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Scientific methods of research


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it controlled, systematic investigation & develop general knowledge about natural phenomena.

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Scientific methods of research

  2. 2. DEFINITION OF SCIENTIFIC METHODS Scientific methods are defined as controlled, systematic investigations that are rooted in objective reality & that aim to develop general knowledge about natural phenomena. 4/25/20162
  3. 3. CHARACTERISTICS OF SCIENTIFIC METHODS They are orderly & systematic processes. Scientists attempt to control external factors that are not under direct investigation. Their findings are based on the empirical evidences. Findings of scientific methods can be generalized, which means that they can be used in situations other than the one under study. Scientific methods are based on assumptions or hypothesis. They are basically conduced to develop or test hypothesis. 4/25/20163
  4. 4. PURPOSES OF SCIENTIFIC METHODS The basic purposes of scientific methods are description, exploration, explanation, prediction, control, prescription, & identification of relationship of the facts. 4/25/20164
  5. 5. STEPS OF SCIENTIFC METHODS Selecting the topic & identifying the research problem Defining the objectives of the study. Reviewing the literature from theory & other related studies. Defining concepts & variables to be studied. Stating hypothesis about expected observations or phenomenon to be studied. 4/25/20165
  6. 6. STEPS OF SCIENTIFC METHODS Determining the ethical implication of the proposed study. Describing the research design & methods for data collection. Defining study population & sample. Planning the data analysis & discussion. Collecting data from subjects. Analyzing &interpreting data. Communicating finding of the study. 4/25/20166
  7. 7. LIMITATIONS OF SCIENTIFIC METHODS 1. Moral or ethical problem 2. Human complexity 3. Measurement problems 4. External variable control problems 4/25/20167
  8. 8. LIMITATIONS OF SCIENTIFIC METHODS 1. Moral or ethical problem  Most nursing studies would require humans as the subject of their research.  The constraint of involving humans, which is essential for observing human behavior for experimentation, is one such ethical problem.  Thus, reliable scientific data cannot always be collected. 4/25/20168
  9. 9. LIMITATIONS OF SCIENTIFIC METHODS 2. Human complexity  Human behavior is complicated, subtle & varied  It is very difficult to categorize human behavior  When human behavior is studied & analyzed by other human beings, the personal biases come into the picture & distort the analytical facts. 4/25/20169
  10. 10. LIMITATIONS OF SCIENTIFIC METHODS 3. Measurement problems:  Different aspects of human behavior are psychological in nature, which cannot be accurately measured.  Human behavior is not uniform, certain, or predictable.  All the people do not behave in the same way in similar circumstances.  Therefore, with humans as subjects, 4/25/201610
  11. 11. LIMITATIONS OF SCIENTIFIC METHODS 4. External variable control problems  Scientific studies conducted on humans may have a limitation of weak or no control over external variables in scientific activity. 4/25/201611
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