT 2011
Socioeconomic status (SES) Socioeconomic status (SES) is one of the most important
social determinants of health and disease, thus, a widely
studied construct in the social sciences.
SES influences the accessibility, affordability, acceptability
and actual utilization of available health facilities
Socioeconomic status (SES) is a combination of social and
A composite measure that typically incorporates
economic, social, and work status .
Economic status is measured by income.
Social status is measured by education, and
Work status is measured by occupation.
• Each status is considered an indicator.
• These three indicators are related but do not overlap
SES Scales and health
Low SES population presenting more commonly with
nutritional deficiency and communicable diseases and
High SES showing more of obesity and noncommunicable
Access to healthcare with high SES showing a better
Methods for social classification
Status inequalities between individuals are common,.
In general, the more complex the society, the more
numerous the layers or strata of social differentiation
Defintion SES Scale
The position that an individual or family occupies with
reference to the prevailing average standards of cultural
and material possessions, income, and participation in
group activity of the community
Why SES scale?
1. Understand the distribution of population based on SES
2. To develop a uniform system of socioeconomic
classification of the population universally based on the
income with scientific basis
3. Resources are scarce
a. Need to identify the most needy
b. Difficulty in identifying the exact number of people living
below the poverty line (BPL families) in India
International SES scale
Hollingshead scale, (The Hollingshead Four Factor Index
of Socioeconomic Status is a survey designed to measure
social status of an individual based on four domains:
Marital status, retired/employed status, educational
attainment, and occupational prestige.)
Mac Arthur scale (Domains: Education, income,
occupational status and wealth)
Standard of Living Index (SLI) scale
(NFHS - II) had used the Standard of Living Index (SLI) scale
Contains 11 items viz. house type, source of lighting, toilet
facility, main fuel for cooking, source of drinking water,
separate room for cooking, ownership of the house,
ownership of agricultural land, ownership of irrigated
land, ownership of livestock, ownership of durable goods
Used for measuring the SES both urban and rural areas
for the entire country
Wealth Index Variables
The NFHS-3 wealth index is based on the following 33 assets
and housing characteristics
Wealth Index Variables
Type of windows
Type of toilet
Type of flooring
Type of roofing
Ref:NFHS-3, India, 2005-06
• Ownership of a bank
• Ownership of a
• A pressure cooker,
• A chair, a cot/bed, a
table, an electric fan,
• A black and white
television, a color
• A sewing machine
• A mobile telephone,
• Any other telephone
• A computer,
• A refrigerator,
• A watch or clock,
• A bicycle,
• A motorcycle or
• An animal-drawn
• A car
• A water pump,
• A thresher,
• A tractor
Udai Pareek and G. Trivedi (1964)
Udai Pareek and G. Trivedi (1964) attempts to examine
the socio-economic status for the rural or mixed
This scale has nine factors which assess the
socioeconomic status of the individual
Pareek & Trivedi’s Scale:
Scheduled caste 1 Labour 1
Lower caste 2 Caste occupation 2
Artisan caste 3 Business 3
Agricultural caste 4 Independent profession 4
Prestige caste 5 Cultivation 5
Dominant caste 6 Service 6
3.Education 4.Social participation
Illiterate 0 Member of one organization 1
Can read only 1 Member of > 1 organization 2
Can read and write 2 Office holder 3
Primary 3 Wider public leader 6
High school 5
5. Land Score 7. Farm power Score 9.Family Score
No land 0 No drought animal 0 Type
< 1 Acre 1 1-2 drought animals 2 Single 1
1- 5 Acres 2 3-4 drought animal 4 Joint 2
5-10 Acres 3 Or one prestige animal 4 Extended 3
10-15 Acres 4 5-6 drought animal or tractor 6 Upto 5 2
15-20 Acres 5 Distinct
>20 Acres 6
6. House Score 8. Material possession Score
No home 0 Bullock -cart 1
Hut 1 Cycle ,Radio , Chair 1
Katcha house 2 Improved agri implements 2
Mixed house 3 Television 3
Pucca house 4 Mobile 4
Mansion 6 Refrigerators 8
After filling the information ,and scoring the individual
items, the total score is summed up.
With the help of the key provided in the manual, total
score is interpreteding terms of the class.
Above 43 Upper Class (I)
33-42 Upper Middle Class (II)
24-32 Middle Class (III)
13-23 Lower Middle Class (IV)
Below 13 Lower Class (V)
Per capita monthly income = Total monthly income of the
family/Total members of family.
The need to update SES scale
Income ranges in the scale lose their relevance following
the depreciation in the value of the rupee .
Steady inflation, lower interest rates, and country’s
current account deficits are the main factors contributing
to fall in the value of currency.
Therefore, it is needed to update the scale regularly for
socioeconomic classification of study populations.
