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Esra TAMER
Emine ÖZKURT
I. Steps in children acquiring a language
A. Definition of Language
B. How does language develop?
a. Learning Perspective ...
the systematic,
meaningful
arrangement of
symbols and
rules.
a symbolic code
used in
communication.
THE IMPORTANCE OF LANGUGE IN
OUR LIFE
 to communicate
with other
people,
transfer
information
creates a rich
cultural heritage.
HOW DOES LANGUAGE DEVELOP?
 starts with making limited kinds of sounds
 spelling
 forming sentences
 learning basic grammatical rules
HOW CAN WE EXPLAIN
THIS RAPID LANGUAGE
PROGRESS?
1.Learning Perspective
2.Nativist Perspective
3.Interactionist Perspectiv...
1.LEARNING PERSPECTIVE
 It argues that
children imitate
what they see and
hear.
 conditioning,
punishment and
reinforcem...
2.NATIVIST( INNATIST)
PERSPECTIVE It’s all in your mind
Humans are biologically
programmed to gain
knowledge.
The main t...
All humans have a
language acquisition
device and this device
contains knowledge of
grammatical rules.
He points out tha...
3. INTERACTIONIST PERSPECTIVE
Learning from inside and out
It concerns with
the interaction
between
environmental and
bio...
Bruner recommends
parents to employ
some strategies to
facilitate acquisition.
One of them is
scaffolding which
means us...
Another one is infant
directed speech or
motherese.
 It means that speaking
in a higher pitch and
slowly to infants.
The next one is expansion and
recast.
When the child begins to
produce sounds, adults
responds with more complex
forms.
...
THE CRITICAL AGE PERIOD HYPOTHESIS
The hypothesis says that animals, including
humans, are genetically programmed to
acqui...
There is an ideal time to acquire a language in
a linguistically rich environment.
After that ideal time, language acqui...
History has documented a few ‘’ natural
experiments’’. Two of the most famous cases
are those of Genie and Victor.
Genie V...
 In 1799, a boy known as Victor
was found naked in the woods in
France.
 He was about twelve years old
 A young doctor ...
Genie,
a thirteen –years-old
girl was discovered in
California.
 had spent more than
eleven years tied to a
chair in a s...
She was cared for and educated with the participation
of many teachers and therapists.
She lived an a foster home and at...
Genie made remarkable
progress in becoming
socialized and cognitively
aware.
She developed deep
personal relationship
G...
She used grammatical
forms inconsistently
and overused formulaic
and routine speech.
If language input
doesn’t occur unt...
4.COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE
OF PIAGET
Who was Piaget?
He was a developmental
psychologist and
philosopher known for his
epist...
While studying
his children,
Piaget developed
theories
concerning how
children learn.
Theory of Cognitive Development
According to Piaget,
children are born with a
very basic mental
structure (genetically
in...
Piaget’s Theory Differs From Others’ in
Several Ways
It is concerned with children,
rather than all learners.
It focuses...
 The goal of this theory is to explain the
mechanisms and processes by which the infant ,
and then the child develops int...
1.Sensory- Motor Stage
In this stage, the emphasis
is on movement and
physical reactions.
Senses, reflexes and motor
abi...
2.Preoperational Stage: ages two
through seven
The child is not yet
able to think
logically.
The most evident
feature of...
Lack of conservation: They can’t realize that
if nothing is added or taken away, the amount
stays the same regardless of ...
3.The Concrete Operational Stage: ages
seven through eleven
The child is able to perform
mental operations.
They think a...
simple mathematical
operations.
 Operations are
called ‘’concrete’’
because they apply
only to those
objects that are
ph...
Conservation
ability to
classify objects.
another person’s
point of view.
(monopoly game)
4.Formal Stage/ Ages Eleven
through Sixteen
Children are now able
to reason logically
about abstract and
hypothetical ide...
conceiving all the
possible ways as
they can solve a
problem.
approaching a
problem from a point
of views.
developing a...
STAGES OF LANGUAGE
ACQUISITION
1.PRELINGUISTICS (Babbling)
First few months
During the first few
months infants cry,coo
and begin to babble
certain sound...
APPROXIMATELY 6 TO 12 MONTHS
 During the first years
of life the infant’s job
is to uncover the
sounds of that
language. ...
 From around six months
they begin to lose the
ability to discriminate
between sound that are
not phonemic in their own
l...
 They have begun to learn
the sounds of the
language of their parents.
 Before that they appear
to know the sounds of
hu...
 This fact indicates that
babbling is an internally
driven behavior not a
response to external
stimulation.
 The early b...
2. APPROXIMATELY 12-18 MONTHS
One-word utterance-
 It is accepted that this
stage is the most critical
stage of language
...
 The child also tries to
explain many things with
only a single word like
BALL to express GIVE
ME THAT BALL.
