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Internet of Things in Agriculture: a Case Study of Smart Dairy Farming in Ontario, Canada by Poonsri VATE-U-LAN, Ed.D., Donna QUIGLEY, Ph.D. and Panicos MASOURAS, Ph.D.

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Publish in Proceeding of the 15th International Conference on Developing Real-Life Learning Experience: Smart Education for Sustainable Development (DRLE2017), King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang (KMITL) Bangkok, Thailand. June 16, 2017

The objective of this paper is to report a case study of smart dairy farming in Ontario, Canada which is the future of food production and ways that advancements related to the Internet of Things (IoT). It is impacting upon agricultural practice in the form of smart farming. Smart farming is the practice of intelligent agricultural management based upon technological data gathering farm practice for the purpose of increased levels of quality, production, and environmental protection. This paper will illustrate one example whereby partnerships among the academic world, government agencies and local food producing communities in Canada are adapting innovative thinking and smart technologies to address the need to implement the more effective agricultural practice. Food From Thought is a Canadian research project, based upon high-tech information systems to produce enough food for a growing human population while sustaining the Earth’s ecosystems. The paper will outline how one dairy farmer in Ontario has been able to apply smart farming technologies to increase milk production while maintaining the health of his cattle and preserving the environment. The review of applications of smart farming in Ontario such as digital tracking for a cow, genomic testing, digitally signaled birth, sensor driven crop management and data driven dairy production also details in this article.

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Internet of Things in Agriculture: a Case Study of Smart Dairy Farming in Ontario, Canada by Poonsri VATE-U-LAN, Ed.D., Donna QUIGLEY, Ph.D. and Panicos MASOURAS, Ph.D.

  1. 1. i Developing Real-Life Learning Experiences: Smart Education for Sustainable Development Proceeding of 15th International Conference DRLE 2017 http://www.ided.kmitl.ac.th/drle2017 Faculty of Industrial Education and Technology King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Bangkok, Thailand June 17th , 2016
  2. 2. iii MESSAGE FROM THE PRESIDENT Greeting to all of you and welcome to the 15th International Conference on Developing Real-Life Learning Experiences: Smart Education for Sustainable Development that is being held on the campus of King Mongkut's Institute of Technology Ladkrabang (KMITL), Thailand. Today, KMITL is a leading research and educational institution that promotes science, technology, and engineering and is well-known for its various top programs and innovations. One of the visions' for KMITL is to become a top ten Science and Technology University in ASEAN by 2020; Smart Education has become an area of vital importance to the institute. Therefore, these particular conferences initiated by the Faculty of Industrial Education and Technology are an excellent channel for scholars to broadcast the knowledge of Smart Education and share their research with our staff, faculties, and conference participants. As the President of KMITL and the Honorary Chairperson, I would like to pass my gratitude and my sincere appreciation to the Faculty of Industrial Education and Technology and the DRLE 2017 organizing committees for their untiring efforts. I would like to thank Thailand Education Deans Council and Consortium of Sixteen Education Deans (Group 16 Deans), The University of Warwick (UK), Wayne State University (US), Utah State University (US), Universiti Putra Malaysia (Malaysia), all honorable guests, participants and sponsors for their support and assistance. I do believe all will benefit substantially from the conferences through the presentation of expert speakers. I wish you all a wonderful time at the 15 DRLE International Conferences. Prof. Dr. Suchatvee Suwansawat President of King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang DRLE 2017 Honorary Chairperson
  3. 3. v MESSAGE FROM THE DEAN Welcome to 15th International Conference on Developing Real-Life Learning Experiences: Smart Education for Sustainable Development (DRLE2017) and we are glad that you can join us on the campus of King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang (KMITL) to participate in this scholarly conference. This conference has been organized by the Faculty of Industrial Education and Technology at KMITL and they have worked very hard in preparing for this conference. The theme of this year is focused on Smart Education for Sustainable Development To support and achieve the KMITL goals in pursuing research excellence, Faculty of Industrial Education and Technology has continued providing the forums for educators and scholars in presenting new knowledge as well as exchanging ideas on the relevant topics. I do believe this contribution could serve as a part of strong foundation for sustainable development in education locally and globally. I would like to take this opportunity to thank all of our organizing committee members and the steering committee members for their support, help and consistent effort to make the conferences a success. My special thanks also go to All Professors their friendship and their support. The experience and efforts of all staff and those mentioned above are indeed a great contribution for the success of the conferences. Finally, I sincerely hope that our conferences will promote productive information exchanges and collaborations in education under this year’s theme “Smart Education for Sustainable Development” aiming at education for sustainable development. And I wish all participants a memorable experience and a wonderful time in Bangkok, Thailand. Assoc. Prof. Dr. Kitipong Mano Dean, Faculty of Industrial Education and Technology DRLE 2017 General Chairperson
