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Child psychology

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Child psychology

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Child psychology

  1. 1. According to Freud, Erikson, Piaget, Presented by: Roshni Maurya MDS First Year
  2. 2.  Psychology: is the science dealing with human nature, function and phenomenon of his soul in the main.  Child psychology : is the science that deals with the mental power or interaction between the conscious and subconscious element in a child.
  4. 4. Classified into 2 groups: PSYCHODYNAMIC THEORIES o Psychosexual theory by Sigmund Freud o Psychosocial theory by Eric Erickson o Cognitive theory by Jean Piaget BEHAVIOUR LEARNING THEORIES o Classical conditioning theory by Ivan Pavlov o Operant conditioning theory by B. F. Skinner o Social learning theory by Albert Bandura o Hierarchy of needs by Maslow
  5. 5. THEORIES OF PSYCHODYANAMIC DEVELOPMENT  PSYCHOANALYTICAL THEORY GIVEN BY SIGMUND FREUD IN 1905:  Body has 2 types of neurons:  Phi neuron : concerned with condition of emotion  Psi neuron : concerned with storage of emotion
  7. 7. CONCIOUS MIND: Is paying attention at that moment. PRECONCIOUS MIND: Involves ordinary memory & knowledge; things we are aware of but not paying attention at all moments. UNCONCIOUS/SUBCONCIOUS MIND: Is part of mind which thinks & acts independently.
  8. 8. DIVIDED INTO 3 PARTS:  ID  EGO  SUPER EGO  ID : It is the basic structure of personality, serves as the reservoir of instincts.  Present at birth as impulse and strives for immediate pleasure & gratification.  E.g.; need to eat is based on pleasure principle i.e. the child wants food irrespective of external circumstances
  9. 9. EGO: It is a part of self that is concerned with overall functioning & organization of personality.  Capacity to test reality  Utilization of ego defense mechanism  Memory ,language & creativity E.g. hunger must wait until food is given SUPER EGO: It is part of personality that is internalized representation of the values & molars of the society as taught by parents & others. It is essentially an individual conscience & it judges whether the action is right or wrong.
  10. 10.  Freud outlined 5 stages of manifestations of the sexual development:  ORAL STAGE(0-1.5 YEARS)-  Erogenous zone in focus : Mouth  Gratifying activities : Nursing, eating, mouth movements i.e. sucking , biting & swallowing.  Interaction with enviornment: the child’s personality is controlled by the id & demands immediate gratification , responsive nurturing is the key.  Symptoms of oral fixation: smoking, nail biting, drinking, sarcasm.
  11. 11.  ANAL STAGE (1.5-3YEARS):  Erogenous zone in focus: Anus  Gratifying activities: Bowel movements & withholding of such movement.  Interaction with enviornment: Toilet training.  Symptoms of anal fixation  ANAL-EXPULSIVE PERSONALITY : sloppy, disorganised, reckless, careless & defiant  ANAL-RENTENTIVE PERSONALITY : Clean, orderly, intolerant to uncleanliness.
  12. 12. PHALLIC STAGE9(4-5 YEARS)  Erogenous zone in focus: Genitals  Gratifying activities: Genital fondling  Interaction with enviornment: child’s feeling of greater attachment with parent of opposite sex  Symptoms of phallic fixation:  MEN: Anxiety & guilty feeling about opposite sex & narcissism.  Oedipus complex: tendency of young boy child being attached more to mother than father.  Electra complex :tendency of girl child developing more than affection for father than mother.
  13. 13. Latency (5 years-puberty):  Erogenous zone in focus :None  Interaction with enviornment: children focus energy on other aspects of life e.g. culture forming beliefs & values, developing friendship & engaging in sports. GENITAL STAGE(from puberty onwards)  Erogenous zone in focus: Genital  Gratifying activities: Heterosexual relationships  Interaction with enviornment: marked by pursuit for relationship.  Symptoms of genital fixation: does not cause fixation, if difficulty persists damage was done at earlier stages of oral, anal, phallic stages.
  14. 14. Phallic Stage Child’s pleasure focuses on genitals Latency Stage Child represses sexual interest and develops social and intellectual skills Anal Stage Child’s pleasure focuses on anus Genital Stage A time of sexual reawakening; source of sexual pleasure becomes someone outside of the family Oral Stage Infant’s pleasure centers on mouth Freudian Stages 6 yrs to puberty Birth to 1½ yrs 1½ to 3 yrs Puberty onward 3 to 6 years
  15. 15. FREUD’S THEORY: MERIT  One of the earliest and the most comprehensive theory of life long psychological development. DEMERITS:  Freud formulated this theory by his extensive studies on adult psychological patients & hence its extrapolation to children is not very justified.  The theory is based on obsessed observation of the psychologist.