Methods to update SES scale
Kumar had tried to update Prasad Scale’s income limits
using consumer price index (CPI)
Kuppuswamy socioeconomic scale was revised with CPI .
Linking of the scale with price index makes it relevant
and meaningful and also provides a opportunity for
constant updation .
A price index (plural: “price indices” or “price indexes”) is
a normalized average (typically a weighted average)
of price relatives for a given class of goods or services in a
given region, during a given interval of time
Calculating the CPI for a single item
Wholesale price index(1902)
The change in the average price level of 676 commodities
traded in wholesale market
Weekly basis availability
Consumer Price Index (CPI)
Definition: A comprehensive measure used for estimation
of price changes in a basket of goods and services
representative of consumption expenditure in an
economy is called consumer price index
Consumer price index(1970)
Comprises multiple series classified based on different
CPI UNME (Urban Non-Manual Employee) -20th-CSO
CPI AL (Agricultural Labourer)-20 th
CPI RL (Rural Labourer)-20 th
CPI IW (Industrial Worker)-last day of month
From February 2011 the CPI (UNME) released by CSO is
replaced as CPI (urban),CPI (rural) and CPI (combined)
The prices of 85,000 items from 22,000 stores, and
35,000 rental units are added together and averaged.
They are weighted this way:
Housing: 41.4%, Food and Beverage: 17.4%,
Transport: 17.0%, Medical Care: 6.9%,
Other: 6.9%, Apparel: 6.0%,
Taxes (43%) are not included in CPI computation.
Consumer Price Index is used in calculation of Dearness
Allowancewhich forms an integral part of salary of a
Government Employee.Base year to calculate CPI is
CENTRAL= Avg AICPIN for 12 months-261.4 ×100
Kerala = Avg AICPIN for 12 months-239.92 ×100
Modified BG Prasad socioeconomic
Modified BG Prasad socioeconomic scale is widely used to
determine the socioeconomic status .
The BG Prasad scale was formulated in 1961 keeping the
base of Consumer Price Index (CPI) for 1960 as 100
Mishra, undertook the important task of revision of
family income per month for 1998 using base year
1982=100.Presently the base year has been changed
from 1982 to 2001
The Consumer Price Index (CPI) for industrial workers (IW)
is used to calculate updated income categories
Updating Prasad’s Scale
The BG Prasad scale was formulated in 1961Consumer
Price Index (CPI) for 1960 as 100.
This was revised in 1982 by introducing a linking factor
of 4.93 to convert CPI (1982) from the new base of 100
to the old base CPI (1960).
Again a need was felt in 2001 to revise the base, which
was done by introducing the linking factor of 4.63.
Formula updated as for January
CPI [IW]× 4.63× 4.93 ÷ 100.
[ 274 × 4.63) × 4.93 ÷ 100.
Class Prasad’s Classification
(1961) In Rupees
New Starting classes
before they are
rounding off to the
nearest Rs. 10/=
I 100 & above 6250 6250 & above
II 50-99 3125 3130 – 6250
III 30-49 1875 1880– 3130
IV 15-29 937 940-1880
V Below 15 937 Below 940
Can assess the socioeconomic status in both rural and
Only income considered
Per capita family income so includes all earning members
Can be updated
It is only income-based scale
No other domains addressed
Inflation not considered
The most widely used scale for urban population was
devised by Kuppuswamy in 1976.
Kuppuswamy scale is a composite score of education and
occupation of the head of the family along with monthly
income of the family, which yields a score of 3-29.
This scale classifies the study populations into high,
middle, and low SES
To get current income group, a conversion factor
calculated based on current All India Consumer Price
Index (AICPI) is applied
Two information blanks (one for the person concerned
and second for the father or guardian)
• The information is collected in the devised
Information blanks and with the help of
the score card the status score is obtained.
• On the basis of the total score, the
respective class is found out.
Modification in income slabs
In 1976 the CPI was taken as 296 based on 1960
In 1982 new CPI base was set at 100 when 1960 based
value became 460 (so multiplying factor 4.6)
In 2001 CPI base was set at 100 and when 1982 based
valur reached 490 (so multiplying factor 4.9)
As per 2017 January CPI value is 274 base year 2001
socioeconomic status Jan 2017 CPI
SL NO FAMILY
1 2000 3108 15230 41730 12
2 1000-1999 1554-3107 7614-15229 20865-41729 10
3 750-999 1166-1553 5711-7613 15649-20864 6
4 500-749 777-1552 3807-5710 10432-15648 4
5 300-499 466-776 2284-3806 6259-10431 3
6 101-299 155-465 761-2283 2086-6258 2
7 <100 <155 <761 <2086 1
Main 3 domains are considered
Income total family income
Steady inflation and consequent fall in the value of currency
make the economic criteria in the scale less relevant.