  4. 4. vii MESSAGE FROM THE CO-CHAIRPERSON Greetings to all of you and welcome to the 15th International Conference on Developing Real-Life Learning Experiences: Smart Education for Sustainable Development. I have been involved with the “real-life learning experiences” conferences since their inception in 2001 and I have always been impressed with the quality of the attendees and presenters who participate in this conference. The overall theme of this year’s conference focuses on Smart Education for Sustainable Development. Smart education is about teaching and learning in the digital age and using technology to enhance and sustain the teaching and learning environment. At this conference, through scholarly presentations and the conference proceedings, you will have opportunities to learn about what other professional are doing to promote smart education for sustainable development and other exciting presentations that promote effective teaching and learning strategies. During the conference, I encourage you to meet, network, and engage with the other professionals in attendance. As Co-chairperson of the DRLE2017, I would like to thank all those involved in making this conference possible, including the advisory and organizing committees, and the invited speakers. I would also like to give a special thanks to the presenters and all attendees for helping make this a successful conference. Finally, I would like to give a very special thank you to the President of KMITL, Prof. Dr. Suchatvee Suwansawat, and the Dean of Industrial Education, Associate Professor Dr. Kittipong Mano. It is through their leadership, vision, support and encouragement that we are able to continue the tradition of offering this conference to the people of Thailand, ASEAN, and the world. Prof. Dr. Edward M. Reeve Technology and Engineering Education (TEE) Interim Vice Provost Utah State University DRLE2017 Co-Chairperson
  5. 5. xv CONFERENCE ORGANIZING COMMITTEE Honorary Chairpersons Prof. Dr. Suchatvee Suwansawat President of King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang General Chairperson Assoc. Prof. Dr. Kitipong Mano Dean, Faculty of Industrial Education and Technology, KMITL Co-Chairpersons Prof. Dr. Mike Joy The University of Warwick, UK Prof. Dr. Jazlin Ebenezer Wayne State University, USA Prof. Dr. Edward M. Reeve Utah State University, USA Prof. Dr. Aida Suraya Md. Yunus Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia Assoc. Prof. Dr. Prapansiri Suksoaraj President of the Consortium of Sixteen Education Deans (Group 16 Dean) and Dean, Faculty of Education, Srinakharinwirot University Advisory Committee Assoc. Prof. Dr. Prapansiri Suksoaraj Dean, Faculty of Education, Srinakharinwirot University Assoc. Prof. Dr. Pattamawadee Lehmongkol Dean, Faculty of Education, Kasetsart University Assoc. Prof. Dr. Maitree Inprasit Dean, Faculty of Education, Khon Koen University Assoc.Prof. Dr. Siridej Sujiva Dean, Faculty of Education, Chulalongkorn University Assoc. Prof. Dr. Kiatsuda Srisuk Dean, Faculty of Education, ChiangMai University Asst. Prof. Dr. Rewadi Krahomvong Dean, Faculty of Education, Thaksin University
  6. 6. xvi Assoc. Prof. Dr. Wichit Suratruangchai Dean, Faculty of Education, Burapha University Assoc. Prof. Dr. Pirote Stirayakorn Dean, Faculty of Technical Education, King Mongkut’s University of Technology North Bangkok Asst. Prof. Dr. Kitidech Santichaianant Dean, Faculty of Industrial Education and Technology, King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi Asst. Prof. Dr. Patcharawit Chansirisira Dean, Faculty of Education, Mahasarakham University Asst. Prof. Tip Hasartsi Dean, Faculty of Education, Ramkamhang University Assoc. Prof. Banjop Piromkam Dean, Faculty of Education and Development Science, Kasetsart University (KamphaengSaen Campus) Asst. Prof. Dr. Pimpa Kachondham Dean, Ratchasuda College, Mahidol University Assoc. Prof. Dr. Samran Meejaeng Dean, Faculty of Education, Naresuan University Asst. Prof. Dr. Maream Nilapan Dean, Faculty of Education, Silpakorn University Asst. Prof. Dr. Akkarin Sungtong Dean, Faculty of Education, Prince of Songkla University Assoc. Prof. Dr. Taweewat Watthanakuljaroen School of Educational Studies, SukhothaiThammathirat Open University Organizing Committee: Dr. Ratree Siripant Associate Dean for Academic Administration and Graduate Studies, Faculty of Industrial Education and Technology, KMITL Assoc. Prof. Dr. Pinmanee Kwanmuang Associate Dean for Education Quality Assurance and Research, Faculty of Industrial Education and Technology, KMITL Miss Sanwadee Jareonchasri Associate Dean for Administration, Faculty of Industrial Education and Technology, KMITL
