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K-12 Curriculum Grade 8 music third quarter topicSouth Asian Music MUsic of India


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K-12 Curriculum Grade 8 music third quarter topicSouth Asian Music MUsic of India

  1. 1. South Asia
  2. 2. SOUTH ASIAN COUNTRIES Country Capital Afghanistan Kabul Bhutan Thimpu Bangladesh Dhaka India New Delhi Maldives Male Nepal Katmandu Pakistan Islamabad Sri Lanka Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte Colombo
  3. 3. MUSIC OF INDIA Vedas (from véda, "knowledge") are a large body of texts originating in ancient India. Composed in Vedic Sanskrit, the texts constitute the oldest layer of Sanskrit literature and the oldest scriptures of Hinduism
  4. 4. MUSIC OF INDIA The Rigveda (ṛc "praise, verse" and veda "knowledge") is a sacred Indo-Aryan collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns still being used in India. It is counted among the four canonical sacred texts (śruti) of Hinduism known as the Vedas.
  5. 5. MUSIC OF INDIA Sama Veda, Samveda, or Samaveda (from sāman "melody" and veda "knowledge"), is the third of the four Vedas, the ancient core Hindu scriptures, along with the Rig Veda, Yajur Veda, and Atharva Veda. It ranks next in sanctity and liturgical importance to the Rigveda.
  6. 6. MUSIC OF INDIA The Rigveda (ṛc "praise, verse" and veda "knowledge") is a sacred Indo-Aryan collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns still being used in India. It is counted among the four canonical sacred texts (śruti) of Hinduism known as the Vedas.
  7. 7. MUSIC OF INDIA India is the largest country in South Asia. Its music is as vast as its geographic location and as large as its demographic population. The music of India reflects different aspects of Asian culture through its timbre, rhythm, melody, texture, form, and style. In general, Indian music remains fundamental to the lives of the people of India as a source of spiritual inspiration, cultural expression, and entertainment.
  8. 8. VOCAL MUSIC India's classical music tradition, includes Carnatic and Hindustani music which have developed over many centuries. Music of India also includes several types of folk and popular music. One aspect of vocal music uses melismatic singing with nasal vocal quality, when compared with the Philippine music which uses melismatic singing is only used in chanting epics and the pasyon.
  9. 9. VOCAL MUSIC Singing based on a set of pitches was popular even during the Vedic times. The Samagana style of singing developed into a strong and diverse tradition over several centuries, becoming an established part of contemporary tradition in India. The hymns in Sama Veda, a sacred text, were sung as Samagana and not chanted. Sama Veda is the third of the four Vedas of Hinduism but ranks next to Rig Veda (Rigveda) in terms of its sanctity and liturgical importance.
  10. 10. VOCAL MUSIC Rig Veda is also sung in the Samagana traditional singing style. Because of its liturgical importance, Rigveda is counted as first among the four canonical sacred texts of Hinduism known as Vedas. Rig Veda is an ancient Indian sacred collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns. Some of its verses are still recited as Hindu prayers at religious functions and other occasions.
  11. 11. Characteristics of Traditional Music from India: 1. Carnatic music  refers to music from South India  directed to a Hindu god, which is why it is called “temple music”  unlike Hindustani music, Carnatic music is unified where schools are based on the same ragas, the same solo instruments (veena, flute, violin) and the same rhythm instrument (mridangam and ghatam)  music pieces are mainly set for the voice and with lyrics  compositions called krti are devotional songs
  12. 12. 2. Hindustani music  goes back to Vedic period times around 1000 BC  ofurther developed in the 13th and 14th centuries AD with Persian influences and from existing religious and folk music  predominantly found in the northern and central regions  oinfluenced by ancient Hindu musical traditions, historical Vedic religion/Vedic philosophy, native Indian sounds and enriched by the Persian performance practices of the Mughal era  nasal singing is observed in their vocal music  in North India, the most common style of singing is called khyal, a word which means imagination
  13. 13. INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC There are many musical instruments in India. Some instruments are used primarily in North Indian music (Hindustani Sangeet) while many other instruments are used in South Indian music (Carnatic Sangeet). Instrumental music is often similar to vocal music but sometimes they have distinctive instrumental styles. There are five known traditional systems for classification of instruments.