 That is ca...
3.Approximately 18 To 24 Months -
telegraphic speech-
 Baby starts to put words together and they
speak in the shortest w...
 Baby starts making multi-word utterances that
lack function words like conjunctions, articles.
describing events-- Me fa...
4.EARLY GRAMMAR
(24 TO 60 MONTHS)
 During this stage a child acquires some
grammatical devices such as determiners,
prono...
 They can learn the grammar rules, sentence
structure.
 They engage in more social conversations with
peers at this stag...
 They have almost normal speech with good
command over syntax, semantics and also have
ability of defining words or corre...
REFERENCES:
1.Shaffer, D.R.(2001). Developmental Psychology (6th ed.). USA,
Wadsworth.
2.Fromkin, V., Rodman, R., Hyams, N...
steps in children acquiring a language
steps in children acquiring a language
steps in children acquiring a language
steps in children acquiring a language
steps in children acquiring a language
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steps in children acquiring a language

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steps in children acquiring a language

  1. 1. Esra TAMER Emine ÖZKURT
  2. 2. I. Steps in children acquiring a language A. Definition of Language B. How does language develop? a. Learning Perspective (Skinner) b. Nativist Perspective ( Chomsky) c. Interactionist Perspective d. Cognitive Perspective ( Piaget) C. The Critical Age Period Hypothesis D. Stages a. Prelinguistic (Babbling) (0-12 months) b. The Holophrastic Period (12- 18 months) c. The Telegraphic Period (18-24 months) d. Early Grammar (24-60 months) E. Conclusion
  3. 3. the systematic, meaningful arrangement of symbols and rules. a symbolic code used in communication.
  4. 4. THE IMPORTANCE OF LANGUGE IN OUR LIFE
  5. 5.  to communicate with other people, transfer information creates a rich cultural heritage.
  6. 6. HOW DOES LANGUAGE DEVELOP?
  7. 7.  starts with making limited kinds of sounds  spelling  forming sentences  learning basic grammatical rules
  8. 8. HOW CAN WE EXPLAIN THIS RAPID LANGUAGE PROGRESS? 1.Learning Perspective 2.Nativist Perspective 3.Interactionist Perspective 4.Cognitive Perspective
  9. 9. 1.LEARNING PERSPECTIVE  It argues that children imitate what they see and hear.  conditioning, punishment and reinforcement.  The main theorist associated with this perspective is B. F. Skinner.
  10. 10. 2.NATIVIST( INNATIST) PERSPECTIVE It’s all in your mind Humans are biologically programmed to gain knowledge. The main theorist’s of this perspective is Noam Chomsky.
  11. 11. All humans have a language acquisition device and this device contains knowledge of grammatical rules. He points out that a child could not possibly learn a language through imitation alone.
  12. 12. 3. INTERACTIONIST PERSPECTIVE Learning from inside and out It concerns with the interaction between environmental and biological factors. It tends to view children as having a strong biological tendency to acquire a language.
  13. 13. Bruner recommends parents to employ some strategies to facilitate acquisition. One of them is scaffolding which means using a language at a level that is slightly beyond what children can comprehend.
  14. 14. Another one is infant directed speech or motherese.  It means that speaking in a higher pitch and slowly to infants.
  15. 15. The next one is expansion and recast. When the child begins to produce sounds, adults responds with more complex forms. Then, the child imitates more complex forms. Felix eated. Yes, that’s right,Felix ate his dinner.
  16. 16. THE CRITICAL AGE PERIOD HYPOTHESIS The hypothesis says that animals, including humans, are genetically programmed to acquire certain kinds of knowledge and skill at specific times in life.
  17. 17. There is an ideal time to acquire a language in a linguistically rich environment. After that ideal time, language acquisition becomes much more difficult and requires conscious and regular studies.
  18. 18. History has documented a few ‘’ natural experiments’’. Two of the most famous cases are those of Genie and Victor. Genie Victor
  19. 19.  In 1799, a boy known as Victor was found naked in the woods in France.  He was about twelve years old  A young doctor Itard devoted five years to socializing Victor and trying to teach him language.  There was little progress in his language ability.  Victor responded only to sounds that had meaning for him in the forest such as animal sounds or the sounds of rain.
  20. 20. Genie, a thirteen –years-old girl was discovered in California.  had spent more than eleven years tied to a chair in a small darkened room.  beaten when she made any kind of noise.  undeveloped physically, emotionally and intellectually.  had no language.
  21. 21. She was cared for and educated with the participation of many teachers and therapists. She lived an a foster home and attended special schools.
  22. 22. Genie made remarkable progress in becoming socialized and cognitively aware. She developed deep personal relationship Genie’s language was not like that of a typical five-year old. There was a larger than normal gap between comprehension and production.