  7. 7. xvii Mr.Chukiat Sae-Tang Asssociate Dean for Planning, Faculty of Industrial Education and Technology, KMITL Mr. Piya Tansiri Assistant Dean for Development, Faculty of Industrial Education and Technology, KMITL Mr. Mai Charoentham Assistant Dean for Information Technology, Faculty of Industrial Education and Technology, KMITL Mr. Natathai Jansen Assistant Dean for Student Affairs, Faculty of Industrial Education and Technology, KMITL Dr. Jirarat Sitthiworachart Assistant Dean for Academic and International Affairs, Faculty of Industrial Education and Technology, KMITL Asst. Prof. Sunti Tuntrakool Head of the Department of Engineering Education Faculty of Industrial Education and Technology, KMITL Assoc. Prof. Dr. Paitoon Pimdee Head of the Department of Industrial Education Faculty of Industrial Education and Technology, KMITL Dr. Suthasini Bureeknampun Head of the Department of Architectural Education and Design Faculty of Industrial Education and Technology, KMITL Dr. Pattraphon Patthararangsarith Head of the Department of Agricultural Education Faculty of Industrial Education and Technology, KMITL Asst. Prof. Dr. Thanongsak Sovajassatakul Director of Technology and Innovation Center, Faculty of Industrial Education and Technology, KMITL Academic Committee Prof. Dr. Mike Joy (The University of Warwick, UK) Prof. Dr. Jazlin Ebenezer (Wayne State University, USA) Prof. Dr. Edward M. Reeve (Utah State University, USA) Prof. Dr. Aida Suraya Md. Yunus (Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia) Prof. Dr. Nihal Perera (Ball State University, USA) Prof. Dr. Elizabeth Murphy (Memorial University of Newfoundland, Canada) Prof. Dr. Richard Clark (University of Southern California , USA)
  8. 8. xviii Prof. Dr. Rustam Shadiev (Nanjing Normal University , China) Prof. Dr. Shu-Sheng Liaw (China Medical University , Taiwan) Adjunct Prof. Dr. Malowe U. Aquino (Benguet State University, Philippines) Assoc. Prof. Dr. Jintana Bunnak (KMITL, Thailand) Assoc. Prof. Dr. Jiří Dostál (Palacký University of Olomouc, Czech Republic) Assoc. Prof. Dr. Koompong Noobanjong (KMITL, Thailand) Assoc. Prof. Dr. Kunya Tuntivisoottiktiul (KMITL, Thailand) Assoc. Prof. Dr. Pakkapong Poungsuk (KMITL, Thailand) Assoc. Prof. Dr. Panneepa Sivapirunthep (KMITL, Thailand) Assoc. Prof. Dr. Pariyaporn Tungkunanan (KMITL, Thailand) Assoc. Prof. Dr. Pichai Sodbhiban (KMITL, Thailand) Assoc. Prof. Dr. Pornpimaon Chayratsami (KMITL, Thailand) Asst. Prof. Dr. Apisak Sindhuphak (KMITL, Thailand) Asst. Prof. Dr. Arshad Abd. Samad (Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia) Asst. Prof. Dr. Ismi Arif Ismail (Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia) Asst. Prof. Dr. Jarkko Suhonen (University of Eastern Finland, Finland) Asst. Prof. Dr. Mohd Izham (National University of Malaysia) Asst. Prof. Dr. Patsatraporn Tipyasothorn (KMITL, Thailand) Asst. Prof. Dr. Prasert Kenpankho (KMITL, Thailand) Asst. Prof. Dr. Ratchadakorn Polpakdee (KMITL, Thailand) Asst. Prof. Dr. Rosnaini Mahmud (Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia) Asst. Prof. Dr. Sirirat Petsangsri (KMITL, Thailand) Asst. Prof. Dr. Suriyan Supapvanich (KMITL, Thailand) Asst. Prof. Dr. Winai Jaikla (KMITL, Thailand) Asst. Prof. Pissini Mano (KMITL, Thailand) Asst. Prof. Sunti Tuntrakool (KMITL, Thailand) Dr. Amirah Ismail (Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia) Dr. Antony Harfield (Naresuan University, Thailand) Dr. Jirarat Sitthiworachart (KMITL, Thailand) Dr. Pattraphon Patthararangsarith (KMITL, Thailand) Dr. Ratree Siripant (KMITL, Thailand) Dr. Somchai Seviset (KMITL, Thailand) Dr. Supornchai Saengratwatchara (KMITL, Thailand) Miss Sanwadee Jareonchasri (KMITL, Thailand)
  9. 9. xix TABLE OF CONTENTS Page CONFERENCE ORGANIZING COMMITTEE xv TABLE OF CONTENTS xix CONFERENCE PROGRAM xxv KEYNOTE ADDRESS xxxi NEW MODELS OF EDUCATIONAL DELIVERY : THE WAY FORWARD K01-01 Prof. Dr. Mike Joy EDUCATING FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT : COMPUTATIONAL K02-01 THINKING IN SCIENCE LEARNING Prof. Dr. Jazlin Ebenezer SMART EDUCATION NEED SMART INSTRUCTORS K03-01 Prof. Dr. Edward M. Reeve INITIATIVES THAT HAVE BEEN EXPLORED TO PROVIDE STUDENTS IN K04-01 MALAYSIAN UNIVERSITIES WITH REAL LIFE LEARNING EXPERIENCES Prof. Dr. Aida Suraya Md. Yunus THE LIMITAIONS OF THE HEGEMONIC EDUCATION MODEL FOR K05-01 THE NON-WEST Prof. Dr. Nihal Perera DELEGATE’S PAPERS SCIENCE TECHNOLOGY ENGINEERING AND MATHEMATICS FIRST STEPS IN TEACHING COMPUTATIONAL THINKING STEM01-01 THROUGH MOBILE TECHNOLOGY AND ROBOTICS Titipan PHETSRIKRAN, Wansuree MASSAGRAM and Antony HARFIELD LEARNING INNOVATION A LEARNING MANAGEMENT VIA GOOGLE CLASSROOM BASED LIN01-01 ON SELF-DIRECTED TO PROMOTE LIFELONG LEARNING OF UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS Kattakamon PISLAE-NGAM, Supeeti KULCHAN, Oraboot WUTTIKAMONCHAI and Sirirat PETSANGSRI