  14. 14. INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC Classification of Musical Instruments from India: 1. Ghan – described as a non-membranous percussive instrument but with solid resonators. It is one of the oldest classes of instrument in India. It may also be a melodic instrument or instruments to keep tal.
  15. 15. Ghatam is nothing more than a large clay pot. It is very commonly played in South Indian classical performances. There are two actions of resonance. The primary one is the ringing of the pot caused by striking.
  16. 16. A very low resonance is also produced by the cavity. This pitch is raised or lowered by opening or closing the hole with the stomach.
  17. 17. Manjïrà (manjeera) is a traditional percussion instrument of Bhàrata India. In its simplest form, it is a pair of small hand cymbals.It is also known as manjeera, taal, jalra, khartàl or kartàl.
  18. 18. Kartal are a pair of wooden blocks or frames with small metal jingles mounted in them. They are simply beaten together to provide a rhythmic support to bhajans, kirtan, folk and other light music.
  19. 19. The term kartal is also applied to wooden claves
  20. 20. Nout (a.k.a. Nuht), is a small pot used in Kashmir as a percussion instrument. It may be thought of as a north Indian ghatam.
  21. 21. INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC 2. Avanaddh - described as a membranous percussive instrument. This class of instruments typically comprise the drums.
  22. 22. Daf (dap) is a large Persian frame drum used in popular and classical music. The frame is usually made of hardwood with many metal ringlets attached, and the membrane is usually goatskin.
  23. 23. A man and a woman playing a Daf instrument
  24. 24. Tabla (or tabl, tabla) is a membranophone percussion instrument (similar to bongos-Afro-Cuban/ Latin-American drum), which is often used in Hindustani classical music. It is used in Indian folk music and is a part of Hindustani music art. bongos.
  25. 25. The instrument consists of a pair of hand drums of contrasting sizes and timbres. It appears similarto their Afro- Cuban/Latin-American drum-based relatives The right hand drum is called a tabla and the left hand drum is called a dagga or baya. It is claimed that the term tabla is derived from an Arabic word, tabl, which simply means "drum.
  26. 26. The dhol is a double-sided barrel drum played mostly as an accompanying instrument in regional music forms. In qawwali music, the term dhol is used to describe a similar, but smaller drum used with the smaller tabla, as a replacement for the left hand tabla drum.
  27. 27. The dhol is played using two wooden sticks, usually made out of bamboo and cane wood. The stick used to play the bass side of the instrument, known as the dagga in Punjabi, is thick (roughly about 10 mm in diameter) and is bent in a quarter-circular arc on the end that strikes the instrument. The other stick, known as tihli, is much thinner and flexible and used to play the higher note end of the instrument. .
  28. 28. Someone who plays the dhol is known as dholi special expression of face and frequent rotation of whole body is associated with a particular dholi to perform a realistic performance
  29. 29. Mr̥idangam is a barrel shaped double-ended drum (the right head being smaller than the left). It is played with both hands. It is the primary rhythmic accompaniment in a Carnatic music and Newa music ensemble.
  30. 30. The word "Mridangam" is Sandhi or union of the two Sanskrit words mŗda (clay or earth) and anga (body), as early Mridangam were made of hardened clay.
  31. 31. INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC 3. Sushir -also known as blown air. It is characterized by the use of air to excite the various resonators.
  32. 32. The bansuri is a transverse flute of India made from a single hollow shaft of bamboo with six or seven finger holes. An ancient musical instrument associated with cowherds and the pastoral tradition, it is intimately linked to the love story of Krishna and Radha and is also depicted in Buddhist paintings from around 100 CE.