  16. 16. Erikson’s Theory Erik Erikson was a follower of Sigmund Freud who broke with his teacher over the fundamental point of what motivates or drives human behavior. For Freud it was biology or more specifically the biological instincts of life and aggression.
  17. 17. Erikson’s Theory For Erikson, who was not trained in biology and/or the medical sciences (unlike Freud and many of his contemporaries), the most important force driving human behavior and the development of personality was social interaction.
  18. 18. Erikson’s Theory Erikson left his native Germany in the 1930's and immigrated to America where he studied Native American traditions of human development and continued his work as a psychoanalyst. His developmental theory of the "Eight Stages of Man" was unique in that it covered the entire lifespan rather than childhood and adolescent development.
  19. 19. Erikson’s Theory Erikson’s view was that the social environment combined with biological maturation provides each individual with a set of “crises” that must be resolved. The individual is provided with a "sensitive period" in which to successfully resolve each crisis before a new crisis is presented.
  20. 20. Erikson’s Theory The results of the resolution, whether successful or not, are carried forward to the next crisis and provide the foundation for its resolution.
  21. 21. Erikson’s Eight Stages Trust vs. Mistrust Infancy Child develops a belief that the environment can be counted on to meet his or her basic physiological and social needs.
  22. 22.  Birth to age 1  Totally dependent on others  Caregiver meets needs: child develops trust  Caregiver does not meet needs: child develops mistrust  Basic strength: Hope ◦ Belief our desires will be satisfied ◦ Feeling of confidence
  23. 23. • This stage identifies with development of separation anxiety in the child. So if necessary to provide dental treatment at this early age, it is preferable to do with the parent present and preferably with parent holding the child • Once the child loses basic trust with world, it is very difficult to gain confidence of the child and will require special efforts to establish support with the dentist and staff. Dental Application
  24. 24. Erikson’s Eight Stages Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt Toddlerhood Child learns what he/she can control and develops a sense of free will and corresponding sense of regret and sorrow for inappropriate use of self-control.
  25. 25.  Ages 1-3  Child able to exercise some degree of choice  Child’s independence is thwarted: child develops feelings of self-doubt, shame in dealing with others  Basic Strength: Will ◦ Determination to exercise freedom of choice in face of society’s demands
  26. 26. • Child is moving away from mother, but still retreat to her in threatening situations. So parent’s presence is essential in dental clinic • At this stage as the child takes pleasure in doing tasks by himself; dentist must obtain co-operation from him by making him believe that the treatment is his choice , not of his parents dentist.
  27. 27. Erikson’s Eight Stages Initiative vs. Guilt Early Childhood Child learns to begin action, to explore, to imagine as well as feeling remorse for actions.
  28. 28.  Ages 3-5  Child expresses desire to take initiative in activities  Parents punish child for initiative: child develops feelings of guilt that will affect self- directed activity throughout life  Basic strength: Purpose ◦ Courage to envision and pursue goals
  29. 29. • Child can be encouraged to view this visit as a new adventure and encouraged to genuine success in it. If this visit fails, it can lead to sense of guilt in the child. • He is inherently teachable at this stage and so can be taught about various things in dental set up. Independence has to reinforced rather than dependence.
  30. 30. Erikson’s Eight Stages Industry vs. Inferiority Middle Childhood Child learns to do things well or correctly in comparison to a standard or to others
  31. 31.  Ages 6-11  Child develops cognitive abilities to enable in task completion (school work, play)  Parents/teachers do not support child’s efforts: child develops feelings of inferiority and inadequacy  Basic strength: Competence ◦ Exertion of skill and intelligence in pursuing and completing tasks
  32. 32. • Child drives for sense of industry and accomplishment, co-operation with treatment can be obtained. This need to be +vely reinforced. • Co-operation at this stage depends on whether heshe understands what is needed to please dentistparents, whether the peer group is supportive and whether the desired behaviour is reinforced by the dentist.
  33. 33. Erikson’s Eight Stages Identity vs. Role Confusion Adolescence Develops a sense of self in relationship to others and to own internal thoughts and desires • social identity • personal identity
  34. 34.  Ages 12-18  Form ego identity: self-image  Strong sense of identity: face adulthood with certainty and confidence  Identity crisis: confusion of ego identity  Basic strength: Fidelity ◦ Emerges from cohesive ego identity ◦ Sincerity, genuineness, sense of duty in relationships with others
  35. 35.  Behavior management of adolescents can be challenging. Any orthodontic treatment should be carried out if child wants it and not parents as this stage, parental authority is rejected. Approval of peer group is extremely important.