  10. 10. xx DEVELOPMENT OF INTEGRATED TEACHING AND LEARNING LIN02-01 MODEL WITH EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY INNOVATION USING SOCIAL MEDIA TO PROMOTE STUDENTS’ INQUIRIES IN HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS Chanphakit SEEHAMAT, Paitoon PIMDEE and Chantana VIRIYAVEJAKUL THE SYNTHESIS OF THE CONCEPTS OF TEACHING THE PRACTICAL LIN03-01 SKILLS OF DAVIES, HARROW AND SIMPSON Thanarak SANTHUENKAEW, Somkiat TONTIWONGWANICH and Paitoon PIMDEE EDUCATION REFORM TEACHING COMPETENCY OF INDUSTRIAL TEACHERS IN ERE01-01 THE 21st CENTURY BASED ON EXPERTS’ OPINIONS Kritsana THONGKAM, Amnart TUNGJAROENCHAI and Phadungchai PUPAT NEED ASSESSMENT FOR TEACHER PROFESSIONAL’S ERE02-01 ATTRIBUTE OF STUDENTS FACULTY OF EDUCATION YALA RAJABHAT UNIVERSITY Nannam BUAKLAY, Amnart TUNGJAROENCHAI, Phadungchai PUPAT and Lertlak KLINHOM A DEVELOPMENT OF META-EVALUATION CRITERIA ERE03-01 FOR INTERNAL QUALITY ASSURANCE Wittaya SAWATLON, Krissana KIDDEE and Thanin RATANAOLARN THE OPINIONS OF DEPUTY DIRECTORS FOR ACADEMY AND ERE04-01 TEACHERS TOWARDS A SKILL PROMOTING CURRICULUM ON AND INTEGRATED SCIENCE PROCESS SKILLS FOR CERTIFICATE VOCATIONAL STUDENTS Pongsuwat SERMSIRIKARNJANA and Krissana KIDDEE LEARNING OPPORTUNITY THE STUDY OF THE ECONOMIC VARIABLES THAT LOP01-01 AFFECT THE VALUE OF EXPORT Surang BOONYAPONGCHAI, Nassaporn TICHAWANICH, Jakrit TICHAVANICH and Parawee SRIKAN TEACHING AND LEARNING STRATEGIES THE VALIDATION OF THE MEASUREMENT MODEL OF THE TLS01-01 ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVE FOR SECONDARY STUDENTS Oranit CHOKCHAI and Phadungchai PUPAT
  11. 11. xxi DEVELOPMENT OF BUSINESS LEARNING CURRICULUM TO DEVELOP TLS02-01 HUMAN RESOURCES THROUGH WEB-BASED COLLABORATIVE LEARNING TO ENHANCE PERFORMANCE WITH TECHNOLOGY AND COMMUNICATION EDUCATION Parinya SRISARAKHAM, Paitoon PIMDEE and Chantana VIRIYAVEJAKUL PERFORMANCE BASED LEARNING INVESTIGATING ICT COMPETENCIES FOR UNDERGRADUATE PBL01-01 STUDENTS AT NAKHON SI THAMMARAT RAJABHAT UNIVERSITY Thamasan SUWANROJ, Punnee LEEKITCHWATANA and Paitoon PIMDEE TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION MODERNIZED LEADERSHIP CHARACTERISTICS FOR PRIVATE TVE01-01 VOCATIONAL COLLEGE ADMINISTRATORS Thunkarn AKARADECHDECHA, Malai TAWISOOK and Chira HONGRADAROM SYNTHESIS OF ENTERPRISE OCCUPATIONAL TRAINING TVE02-01 COMPETENCIES IN DUAL VOCATIONAL TRAINING STUDENT PROGRAM: MECHANICAL TECHNOLOGY Somchat BOONSRI, Phadungchai PUPAT and Peerawut SUWANJAN INSTRUCTIONAL SYSTEM DESIGN A PILOT STUDY OF A LEARNING CONTENT MANAGEMENT ISD01-01 SYSTEM ON SPORT SCIENCE BASED ON CONSTRUCTIVISM FOR NINTH GRADE STUDENTS AT WAT TIPPAWAS SCHOOL, BANGKOK, THAILAND Aime-acha SILAMUT, Pornpob CHANKRAIPON, Sirirat PETSANGSRI and Somkiat TUNTIWONGWANICH THE DEVELOPMENT OF CONSTRUCTIVIST LEARNING ISD02-01 ENVIRONMENT ON THE PRIME NUMBER FOR GRADE 6 STUDENTS Prarichart RUENPHONGPHUN, Jutaporn CHARDNARUMAN, Natchanun SERMSRI and Sirirat PETSANGSRI THE DEVELOPMENT OF WEB-BASED INSTRUCTION ON ISD03-01 CONSTRUCTIVIST THEORY ON BASIC PROGRAMMING FOR MATHAYOMSUKSA 3 STUDENTS Pairoj Pasuwan, Nattawut Phurikultong, Boonlue Klumklo and Somkiat Tuntwongwanich EDUCATION MANAGEMENT STUDY OF COMPONENT LEVELS OF CREATIVE ACADEMIC EMA01-01 ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDHOOD UNDER THE OFFICE OF THE BASIC EDUCATION COMMISSION Luckana PENGRUCK, Kanchana BOONPHAK and Boonchan SISAN
  12. 12. xxii MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM MODEL SUPPORTING EMA02-01 THE QUALITY ASSURANCE OF SCHOOLS IN THAILAND Daoprakai RASO, Pariyaporn TUNGKUNANAN and Abhichat ANUKULWECH THE DESIGN OF AN EDUCATION MANAGEMENT INFORMATION EMA03-01 SYSTEM FOR THE MASTER OF SCIENCE PROGRAM IN COMPUTER EDUCATION Eakphisitdha Uttra, Wannakarn Boonyok and Jirarat Sitthiworachart A CONCEPTUAL STUDY OF CREATIVE PROBLEM SOLVING PROCESS: EMA04-01 AIMING TO IMPROVE UNDERGRADUATE COMPUTER EDUCATION STUDENTS Nipaporn KHAMCHAROEN and Thiyaporn KANTATHANAWAT ARCHITECTURAL EDUCATION AND DESIGN A STUDY OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF JOURNEY LINKS IN AED01-01 THE WORLD HERITAGE AREAS OF HISTORICAL DISTRICTS: SUKHOTHAI, SI SATCHANALAI, KAMPHAENGPHET Surasak Kangkhao and Chaturong Louhapensang DIFFERENCES IN DRAWING RESULTS BETWEEN DRAWING AED02-01 ON SMARTPHONES OR TABLET DEVICES VERSUS DRAWING WITH STUDIO TOOLS Chananchida YUKTIRAT, Apisak SINDHUPHAK and Krissana KIDDEE CONCEPTS IN THE DESIGN OF CULTURAL TOYS AED03-01 Sittisak RATTANAPRAPAWAN, Apisak SINDHUPHAK and Krissana KIDDEE THE SYMBOLIC SELECTION OF THE FACULTY LOGOS OF AED04-01 ASSUMPTION UNIVERSITY, THAILAND Khonteeneung SAENGHIRUNA, Krissana KIDDEE and Apisak SINDHUPHAK THE MEANING OF FACULTY EMBLEM: ASSUMPTION AED05-01 UNIVERSITY OF THAILAND Khonteeneung SAENGHIRUNA, Apisak SINDHUPHAK and Krissana KIDDEE STUDY ON LEARNING PROCESS AND ASSESSMENT OF AED06-01 PROBLEMS IN THE ART OF DRAWING THROUGH THE USE OF SMARTPHONES AND TABLETS Chananchida YUKTIRAT, Apisak SINDHUPHAK and Krissana KIDDEE THE SYMBOLIC ARTS IN BUDDHIST LITERATURES AED07-01 ON THE HIMMAPAN CREATURES: MULTICULTURAL CASE STUDIES OF THAILAND, MYANMAR, LAOS Sittisak RATTANAPRAPAWAN, Apisak SINDHUPHAK and Krissana KIDDEE
  13. 13. xxiii SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN EDUCATION A MODEL OF PERSONALITY AND ITS ANTECEDENT OF SDE01-01 VOCATIONAL STUDENTS IN BANGKOK Olan KARNCHANAKAS and Charoen SANPAGDI NEEDS ANALYSIS OF LEARNING AND TEACHING OF SDE02-01 UNDERGRADUATE ENGLISH MAJOR STUDENTS FROM THE FACULTY OF LIBERAL ARTS OF KING MONGKUT’S INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY LADKRABANG Thai SANTA AGRICULTURE INTERNET OF THINGS IN AGRICULTURE: AGR01-01 A CASE STUDY OF SMART DAIRY FARMING IN ONTARIO, CANADA Poonsri VATE-U-LAN, Donna QUIGLEY and Panicos MASOURAS OTHERS THE VALIDATION OF SERVICE QUALITY MODEL OF OPERATING OTH01-01 STAFFS IN SUZUKI MOTOR (THAILAND) CO., LTD. Pichaipat CHAICHINARAT, Thanin RATANAOLARN and Krissana KIDDEE
