Benguet La Trinidad
Kalinga Tabuk City
Mountain Province Bontoc
It is the country's only land-locked
region. It has a mountainous
topography and dubbed as the
"Watershed Cradle of North
Luzon" as it hosts major rivers
that provide continuous water for
irrigation and energy for Northern
Characteristics of Music of Cordillera
1. Music is very much part of life and living
2. Have a rich variety of songs and music
performed on instruments
3. Often performed in groups, all members
of the community are welcome and
encouraged to join the singing, dancing and
playing of instruments
4. Their music is communal and
5. Songs are usually in unison of pentatonic
6. Music and other components of their culture
are transferred from generation to generation
through oral tradition.
Oral tradition is cultural material and traditions
transmitted orally from one generation to another
Oral may refer to speech communication as
opposed to writing
Important Activities Where Music is Utilized
1. Peace pacts
2. Healing rituals
3. Invocation of the gods
4. Rites of passage
5. Weddings and festivals
6. Other life cycle events such as birth, coming of
age, work, marriage and death
Life Cycle Music
Birth to Childhood
• Owiwi- lullabye of Kalinga that relate a child’s life
• Dagdagay- song of Kalinga that foretells the baby’s
• Oppiya- kalinga song, sung while cradling
Love, Courtship and Marriage
• Chag-ay- an expression of secret love of Bontoc.
• Oggayan- greeting and advice to newly weds of
Death Rite Music
• Didiyaw- song to a dead child of Bontoc
• Sangsangit- a dirge of Isneg.
Work or Occupational Song
• Sowe-ey- Rice pounding song of Bontoc.
• Dakuyon- kalinga song for hunting bats.
• Dinaweg- Ilongot song for catching wild boar.
• Owayat- song for gathering firewood of Ilongot.
• Chey-assa- Bontoc rice pounding song sung in a
• Kapya- song of Bontoc for curing ceremonies.
• Angba- song of Bontoc for curing ceremonies.
• Dawak- song of Ilongot for curing ceremonies.
• Hudhud- epic song of Ifugao, a leader chorus style.
• Alim- leader chorus style of music of Ifugao where
to groups of singers reply to 2 make leaders.
• Dang Dang-ay- Kalinga entertainment song
Hudhud- chanted epic poetry
consisting of poems about heroism,
honor, love and revenge. It is a long
tale sung during special occasions. This
particular long tale is sung during
harvest. A favorite topic of the hudhud
is a folk hero named Aliguyon, a brave
Hudhud Chants of the Ifugao
The hudhud is recited and chanted among the Ifugao people - known for their rice
terraces - during the sowing and harvesting of rice, funeral wakes and other rituals.
Estimated to have originated before the 7th century, the hudhud - comprised of some
40 episodes - often take three or four days to recite. The language of the chants,
almost impossible to transcribe, is full of repetitions, synonyms, figurative terms and
metaphors. Performed in a leader/chorus style, the reciter - often an elderly woman -
occupies a key position in society. There is only one tune, common to the entire
region, for all of the verses. Very few written examples of hudhud exist.
Threats: The conversion of the Ifugao to Catholicism weakened their traditional
culture. The hudhud was linked to the manual harvesting of rice which is now
mechanized. It has been replaced at funeral wakes by television and radio. Although
the rice terraces are inscribed on the World Heritage List, the number of cultivators
continues to decrease. The few people who know all the poems are very old, and
young people are not interested in this tradition.
Hudhud hi Aliguyon
( Ifugao )
Once upon a time, in
a village called
Hannanga, a boy was
born to the couple
named Amtalao and
Dumulao. He was
He was an intelligent, eager
young man who wanted to
learn many things, and
indeed, he learned many
useful things, from the
stories and teachings of his
father. He learned how to
fight well and chant a few
magic spells. Even as a
child, he was a leader, for
the other children of his
village looked up to him with
Upon leaving childhood,
Aliguyon betook himself
to gather forces to fight
against his father’s
enemy, who was
Pangaiwan of the village
But his challenge
was not answered personally
by Pangaiwan. Instead, he
faced Pangaiwan’s fierce son,
Pumbakhayon was just as
skilled in the arts of war and
magic as Aliguyon. The two of
them battled each other for three years, and
neither of them showed signs of defeat.
The two of them
other for three
neither of them
showed signs of
Their battle was a tedious one,and it has been
said that they both used only one spear!
Aliguyon had thrown a spear
to his opponent at
the start of their
match, but the fair
caught it deftly
with one hand. And
threw the spear back to Aliguyon, who picked
it just as neatly from the air.
At length Aliguyon and
Pumbakhayon came to
respect each other, and
then eventually they came
to admire each other’s
talents. Their fighting
Between the two of them
they drafted a peace treaty between Hannanga
and Daligdigan, which their peoples readily
agreed to. It was fine to behold two majestic
warriors finally side by side.
Aliguyon and Pumbakhayon
became good friends, as peace
between their villages flourished.
When the time came for
Aliguyonto choose a mate,
he chose Pumbakhayon’s
youngest sister,Bugan, who was little more than a
baby. He took Bugan into his household and cared for
her until she grew to be most beautiful.
Pumbakhayon, in his
turn, took for his wife
sister, Aginaya. The two
wealthy and respected
in all of Ifugao.
1.Gangsa is a single hand-held smooth
surfaced gong with a narrow rim. A set of
gangsa, which is played one gong per
of gangsa tuned to
regional or local
Gangsa is played in two ways. One way is called
"toppaya" and the other is called "pattung."
In "toppaya" style, the musicians play the
surface of the gangsa with their hand while
in a sitting position, with a single gangsa
resting on the lap
of each musician.
In the "pattung" style, a gangsa is
suspended from the musician's left hand
and played with a padded stick held in
the musician's right hand. In the
"pattung" style of playing, the players are
or they keep in
step with the
2. Kalaleng or Tongali (nose flute) Because
the kalaleng is long and has a narrow internal
diameter, it is possible to play different
harmonics through overblowing—even with the
rather weak airflow from one nostril. Thus, this
nose flute can play notes in a range of two and a
half octaves. Finger holes in the side of the
bamboo tube change the operating length, giving
various scales. Players plug the other nostril to
increase the force of their breath through the
-is a bamboo percussion instrument used by
the people of Kalinga to communicate with
spirits during house blessings. It is made of
bamboo cut in various lengths.
4. Diwdiw-as is 5 or more
is tied together.
5.Saggeypo it is a bamboo pipe that is
closed on one end by a node with the open end
held against the lower lip of the player as he
blows directly across the top. The pipe can be
played individually by one person or in
ensembles of three or more.
6. Solibao is hallow wooden
Igorot drug topped with pig skin or
lizard skin this is played by striking
the drum head using the palm of