Republic of the Philippines
NATIONAL POLICE COMMISSION
PHILIPPINE NATIONAL POLICE
NORTHERN POLICE DISTRICT
DISTRICT HEALTH SERVICE
Samson Road, Caloocan City
“Lecture on Handling Ebola Virus
November 24, 2014
A Health Awareness and Information Program Initiated by Northern Police
District Health Service
PSUPT ELMER BUAN TORRES
Chief, NPD Health Service
Ebola Virus Disease (formerly known as Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever) is a severe, often fatal illness, with a death rate of up to 90%. The disease affects humans and non-human primates (monkeys, gorillas, and chimpanzees).
TYPES OF EBOLA VIRUS
•Zaire Ebola Virus
•Sudan Ebola virus
•Tai Forest Ebola Virus
•Reston Ebola Virus
•First outbreak – 1976 in Yambuku, Democratic Republic of CONGO, near Ebola river
•1976-2012 – 24 outbreaks reported, Central Africa
•August 8, 2014, the WHO declared the epidemic to be an international public health emergency.
•November 11, 2014, a total of 14,383 Ebola cases have been reported from three West African countries; Liberia (6,878), Sierra Leone (5,586) and Guinea (1,919) . A total of 5,438 deaths have been reported.
•Thomas Eric Duncan, 42, is the first person diagnosed and died with Ebola in the United States.
•Dr. Martin Salia's death marks the second U.S. death from Ebola.
•Incubation Period, or the time interval from infection to onset of symptoms, is from 2 to 21 days.
•Period of Communicability: The patients become contagious once they begin to show sign and symptoms.
•Prognosis : high mortality rate: 50% -90%.
•Mode of Transmissions
1. Contact : blood , secretions, body fluids (mucus, urine,
feces, vomit, sweat, tears) & carcasses of infected
person or infected animals.
2. Needle pricks & sexual (semen) route
3. Contact with contaminated surfaces and objects
4. No airborne transmission
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
Stage I (non- specific)
•sudden onset of fever, intense weakness, muscle pain, headache and sore throat are early typical signs and symptoms.
Stage II (specific)
•vomiting, bloody diarrhea, maculo-papular rashes
(purple spots), impaired kidney and liver function, and
in some cases, both internal and external bleeding.
•Signs & symptoms
•H/o of travel to endemic zone
•Contact with an infected person.
•Laboratory findings include low white blood cell and platelet counts, and elevated liver enzymes.
•IgM ELISA & Real time Polymerase Chain Reaction
•No specific treatment available.
•General supportive measures : adequate hydration, nutritional support & symptomatic treatment.
•Experimental trials : Z Mapp and an RNA interference drug called TKM-Ebola.
•Two "promising" Ebola Vaccines made by GlaxoSmithKline Plc and New Link Genetic
1.R.A. 9271 (QUARANTINE ACT OF 2004)
2.1987 Philippine Constitution, Article III (Bill of Rights)
Section 6. The liberty of abode and of changing the same within the limits prescribed by law shall not be impaired except upon lawful order of the court. Neither shall the right to travel be impaired except in the interest of national security, public safety, or public health, as may be provided by law.
Section 15. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended except in cases of invasion or rebellion when the public safety requires it.
LEGAL BASIS FOR QUARANTINE
LEGAL BASIS FOR QUARANTINE
3. E.O. 168 - CREATED THE INTER-AGENCY TASK FORCE FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES IN THE PHILIPPINES.
Department of Health (DOH)
Department of Foreign Affairs (DFA)
Department of the Interior and Local Government (DILG)
Department of Justice (DOJ)
Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE)
Department of Tourism (DOT)
Department of Transportation and Communications (DOTC)
•Isolate the patient.
•Follow universal precautions such as use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
•Restrict/no visitors allowed
•Avoid aerosol generating procedures
•Implement environmental infection control measures
•Proper disposal of biological wastes
HANDLING OF DEAD BODY
•should not be sprayed, washed or embalmed, wear PPE while handling.
•ritual practices should be avoided
•packed in double impermeable leak proof body bag
•burial depth – 1.5 m above ground water level
with 1m covering of soil.
MANAGING ACCIDENTAL EXPOSURES
Accidental needle stick injury –
1.Immerse the exposed site in 70% alcohol for 20 - 30 seconds.
2.Wash with soap and clean water.
3. Flush the site in running water for 20 to 30 seconds.
4. Incident reporting.
One is never afraid of the unknown; one is afraid of the known coming to an end. Jiddu Krishnamurti