A device that is capable of storing electrical charge. It typically consists of two
electrodes with a dielectric material situated between them, but even an air gap
can serve as a dielectric. A capacitor can be a single layer or multi-layer device.
The temperature above which a ferroelectric is no longer piezoelectric.
Dielectric constant (k)
The ratio of the permittivity of a material to the permittivity of vacuum, thus
describing the relative ability of a material to polarize and store a charge; the
same as relative permittivity.
The maximum electric field that can be maintained between two conductor
plates without causing a breakdown.
Deliberate addition of controlled amounts of other elements to increase the
number of charge carriers in a semiconductor.
The average rate at which electrons or other charge carriers move through a
material under the influence of an electric or magnetic field
The dimensional change that occurs in any material when an electric field acts on
The energy level at which the probability of finding an electron is 1>2.
A material that shows spontaneous and reversible dielectric polarization.
Connecting a p-n junction device so that the p-side is connected to a positive
terminal, thereby enabling current to flow
The loop traced out by the nonlinear polarization in a ferroelectric material as
the electric field is cycled. A similar loop occurs in certain magnetic materials.
An electronic package that comprises large numbers of electronic devices
fabricated on a single chip
A semiconductor in which properties are controlled by the element or compound
that is the semiconductor and not by dopants or impurities.
A device made by creating an n-type region in a p-type material (or vice versa). A
p-n junction behaves as a diode and multiple p-n junctions function as transistors.
It is also the basis of LEDs and solar cells.
Materials that develop voltage upon the application of a stress and develop strain
when an electric field is applied.
Movement of charged entities (i.e., electron cloud, ions, dipoles, and molecules)
in response to an electric field.
A p-n junction device that permits current to flow in only one direction in a circuit.
A material that exhibits zero electrical resistance under certain conditions.
A semiconductor device that is particularly sensitive to changes in temperature,
permitting it to serve as an accurate measure of temperature.
A semiconductor device that amplifies or switches electrical signals.
The magnetic field needed to force the domains in a direction opposite to the
magnetization direction. This is a microstructure-sensitive property.
The effect caused by the magnetic moment due to the orbiting electrons, which
produces a slight opposition to the imposed magnetic field.
Small regions within a single or polycrystalline material in which all of the
magnetization directions are aligned.
Magnetic behavior obtained when ions in a material have their magnetic
moments aligned in an antiparallel arrangement such that the moments do not
completely cancel out and a net magnetization remains.
The ratio between inductance or magnetization and magnetic field. It is a
measure of the ease with which magnetic flux lines can “flow” through a material.
The ratio between magnetization and the applied field.
A hard magnetic material.
Ferromagnetic or ferrimagnetic material that has a coercivity.
The spectrum of radiation emitted from a material. It shows peaks at fixed
wavelengths corresponding to particular electron transitions within an atom.
Every element has a unique characteristic spectrum.
Radiation emitted from a material having all wavelengths longer than a
critical short wavelength limit.
Emission of light obtained typically within 10-8 seconds of stimulation.
Index of refraction Relates the change in velocity and propagation direction of
radiation as it passes through a transparent medium (also known as the refractive
The acronym stands for light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation. A
beam of monochromatic coherent radiation produced by the controlled emission
Conversion of radiation to visible light.
Emission of radiation from a material after the stimulus is removed.
Production of a voltage due to the stimulation of electrons into the conduction
band by radiation.
Energy or radiation produced from atomic, electronic, or nuclear sources that can
be treated as particles or waves.
The time required for 1>e of the electrons to drop from the conduction band to
the valence band in luminescence.
A p-n junction device that creates a voltage due to excitation by photons.
Emission of photons from a material due to excitation of the material by heat.
Electromagnetic radiation in the wavelength range 0.1 to 100 Å.