  14. 14. The 15th International Conference on Developing Real-Life Learning Experience: Smart Education for Sustainable Development INTERNET OF THINGS IN AGRICULTURE: A CASE STUDY OF SMART DAIRY FARMING IN ONTARIO, CANADA Poonsri VATE-U-LAN, Ed.D.1) , Donna QUIGLEY, Ph.D.2) and Panicos MASOURAS, Ph.D.3) 1-2) Full-time Lecturers Graduate School of eLearning Assumption University, Bangkok, 10240, Thailand 1) Email: poonsrivtl@au.edu 2) Email: home196726@hotmail.com 3) Assistant Professor Department of Nursing, Cyprus University of Technology Limassol, Cyprus Email: panicos.masouras@cytanet.com.cy ABSTRACT The objective of this paper is to report a case study of smart dairy farming in Ontario, Canada which is the future of food production and ways that advancements related to the Internet of Things (IoT). It is impacting upon agricultural practice in the form of smart farming. Smart farming is the practice of intelligent agricultural management based upon technological data gathering farm practice for the purpose of increased levels of quality, production, and environmental protection. This paper will illustrate one example whereby partnerships among the academic world, government agencies and local food producing communities in Canada are adapting innovative thinking and smart technologies to address the need to implement the more effective agricultural practice. Food From Thought is a Canadian research project, based upon high-tech information systems to produce enough food for a growing human population while sustaining the Earth’s ecosystems. The paper will outline how one dairy farmer in Ontario has been able to apply smart farming technologies to increase milk production while maintaining the health of his cattle and preserving the environment. The review of applications of smart farming in Ontario such as digital tracking for a cow, genomic testing, digitally signaled birth, sensor driven crop management and data driven dairy production also details in this article. Keywords: Internet of Things; Dairy Farming; Food From Thought; Smart Farming AGR01-1
  15. 15. The 15th International Conference on Developing Real-Life Learning Experience: Smart Education for Sustainable Development INTRODUCTION Scientists have predicted a world food shortage by the year 2050 (Giovannucci et al., 2012). United Nations projections related to food shortages are based upon a future world population of 9.6 billion. Experts predict that the agricultural sector will need to increase food production by 70 per cent in order to avoid a food shortage catastrophe and its subsequent devastating results upon human populations. Researchers point to two critical variables which if remain unaddressed will spell disaster for future generations in terms of the planet’s capacity to feed its people. Increments in world population growth will place unprecedented demands upon all stakeholders within the agricultural sector (Guerrini, 2015). Researchers have identified global environmental trends related to diminishing resources that are critical to the future of agriculture and horticulture. Climate change as a consequence of global warming has resulted in a reduction of arable land and availability of fresh water on a world scale. This pattern is concerning because agriculture consumes 70 per cent of the planets’ fresh water. Natural phenomena associated with earth’s ever evolving change process have been altered significantly to the extent that in some regions of the planet water tables have deepened, the process and rate of desertification has been escalated, salination levels of underground fresh water resources have risen, and increased runoff due to flooding has decimated vast regions of agricultural land. The United Nations has predicted that warmer temperatures have the very real potential to alter natural growth patterns in plants and animals resulting in interrupted natural cycles of pollination and crop germination to give examples. Mega storms, drought, pollution, changes in animal reproduction cycles have the capacity to impact upon food production levels drastically. The agricultural sector is presently approaching a new threshold which represents a shift towards greater co-operation among stakeholders who have a role in the food producing industry (The University of Guelph, 2016a). THE INTERNET OF THINGS DEFINITION The Internet of Things or ‘IoT’ in short, an important advancement of the Internet is the spectrum of technology and society. A definition of IoT is not permanent but depending on the contexts involving with a global infrastructure for the information and communication technologies. Essentially, human-centered demand is the major effort that influence to innovate IoT (Gubbi, Buyya, Marusic, & Palaniswami, 2013; Shin & Jin Park, 2017). IoT in a smart environment contexts has been studied and defined as an interconnection system among the Internet and other sensing and actuating devices which be able to operate information across various platforms via a unified framework such as cloud computing with seamless information representation, data analytics, and ubiquitous sensing (Gubbi et al., 2013). FOOD FROM THOUGHT: A CANADIAN INITIATIVE Smart farming or what is otherwise referred to as bio-logical farming represents a digital revolution to increase capacity and quality of agricultural production based upon applications of sensing technologies that allow food producers to be more “intelligent” and more scientific through the practice of “precision agriculture” (The University of Guelph, 2016b). AGR01-2