Income part is considered to be the total income of the
family and no consideration is given to size of the family:
A small family with a particular income will have higher SES
status than a bigger-sized family with similar income.
There is an overemphasis on income
Material possessions not considered
Research Society of India scoring
Based on two variables
Number of “consumer durables” (from a predefined
list)-owned by the family. The list has 11 items,
ranging from ‘electricity connection’ and ‘agricultural
land’-to cars and air conditioners
Education of chief earner
The household is categorised into one of the five groups
Class I – Upper;
ClassII – Upper Middle;
Class III – Lower Middle
Class IV – UpperLower
Class V – Lower Lower
Kerala Socio-Economic Status scale
A. Sukumaran Nair's (1976)
The general data sheet is divided into 5 sections
Section one elicits the name, age, caste, religion, locality
of the school, place of residence etc.
The second part calls for information regarding the level
of education of parents, siblings and other occupants of
Section three elicits the details of occupation of the
members of the family
The last part (fifth) contains the information regarding the
Here, the highest income given was 2501/- and above and
lowest was 300. But in now a day's even a coolie earns
750-800 per day
The education and the lifestyle of people are totally
improved. So the application of this scale in this changed
social condition of Kerala is in question
SES is a predictor of health status
Socioeconomic status (SES) is a combination of social and
SES Scales help to develop a uniform system of socioeconomic
classification of the population universally based on the
income with scientific basis
Udai Pareek and G. Trivedi scale, Kuppuswamy scale 1962, B G
Prasad classification are some Indian SES scales .
Steady inflation, lower interest rates, and country’s current
account deficits are the main factors contributing to fall in the
value of currency, so, it is needed to update the scale regularly
for socioeconomic classification of study populations
SES at a glance
Criterias Udai pareek B. Kuppu swamy B.G. Prasad
Income x Total family income Per capita income
Education + Edu of family head X
Occupation + Occ of family head X
Caste + X X
Land + X X
Social participation + X X
Family type + X X
Family size + X X
Type of house + X X
Farm power + X X
Material possession + X X
Composite score + + X
Rural or urban R U R & U
Below Poverty Line is an economic benchmark to indicate
economic disadvantage and to identify individuals and
households in need of government assistance and aid
Since 2008, the last update, we have used $1.25 as the
As of October 2015, the new global line will be
updated to $1.90.
29.8% in India below poverty line-70 th world wide
'International Poverty Line
An international monetary thresholdunder which an
individual is considered to be living in poverty
The World Bank has revised its definition and benchmarks
to measure poverty since 1990, with $2 per day income
on purchasing power parity basis
In 2012, the Indian government stated 22% of its
population is below its official poverty limit
The World Bank, in 2011 based on 2005's
PPPs International Comparison Program,estimated 23.6%
of Indian population, 276 million people, lived below
$1.25 per day on purchasing power parity
According to United Nation's Millennium Development
Goals (MDG) programme 270 millions or 21.9% people
out of 1.2 billion of Indians lived below poverty line of
$1.25 in 2011-2012
Those above poverty line live a fragile economic life.
The World Bank reviewed and proposed revisions in May
2014, to its poverty calculation methodology and
purchasing power parity basis for measuring poverty
worldwide, including India
According to the Modified Mixed Reference Period
(MMRP) concept proposed by World Bankin 2015, India's
poverty rate for period 2011-12 stood at 12.4% of the
total population, or about 172 million people; taking the
revised poverty line as $1.90.
Each state in India has its own poverty threshold to
determine how many people are below its poverty line
Since 2007, India set its official threshold at Rs 26 a day
($0.43) in rural areas and about Rs32 per day ($0.53) in
These numbers are lower than the World Bank's $1.25
per day income-based definition, the definition is similar
to China's US$0.65 per day official poverty line in 2008.
In 2011-2012, Puducherryhad its highest poverty line of R
s 1,301 (US$19) a month in rural and Rs 1,309 (US$19) a
month in urban areas, while Odishahad the lowest
poverty thresholds of Rs695 (US$10) a month for rural
and Rs 861 (US$13) a month for its urban areas
In its Ninth Five-Year Plan (1995–2002), BPL for rural
areas was set at annual family income less
than Rs.20,000, less than two hectares land, and no
television or refrigerator.
The number of rural BPL families was 650,000 during the
The survey based on this criterion was again carried out
in 2002 and the total number of 387,000 families were
This figure was in force until September 2006.
In its Tenth Five-Year Plan(2002–2007) survey, BPL for
rural areas was based on the degree of deprivation in
respect of 13 parameters, with scores from 0–
4: landholding, type of house, clothing, food
security, sanitation, consumer durables, literacystatus,
labour force, means of livelihood, status of children, type
of indebtedness, reasons for migrations, etc.
The Planning Commission fixed an upper limit of 326,000
for rural BPL families on the basis of simple survey.