  33. 33. The word bansuri originates in the Sanskrit bans [bamboo] + sur [melody]. There are two varieties of bansuri: transverse, and fipple. The fipple flute is usually played in folk music and is held at the lips like a whistle. Because it enables superior control,variations and embellishments, the transverse variety is preferred in Indian classical music.
  34. 34. The shehnai, shahnai, shenai or mangal vadya, is a double reed oboe, common in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Iran, made out of wood, with a metal flare bell at the end. Its sound is thought to create and maintain a sense of auspiciousness and sanctity and, as a result, is widely used during marriages, processions and in temples although it is also played in concerts. Shenai is similar to South India's nadaswaram.
  35. 35. This tubular instrument gradually broadens towards the lower end. It usually has between six and nine holes. It employs one set of quadruple reeds, making it a quadruple reed woodwind. By controlling the breath, various tunes can be played on it.
  36. 36. Shankha is a conch shell which is of ritual and religious importance in both Hinduism and Buddhism. The shankha is the shell of a species of large predatory sea snail, Turbinella pyrum, which lives in the IndianOcean.
  37. 37. Shankha is a conch shell.This instrument has a strong Association with the Hindu religion. It is said that when it is blown it announces the victory of good over evil. This instrument has limited musical applications.
  38. 38. The surpeti, also called swar pethi, swar peti, swarpeti, surpeti, sur peti, sruti box,or shruti box, is an Indian drone instrument. It is a small box whose only function is to provide the drone. There are two, basic forms, one is manual and the other is electronic.
  39. 39. INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC 4. Tat -– referred to as vina during the old civilization. Instruments in this class are plucked (stringed instruments).
  40. 40. Sitar is a plucked Stringed instrument used mainly in Hindustani music and Indian classical music. A sitar can have 18, 19 or 20 strings. Six or seven of these are played strings which run over curved, raised frets, and the remainder are sympathetic strings (tarb, also known as taarif or tarafdaar) which run underneath the frets and resonate in sympathy with the played strings.
  41. 41. The instrument is believed to have been derived from the veena, an ancient Indian instrument, which was modified by a Mughal court musician to conform with the tastes of his Persian patrons and named after a Persian instrument called the Setar (meaning "three strings").
  42. 42. Ektara (literally "one-string", also called iktar,ektar, yaktaro gopichand) is a one-string instrument most often used in Traditional music from Bangladesh, India, Egypt, and Pakistan.
  43. 43. In origin the ektara was a regular string instrument of wandering bards and minstrels from India and is plucked with one finger. The ektara is a drone lute consisting of a gourd resonator covered with skin, through which a bamboo neck is inserted.
  44. 44. The chitravina (also known as chitra veena,chitraveena, chitra vina,hanumad vina, or mahanataka vina, is a 20 or 21- string fretless lute in Carnatic music. Around the late 1800s and early 1900s, it started to be known by another name, Gotuvadyam (often mis-spelt as gottuvadyam, gottuvadhyam, kottuvadyam etc.)
  45. 45. According to ancient classification of Indian stringed instruments, Gottuvadyam is also one type of veena. Though both of them have resemblance, Gottuvadyam (Chitra veena) is unfretted, where as Veena is fretted. Veena has got only seven strings, where as Gottuvadyam has nine main strings and twelve sympathetic strings. It is more difficult to gain mastery over this instrument, yet capable of bringing out finer nuances if played by expert hands
  46. 46. Veena is a classical Hindu Lute belonging to the family of string musical instruments. It is an ancient musical instrument which is said to have been invented by Narada, one of the seven great rishis, who was also a Veena maestro. The Veena is a plucked string instrument, four feet long, carved and with a hollowed structure made of wood, generally, jackwood.
  47. 47. Rubab, robab or rabab is a lute-like musical instrument originating from central Afghanistan.It derives its name from the Arab rebab which means "played with a bow" but in Central Asia the instrument is plucked and is distinctly different in construction. Rabab is a national music instrument of Afghanistan.