  16. 16. The 15th International Conference on Developing Real-Life Learning Experience: Smart Education for Sustainable Development The University of Guelph located in Ontario is recognized as a research-based university that is reputed to be one of Canada’s leaders in the field of agriculture. In June of 2016, the Canadian federal government awarded Guelph University $76.6 million (CN) to initiate a digital revolution in sustainable food production. Canada’s investment in the Food From Thought research project sets as its goal to use high–tech information systems to produce innovative solutions related to food production in response to future human population projections while responding to the critical need to protect and sustain the Earth’s ecosystems. Food From Thought represents a network of global partnerships that include academic institutions, government agencies, industry and local innovation centers. IBM a major community partner “shares a vision of Food From Thought; ensuring that we sustainably resiliently and safely increase production while enhancing ecosystem services and livestock health and welfare using data-driven approaches” (The University of Guelph, 2016b). APPLICATIONS OF SMART FARMING IN ONTARIO Joe Loewith and Sons Ltd. farm, located in Ancaster, Ontario is recognized as a leader in raising Summitholm Holsteins within Canada’s dairy farming industry (Joe, 2009). This is one of commercial farms which has over 200 heads. The following are examples provided during an interview with Carl Loewith a co-owner of Joe Loewith and Sons Ltd. Dairy Farm (Carl, 2016). The examples illustrate ways that agricultural research and innovative applications of smart technology are being incorporated into the daily operation of the dairy farm. Digital Tracking for Each Cow Figure 1: A cow with digital bracelet Photo by Quigley (2016a) AGR01-3
  17. 17. The 15th International Conference on Developing Real-Life Learning Experience: Smart Education for Sustainable Development Figure 2: Graph activity and milk production Photo by Quigley (2016b) Advances in sensing technology and agricultural software allow farmers to create individual and demographic profiles for the dairy herd. Each cow is equipped with a digital bracelet or pedometer which identifies the Holstein, measures how much milk was produced at each milking, provides data about the cows’ activity by recording the number of steps per hour, identifies conductivity levels of the milk which are indicators of the presence of infections or possible ruptured cells in the udder and the duration period for the udder to be drained (see Figure 1). The subsequent data is managed by software which allows each cow to be monitored for its overall health and levels of production in ways that previously were impossible. Readings that signal changes in the Holstein’s normal patterns allow the farmer to accurately predict the needs of each cow. The graph, Figure 2 indicates a pattern of change in the cow’s system. The data from this example identify a combination of low milk in production in blue with high activity levels in red which signal that the cow is in heat and indicate that it is the ideal time for the cow to be inseminated (see Figure 2). From a staff management perspective, the data profiles enable the farmer to supervise and monitor the effectiveness of employees. Workers who operate the milking equipment and oversee the milking process are responsible for the cleaning and stimulation of the udders as a preparation for milking. Changes to the readings over time identify potential health risks to the cow such as the presence of udder infections. Analysis of the data supports staff in addressing health risks that potentially threaten the cow’s productivity. In some cases, training needs that support staff performance can be identified and managed easily so that the health of the cow is not compromised. Innovations in smart technology greatly support quality assurance of milk production and staff effectiveness because decisions are implemented through interpretation of data based upon input from each cow. During the interview, Carl shared a similar but more sophisticated method of digital management of cows that currently is not available in Canada. An Israeli dairy farmer uses a sensing neck collar to monitor his Holsteins. Sensors imbedded in a neck collar are able to pick up and transmit “noises” that are made by the cow as it digests its feed. Information communicated via an app to a mobile phone allows the farmer to monitor how each cow is digesting its feed and feeling in real time. Applications of smart technology have removed the AGR01-4
  18. 18. The 15th International Conference on Developing Real-Life Learning Experience: Smart Education for Sustainable Development obstacles of distance and time so that from anywhere in the world a farmer can monitor every cow in the herd. Continued advancements in the field of intelligent dairy farming will be enable producers to manage larger herds, achieve higher production levels while ensuring the well- being and health of their herd. Genomic Testing: Herd Intelligence Figure 3: Three days old heifer Photo by Birchall (2015b) Advances in genetic science and technology have made it possible for dairy farmers to map the genome of a Holstein calf as early as one day after its birth. A sample of hair or blood can be used to isolate components of the calf’s Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA). The process allows the farmer to predict with certainty how a heifer will mature to adulthood. Previously a waiting period of two years was necessary before a heifer could be assessed for its milk producing and breeding