Accordingly, families having less than 15 marks out of
maximum 52 marks have been classified as BPL and their
number works out to 318,000
BPL for urban areas was based on degree of deprivation
in respect of seven parameters:
roof, floor, water, sanitation, education level, type of
employment, and status of children in a house.
A total of 125,000 upper families were identified as BPL
in urban area in 2004.
The Government of Kerala is one of the few state
governments which has formulated its own criteria.
In Kerala there are nine parameters.
Families which lack access to four or more parameters are
classified as BPL.
The nine parameters
No land or less than five cents of land
No house or dilapidated house
No sanitation latrine
Family with an illitrate family member
No regular employed person in the family
No access to safe drinking water
Women-headed household or presence of widows or
Scheduled castes and scheduled tribes (SC/ST)
Mentally retarded or disabled member in the family
BPL survey 2009
സര്കാര് ജീവനകാര് ഉള്ള കുടുുംബും
(ക്ലാസ്1 മൂതല് 4 വരെ)
സ്ഥാപനങ്ങളിരല് ജീവനകാര് ഉള്ള കുടുുംബും
സഹകെണ സ്ഥാപനങ്ങളിരല് ജീവനകാര്
സര്കാര് /സര്വീസ് രപന്ഷണര്മാര് ഉള്ള
അര്ധസര്കാര് /എയ്ഡഡ് സ്ഥാപനങ്ങളില്
നിന്ുും രപന്ഷന് ല്ഭികുന്വര് ഉള്ള
2011-12 Suresh tendulkar-committee
Rural Rs. 27 /-&Urban-33/- per day2meals difficult
2014- Rangarajan committee- Rural Rs. 32/-Urban-Rs.47/-
per day spending
BPL families 21 %t0 28%
Corruption in the system allows those ineligible to gain
benefits of the BPL status
Other social security measures dependant on this
Socio Economic and Caste Census
First findings were revealed on 3 July 2015
The first paperless census in 640 districts
To use the SECC data in all its programmes such
as MGNREGA, National Food Security Act, and the Deen
Dayal Upadhyaya Grameen Kaushalya Yojana
In January 2017, Central Government accepted
recommendations to use Socio-Economic Caste Census,
instead of poverty line, as the main instrument for
identification of beneficiaries and transferring of funds for
social schemes in rural areas
There are 24.39 crore (243.9 million) households in India,
of which 17.91 (179.1 million) crore live in villages. Of
these, 10.69 crore households are considered as
5.37 crore (29.97%) households in rural areas are
"landless deriving a major part of their income from
As many as 2.37 crore (13.25%) families in villages live in
houses of one room with 'kachcha' (impermanent) walls
21.53%, or 3.86 crore, families living in villages belong to
56% of India's rural households lack agricultural land.
36% of 884 million people in rural India are non-
literate.This is higher than the 32% recorded by 2011
Census of India
Of the 64% literate rural Indians, more than a fifth have
not completed primary school.
60% of the 17.91 crore rural households are deprived or
35% of urban Indian households qualify as poor.
74.5% (13.34 crore) of rural households survive on a
monthly income of Rs 5,000 for their highest earner.
5.4% of rural India has completed high school.
3.4% of rural households have a family member who is a
4.6% of all rural households in India pay income tax.
14% of rural households are employed either with the
government or the private sector.
1,80,657 households are engaged in manual
scavenging for a livelihood. Maharashtra, with 63,713,
tops the list of the largest number of manual scavenger
households, followed by Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh,
Tripura and Karnataka.
Over 48 per cent of the Indian rural population is female.
44.72 crore are Indians are non-literate, more than a third
of its 121.08 crore population.
Transgender people comprise 0.1 per cent of India’s rural
population. The Andaman and Nicobar islands, West
Bengal, Gujarat, Odisha and Mizoram have the highest
proportions of transgender people.
The military and the para-military were kept out of the
Government of Karnatakas Socio Economic Survey
2015 conducted by the Karnataka State Commission
for Backward Classes was put up on the official
The survey was launched on 11 April 2015.
1.33 lakh enumerators carried out the Socio Economic
Survey 2015 into every village, town and street to
compile data related to religion, caste, education,
social and economic condition of about 6.60 crore
people in Karnataka by covering about 1.26 crore
Social Welfare Department of Government of
Karnataka may carry out a second round of caste census
for 2.37 lakh families in Bengaluru as the survey covered
only 18.8 lakh families out of total 21,16,949 families
in Bengaluru, which accounts for 88.82%.
Kerala tops in the number of people with mental ailments
1% of rural households own a landline phone without a
mobile phone, while 68.35% rural households have
mobile phones as their only phone(s).
WHAT IS AN IDEAL TOOL...?
Five indicators are identified which are
Material possession profile
Weightage for each domain
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Socioeconomic Scale: Social Researcher Should Include
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