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Panama | May 2017 | Lecciones y factores de éxito - Microrredes Rurales Fotovoltaicas

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Unai Arrieta Salgado, Trama TecnoAmbiental (TTA), Barcelona

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Panama | May 2017 | Lecciones y factores de éxito - Microrredes Rurales Fotovoltaicas

  1. 1. Lecciones y factores de éxito - Microrredes Rurales Fotovoltaicas Unai Arrieta Salgado Trama TecnoAmbiental (TTA), Barcelona unai.arrieta@tta.com.es 1 Energía fuera de la red para el desarrollo rural en América Latina y el Caribe - Taller de clausura Ciudad de Panamá 2-3 Mayo 2017
  2. 2. • SME Founded in Barcelona en 1986 • Independent consultants and engineers in distributed renewable energy  Since 1987: Off-grid rural electrification practitioners  Design and Project management of RE-hybrid micro-power plants and micro grids for rural electrification in southern Europe, Africa, Latin America, Oceania …  Micro-grid project developers, implementers and operators  Other areas: Energy Efficiency, Sustainable Building, Distributed Urban PV Trama TecnoAmbiental (TTA) Member of:
  3. 3. 3 villages (Chad) 2002 2005 2009 Santo Antâo (Cape Verde) Las Balsas (Ecuador) Akane (Morocco) 2012 Cal Peraire (Spain) 1987: Beginning Farmhouses PV electrification (Spain) 1994 2006 Escuain (Spain) 1997 Font:TTA 2007 Atouf (Palestine) Diakha Madina (Senegal) Beni Said (Morocco) Isla Floreana (Ecuador) 2015 2016 4 villages (Ghana) Burundi La Rambla del Agua (Spain) Tanzania Rwanda and Kenya PV off-grid Micro-grid Experience 2014 2013
  4. 4. PROJECT CYCLE OF A MICRO-GRID 1. Project identification 2. Need assessment and data gathering 4. Techno-economic analysis 5. Engineering 6. Procurement 7. Installation 8. Commissioning 9. Capacity building 10. Service operation 3. Business model and tariff definition
  5. 5. Usos productiv os CHALLENGE: SHARING THE ENERGY AVAILABLE WITHOUT CONFLICTS  Need comprehensive experience in technical and management levels with multidisciplinary skills  Need innovative approach to energy distribution and metering!
  6. 6. HIGHLIGHTED CHALLENGES OF MICROGRIDS Social Aspects • Identifying final users’ energy needs (energy services- electricity) • Sharing the available energy / resource without conflicts Management of individual energy demand • Provide incentives to use the available energy at moments with generation surplus • Accumulate energy not used, for each user, independently • Guide users on how to improve energy use habits Technical-economic sustainability of service • Ensure that battery, inverters etc. operate within design thresholds • Reduce tariff collection uncertainty • Tariffs reflect real operating costs
  7. 7. REGULATORY FRAMEWORK BUSINESS MODEL CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS DEMAND CHARACTERIZATION QUALITY SOLUTION (ENGINEERING & COMPONENTS) METERING CONCEPT and TARIFFS PROCUREMENT & LOGISTICS O&M
  8. 8. REGULATORY FRAMEWORK BUSINESS MODEL CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS DEMAND CHARACTERIZATION QUALITY SOLUTION (ENGINEERING & COMPONENTS) METERING CONCEPT and TARIFFS PROCUREMENT & LOGISTICS O&M
  9. 9. 1. ASSESS THE ENERGY DEMAND Demand characterisation 2. COMPARATIVE DEMAND CHARACTERISATION Assessment of load categories based on data analysis of similar villages and own experience – Through surveys, questionnaires and own observation – The users are not experts – Define users’ demand requirements – Consider socio-economic data Pefil consumo para uso doméstico, servicios, pequeña industria (<200 kWh/mes) 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 3,5 14 24,5 35 45,5 56 66,5 77 87,5 98 108,5 119 129,5 140 Rangos de consumo mensual (kWh) usuarios%deltotal
  10. 10. Added value solution: Scalable Monte Trigo, Cape Verde Chad
  11. 11. Financial Sustainability : • Tariffs designed to ensure enough revenues to cover its M&O&M, replacement and unforeseen costs and, including or not, pay-back of investment Tariff Schemes for energy management Tariff schemes: -Power-based -Energy-based -Service-based (EDA) -Combination of above Linked to the quality of service: Service duration Service disruption (max) 24/7 ˂ 1% 18/24, 12/24, … ˂ 10%, ˂ 15%, … Weekends On demand Seasonal …
  12. 12. METERING AND ENERGY MANAGEMENT Electricity Dispenser
  13. 13. ENERGY DAILY ALLOWANCE TARIFF IMPLEMENTATION Electricity metering Vending system Energy and Financial audit Clients’ management and financial statements X Wh/day (flexible) and Y W or kW; pre-paid fixed monthly fee ($/month), different for different energy/power levels. Dispensers allow for a flexible and smart energy demand: •Management of individual energy depending on status of micro-grid. •User interface red/green LEDs for awareness and demand management •Equipment operates within design thresholds extending life •Simplified financial planning and transparent, between operator and users
  14. 14. The EDA algorithm As an analogy, we can imagine the dispenser as a buffer water tank The tank gets a constant trickle inflow from the micro-grid proportional to the contracted energy daily allowance The tank empties as energy is consumed When the consumption is equal to the fill up rate we are in balanced consumption The tank has a capacity equivalent to 3 days of energy daily allowance You can use this energy anytime but you cannot store more units than the tank’s capacity
  15. 15. DEMAND SIDE MANAGEMENT
  16. 16. DEMAND SIDE MANAGEMENT Give incentives to the users to shift their demand to follow energy production times Radiation W/m2 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 Bonus f > 52 Hz Restriction f < 49 Hz Normal Normal 08:00 12:00 16:0006:00 18:00 Low SOC of battery Battery fully charged
  17. 17. Legal Framework • Create or adapt regulation to the reality of off-grid areas, both in terms of socio-economic aspects and technology aspects • Open to different tariff schemes (such as EDA) and allow methodologies to set schemes/rates different to grid-connected (for instance, rates based on agreements between users and operators) • Set how/what subsidies are applicable; rather subsidise capital costs than recurrent tariffs • Regulate and recognise the “right to exist” (as any other business) of private, local micro-grid operators • Simplify administrative / bureaucratic processes for small projects (for instance below 1MW, 2MW etc.)
  18. 18. Cost structure – capital costs CAPEX Generation (Wp) Storage (kWh) Conversion (kVA) Distribution grid (km, connexions) Logistics/Remoteness Services/Localmarketmaturity/risk
  19. 19. MUCHAS GRACIAS! unai.arrieta@tta.com.es www.tta.com.es

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