capacity. Applications of DNA testing provide firm indicators regarding the cow’s future fertility, milk production levels, vulnerability to diseases and indicate the components of its milk such as percentages of buttermilk fat, protein, and lactose levels. The practice of artificial insemination of dairy cows added to the capacity to alter and select the structure of the DNA of males has far reaching implications to the quality of offspring. DNA testing has improved the effectiveness of the dairy cattle breeding process. Healthier more productive cows produce higher quality milk which affects operating costs and overall profitability. A Digitally Signaled Birth A system of sensing technology and software when connected to a computer or mobile phone provides the dairy farmer with information alerts when a cow is about to calf. Prior to the cow’s expected calving date a small sensing device is placed inside the birth canal and has the capacity to detect and transmit information related to what is happening inside the cow’s body. This means that should the mother be experiencing distress during any phase of the birthing process help can be available. Dystocia obstructed labour in cattle occurs when the calf cannot pass through the birth canal (Patterson, Bellows, Burfening, & Carr, 1987). The mother and calf become at risk to injury or possible death if assistance from a veterinarian or knowledgeable individual is not immediately made available. Studies conducted by the experts have shown that dystocia is responsible for 33 per cent of all calf losses in the United States. The prevalence of dystocia understandably has serious economic implications for the dairy producing industry. The losses to a farmer of an adult cow or calf are considerable when factored against projected milk production and breeding figures over the animal’s lifetime. Veterinary costs to treat injury or AGR01-5
  19. 19. The 15th International Conference on Developing Real-Life Learning Experience: Smart Education for Sustainable Development death of either the mother or her calf can be greatly reduced when assistance during the calving process is timely. Smart technology allows large herds to be monitored so that where more than one cow is calving at the same time resources can be in place to ensure the safe delivery of each calf. Sensor Driven Crop Management Figure 4: GPS –driven crop harvesting equipment Photo by Birchall (2015a) A high percentage of dairy farms in Ontario grow their own feed to reduce operating costs. Innovations in sensing technologies have resulted in improved methods of crop management. Farmers are now able to apply geospatial sensor technologies such as Global Positioning System (GPS) applications to manage planting, fertilizing, crop spraying and harvesting with the outcome of improved crop management and cost-saving practice. Most applications of agricultural software are compatible with Windows 7/8, Vista or XP and can be downloaded to a cell phone, tablet or laptop using a UBS cable to connect with a GPS system. The result being that standard farm equipment can be transformed to function with digital precision capacity. Digital farming software allows the field to be mapped and worked according to a grid system which allows the operator to see the field from a 3D perspective. The operator has precision control and is able to direct fertilizers or chemical sprays in such a way as to cover the entire field. A GPS-driven crop sprayer has the capacity to develop a digital record of factors such as date, time of day, area, soil condition, weather conditions and volume of fertilizer or chemicals that were sprayed. GPS precision agriculture allows real-time data collection and analysis that is site specific, and perspective controlled so that fertilizers and pesticides can be worked to reflect the unique topography of the field. Data provided to the farmer is critical to effective crop management both in terms of the overall operational costs and from the perspective of preservation and protection of the environment. GPS precision agriculture is cost effective because it requires less time to work the field than traditional methods and because the waste of fertilizer or chemicals is eliminated. GPS precision technology allows the operator to adjust the boom to match the width of the spray area which results in no over spraying or missed areas. Challenges that relate to conditions of low visibility are eliminated because the operator can adjust the spray nozzles to compensate for weather conditions such as fog, rain or, darkness. AGR01-6
  20. 20. The 15th International Conference on Developing Real-Life Learning Experience: Smart Education for Sustainable Development Advances in precision agricultural technology have important implications in terms of benefits related to crop management to a dairy farmer. Specifically, the operator’s control and degree of precision minimizes damage to the crop, and to fragile ecosystems within the environment. Data Driven Dairy Production Figure 5: Healthy dairy cows increase production levels Photo by Quigley (2016c) The Independent Milk Research Agency monitors 85,000 dairy herds across Canada. Each month every farm is visited for the purpose of gathering samples and recording production rates for the herd. Dairy production statics support research and quality control and are accessible in both provincial and national data bases that are both current and comprehensive. Information