  48. 48. INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC 5. Vitat – described as bowed stringed instruments. This is of the oldest classifications of instruments and yet did not occupy a place in classical Indian music until the last few centuries.
  49. 49. Sārangī is a bowed, short-necked string instrument from South Asia which is used in Hindustani classical music. It is said to most resemble the sound of the human voice – able to imitate vocal ornaments such as gamaks (shakes) and meends (sliding movements).
  50. 50. Chikara is a bowed stringed musical instrument from Bengal, India used to play indian folk music. The chikara is a simple spike fiddle played,similarly to the sarangi or saringda, by sliding fingernails on the strings rather than pressing them to touch the fingerboard.It has 3 strings, two horse hair and one steel
  51. 51. Esraj (also called the Indian harp) is a string instrument found in two forms throughout the north,central, and east regions of India. It is a young instrument by Indian terms, being only about 200 years old. The dilruba is found in the north, where it is used in religious music and light classical songs in the urban areas.
  52. 52. Esraj is a combination between saringda and sitar. The base of the instrument is like saringda while the neck and strings are like sitar. It gives a sound very much like sarangi without being as difficult to play. This instrument is often confused with dilruba. Both have a similar construction and technique. The approach to tuning is somewhat similar to the sitar. The esraj is popular in the Bengal area of India.
  53. 53. Banam is a class of folk fiddles found among the Santal people of North East India and Bangladesh.
  54. 54. The importance of the banam to the Santals is well represented by the artwork on the instruments.
  55. 55. TALA Rhythm plays an important role in Indian music. It is fundamental to the creation of any musical system. Certainly, from a historical stand point, rhythm existed many centuries ago before the word “rag” was ever used. Given this historical pre-eminence, it is not surprising that rhythm occupies an important position in the Indian system of music.
  56. 56. Tala - literally meaning ‘clap;’ variously transliterated as “tal”, “taal” or “taala” - is a regular, repeating rhythmic phrase, particularly as rendered on a percussive instrument with an ebb and flow of various intonations represented as a ''theka'' - is the common Indian system of rhythm
  57. 57. The basic concepts of tal are: Tali is the pattern of clapping. Each tal is characterized by a particular pattern and number of claps. Khali is the wave of the hands. These have a characteristic relationship to the claps. Vibhag is the measure. Each clap or wave specifies a particular section or measure. These measures may be of any number of beats, yet most commonly 2, 3, 4, or 5 beats are used. Matra is the beat. It may be subdivided if required.
  58. 58. Bol is the mnemonic system where each stroke of the drum has a syllable attached to it. These syllables are known as bol. It is common to consider the bol to be synonymous to the stroke itself. Theka is a conventionally established pattern of bols and vibhag (tali, khali) which define the tal. Laya is the tempo. The tempo may be either slow (vilambit), medium (madhya), or fast (drut). Additionally ultra-slow may be referred to as ati-vilambit or ultra-fast may be referred to as ati-drut. Sam is the biginning of the cycle. The first beat of any cycle is usually stressed. Avartan is the basic cycle.
  59. 59. Hindustani talas Beats Division Vibhaga Tintal (or Trital or Teental) 16 4+4+4+4 X 2 0 3 Jhoomra 14 3+4+3+4 X 2 0 3 Tilwada 16 4+4+4+4 X 2 0 3 Dhamar 14 5+2+3+4 X 2 0 3 Ektal and Chautal 12 2+2+2+2+2+2 X 0 2 0 3 4 Jhaptal 10 2+3+2+3 X 2 0 3 Keherwa 8 4+4 X 0 Rupak (Mughlai/Ro 7 3+2+2 X 2 3 opak) Dadra 6 3+3 X 0
  60. 60. Theka - a sequence of drum-syllables or ''bol'' - in Indian classical music, both Hindustani classical music and Carnatic music use complex rules to create elaborate patterns of rhythm
  61. 61. Tabla - most common instrument for keeping rhythm in Hindustani music Mridangam - most common instrument for keeping rhythm in Carnatic music - also transliterated as “mridang”