  36. 36. Erikson’s Eight Stages Intimacy vs. Isolation Young Adulthood Develops ability to give and receive love; begins to make long-term commitment to relationships
  37. 37.  Ages 18-35 (approximately)  Undertake productive work and establish intimate relationships  Inability to establish intimacy leads to social isolation  Basic strength: Love ◦ Mutual devotion in a shared identity ◦ Fusing of oneself with another person
  38. 38. • At this stage, external appearances are very important as it helps in attainment of intimate relation. These young adults seeks orthodontic treatment to correct their dental appearances and this is characterized as internal motivation. • But alteration of appearances can also interfere with previously established relations, so the tertament options must be fully explained to and discussed with the young adults.
  39. 39. Erikson’s Eight Stages Generativity vs. Stagnation Middle Adulthood Develops interest in guiding the development of the next generation
  40. 40.  Ages 35-55 (approximately)  Generativity: Active involvement in teaching/guiding the next generation  Stagnation involves not seeking outlets for generativity  Basic strength: Care ◦ Broad concern for others ◦ Need to teach others
  41. 41. Erikson’s Eight Stages Ego- integrity vs. Despair Later Adulthood Develops a sense of acceptance of life as it was lived and the importance of the people and relationships that individual developed over the lifespan
  42. 42.  Ages 55+  Evaluation of entire life  Integrity: Look back with satisfaction  Despair: Review with anger, frustration  Basic strength: Wisdom ◦ Detached concern with the whole of life
  43. 43.  Stages 1-4 ◦ Largely determined by others (parents, teachers)  Stages 5-8 ◦ Individual has more control over environment ◦ Individual responsibility for crisis resolution in each stage
  44. 44. MERITS:  Based on age wise classification of an individual. Hence easy to apply at any stage of development.  Simple & comprehensive to understand. DEMERITS:  Based on extreme ends of personality.
  45. 45. Acc. To Piaget the foll. mechanism help the child to progress from one stage to another.  OPERATION: An action that the child performs mentally & is reversible.  SCHEMATA : Represents a dynamic process of differentiation & reorganization of knowledge.  ASSIMILATION : New object interpreted in terms of idea or action the child has already acquired.  ACCOMMODATION : AN individual tendency to modify action to fit into a new situation.  EQUILIBRIUM: State established as new knowledge to the child.
  46. 46.  It has been categorized into 4 major stages:  Sensorimotor stage (0 - 2 years)  Pre-operational stage (2 - 7 years)  Concrete operational stage (7-11 years)  Formal operational stage (11-15 years)
  47. 47. Preoperational Stage: The child begins to represent the world with words and images. These words and images reflect increased symbolic thinking and go beyond the connection of sensory information and physical action. Formal Operational Stage The adolescent reasons in more abstract idealistic and logical ways. Sensorimotor Stage: The infant constructs an understanding of the world by coordinating sensory experiences with physical actions: progressing from reflexive, instinctual action at birth to the beginning of symbolic thought toward end of the stage. Concrete Operational Stage: The child can now reason logically about concrete events and classify objects into different sets. Figure 2.3 11–15 years of age through adulthood Birth to 2 years of age 2 to 7 years of age 7 to 11 years of age Piaget’s Four Stages of Cognitive Development
  48. 48.  Sensorimotor stage : child begins to interact with the environment, can be given toys while sitting in dental clinic or chair in his /her hand.  Preoperational stage : pre operational stage constructivism: child explores things, surveys dental chair, airway syringe etc. • Cognitive Equilibrium :child explained about equipment & allowed to deal with it. • Animism : co-relates with other familiar objects.
  49. 49.  Concrete operations: concrete instructions i.e. brushing technique. Abstract instruction like retainer wearing & cleaning every night. • Centering: allow to hold mirror to see what is happening. • Ego centering :child achieves level of understanding & involves in the treatment.
  50. 50.  Formal operations: Peer influence & abstract thinking increase. They play an imp. Role in orthodontic appliance and braces. Acceptance from peers can be used for motivation for dental treatment.
  51. 51.  MERITS : Most comprehensive theory of cognitive development. The theory propagated that we can learn as much about children’s intellectual development from examining their incorrect & correct answers to items.  DEMERITS: Underestimates children’s abilities. Overestimates age difference in thinking. Vagueness about the process of change. underestimates the role of the social environment.
  52. 52. 1. None of these theories are completely correct and none of them are incorrect. They are proposals that shed light on the development of human beings... Guidance of a child’s behaviour in the dental office is an essential prerequisite to complete dental care. TO treat a child successfully or to manage a child in dental setting, one should have sufficient knowledge on psychological and personality development at different stages of childhood.
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Child psychology


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