figures document readings submitted for milk production for each herd according to set criteria related to, udder health, age at first calving, the longevity of the herd, calving interval in terms of the number of pregnancies for each cow, and the rate of herd turnover. Each herd then is ranked against the above criteria. The Joe Loewith and Son’s Ltd. operation has consistently ranked in third place within this national scale. Carl states that this level of achievement is based on his family’s dedication to dairy production. The current standard of excellence achieved at this farm is in fact, a reflection of three generations of commitment towards improvement in dairy farming methods. He credits not only the team approach of his family partners but also the importance of community-based experts, publications, and networks that support advancement within the diary production industry. Gone are the days when dairy farmers are problem-solving in isolation (Ontario, Milk Marketing Board, 2016). The advent of the Internet and applications of smart farming technology allows the herd to be digitally monitored for quality control within the broader context of the dairy industry. In Canada, an extensive network of agents exists to support advancements in dairy herd management. Carl sited his veterinarian, feed nutritionist, and crop consultant and genetics advisor as first line partners in his commitment to keep up with smart technologies that support the health and production levels of the herd. AGR01-7
  21. 21. The 15th International Conference on Developing Real-Life Learning Experience: Smart Education for Sustainable Development SUMMARY The future of agriculture is dependent upon strong partnerships between all stakeholders in the food producing industry. Developments related to agricultural research and intelligent technology must continue to advance in the fields of genetics, breeding, crop management, conservation and environmental protection as a strategy to develop solutions to the ever increasing challenge of feeding the planet. The impacts from Internet of Things (IoT) upon agricultural development in the form of smart farming in Ontario, Canada should be an interesting case study to other similar future of food production especially the ways that advancements related to smart farming. A case study in this current paper presents the implementation of intelligent agricultural management based upon technological data gathering farm practice for the purpose of increased levels of quality, production, and environmental protection. The innovative research integrate advanced technology in agriculture is on high demand especially in the top agricultural countries. The phenomenal of the Internet of Things (IoT) in agriculture is significant to ecosystems of the world since the smart technology can increase both quality and quantity of agricultural production. REFERENCES Birchall, G. (2015a). GPS –driven crop harvesting equipment. Kimberly Information Services Ltd. 36 Secinara Ave. Ancaster Ontario, Canada. Birchall, G. (2015b). Three day old calf. Kimberly Information Services Ltd. 36 Secinara Ave. Ancaster Ontario, Canada. Carl, L. (2016, October 18). Applications of Smart Farming in the Dairy Business by Co-owner and Manager of Joe Loewith and Sons Ltd. Giovannucci, D., Scherr, S. J., Nierenberg, D., Hebebrand, C., Shapiro, J., Milder, J., & Wheeler, K. (2012). Food and Agriculture: The Future of Sustainability. SSRN Electronic Journal. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2054838 Gubbi, J., Buyya, R., Marusic, S., & Palaniswami, M. (2013). Internet of Things (IoT): A vision, architectural elements, and future directions. Future Generation Computer Systems, 29(7), 1645–1660. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167739X13000241 Guerrini, F. (2015). The Future of Agriculture? Smart Farming. Forbes. Joe, L. (2009). Joe Loewith and Sons Ltd. Summitholm Holsteins. Retrieved from http://www.joeloewithandsons.com/ Ontario, Milk Marketing Board. (2016, October). Problem Solving on the Farm. Canada’s Best Read Dairy Magazine, 34–35. Patterson, D. J., Bellows, R. A., Burfening, P. J., & Carr, J. B. (1987). Occurrence of neonatal and postnatal mortality in range beef cattle. I. Calf loss incidence from birth to weaning, backward and breech presentations and effects of calf loss on subsequent pregnancy rate of dams. Theriogenology, 28(5), 557–571. https://doi.org/10.1016/0093-691X(87)90273-1 Quigley, D. (2016a). Activity levels and milk production rates. Quigley, D. (2016b). Digital bracelet at Joe Loewith and Son’s Ltd. Quigley, D. (2016c). Healthy dairy cows increase production levels at Joe Loewith and Son’s Ltd. Shin, D.-H., & Jin Park, Y. (2017). Understanding the Internet of Things ecosystem: multi-level analysis of users, society, and ecology. Digital Policy, Regulation and Governance, 19(1), 77–100. https://doi.org/10.1108/DPRG-07-2016-0035 AGR01-8
  22. 22. The 15th International Conference on Developing Real-Life Learning Experience: Smart Education for Sustainable Development The University of Guelph. (2016a, September 8). Food From Thought [Video]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=La7Xi65RyFo The University of Guelph. (2016b, September 8). U of G Receives Nearly $77 Million to Launch “Food From Thought.” Retrieved from http://news.uoguelph.ca/2016/09/u-g-receives-nearly-77- million-launch-food-thought/ AGR01-9

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