  23. 23. She used grammatical forms inconsistently and overused formulaic and routine speech. If language input doesn’t occur until after this time, the individual will never achieve a full command of language- especially grammatical systems.
  24. 24. 4.COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE OF PIAGET Who was Piaget? He was a developmental psychologist and philosopher known for his epistemological studies with children.  His theory of cognitive development and epistemological view are together called "genetic epistemology"
  25. 25. While studying his children, Piaget developed theories concerning how children learn.
  26. 26. Theory of Cognitive Development According to Piaget, children are born with a very basic mental structure (genetically inherited and evolved) on which all subsequent learning and knowledge is based.
  27. 27. Piaget’s Theory Differs From Others’ in Several Ways It is concerned with children, rather than all learners. It focuses on development, rather than learning. It proposes discrete stages of development marked by qualitative differences.
  28. 28.  The goal of this theory is to explain the mechanisms and processes by which the infant , and then the child develops into an individual.  To explain his theory, Piaget used four stages of cognitive development.
  29. 29. 1.Sensory- Motor Stage In this stage, the emphasis is on movement and physical reactions. Senses, reflexes and motor abilities develop rapidly. Actions discovered first by accident are repeated and applied to new situations to obtain the same results. They have object permanence competence. In this stage Piaget shows linguistic skills as basically physical.(monopoly game)
  30. 30. 2.Preoperational Stage: ages two through seven The child is not yet able to think logically. The most evident feature of this stage is egocentric.  Child sees objects from only one point of view; his own.
  31. 31. Lack of conservation: They can’t realize that if nothing is added or taken away, the amount stays the same regardless of alterations in shape or appearance. (monopoly game)
  32. 32. 3.The Concrete Operational Stage: ages seven through eleven The child is able to perform mental operations. They think about physical actions that she or he previously performed. The primary characteristic of this stage is its reversibility. The child can mentally reverse the direction of his or her thought.
  33. 33. simple mathematical operations.  Operations are called ‘’concrete’’ because they apply only to those objects that are physically present.
  34. 34. Conservation ability to classify objects. another person’s point of view. (monopoly game)
  35. 35. 4.Formal Stage/ Ages Eleven through Sixteen Children are now able to reason logically about abstract and hypothetical ideas. using language to express and debate abstract theoretical concepts.
  36. 36. conceiving all the possible ways as they can solve a problem. approaching a problem from a point of views. developing an inner value system and a sense of moral judgment. (monopoly game)
  37. 37. STAGES OF LANGUAGE ACQUISITION
  38. 38. 1.PRELINGUISTICS (Babbling) First few months During the first few months infants cry,coo and begin to babble certain sounds. Initially making sounds is unconscious and reflexive reaction but still it is important in terms of indicating baby’s needs.
  39. 39. APPROXIMATELY 6 TO 12 MONTHS  During the first years of life the infant’s job is to uncover the sounds of that language. Firstly these sounds they make are similar no matter what language their parents speak.
  40. 40.  From around six months they begin to lose the ability to discriminate between sound that are not phonemic in their own language.  For example;Japanese infants can no longer hear the difference between [r] and [l] which don’t contrast in Japanese whereas babies in English- speaking homes retain this perception.
  41. 41.  They have begun to learn the sounds of the language of their parents.  Before that they appear to know the sounds of human language in general.  Children all around the world seem to do same kind of babbling even deaf baby’s babble vocally at this stage even though they are not getting any linguistic input from speech.
  42. 42.  This fact indicates that babbling is an internally driven behavior not a response to external stimulation.  The early babbles consist mainly of repeated consonant-vowel sequences like mama dada gaga, later babbles are more varied.  While making this sounds baby also observes responses that are given by people around him/her.
  43. 43. 2. APPROXIMATELY 12-18 MONTHS One-word utterance-  It is accepted that this stage is the most critical stage of language development.  The child begins to produce her first meaningful words and also uses gestures to communicate at this stage. For example; reaching upwards to indicate that she wants to be lifted up.
  44. 44.  The child also tries to explain many things with only a single word like BALL to express GIVE ME THAT BALL.  That is called holophrastic stage.  At this stage she realizes that sound are related to meanings and apprehends the meaning of words.
  45. 45. 3.Approximately 18 To 24 Months - telegraphic speech-  Baby starts to put words together and they speak in the shortest way with two or three words so this stage called telegraphic speech stage.  At this stage the child has a vocabulary of 400 words.
  46. 46.  Baby starts making multi-word utterances that lack function words like conjunctions, articles. describing events-- Me fall vocational relations-- toy in box
  47. 47. 4.EARLY GRAMMAR (24 TO 60 MONTHS)  During this stage a child acquires some grammatical devices such as determiners, pronouns, past tense…  They continue to go through acquisition of auxiliary verbs, prepositions and using syntactic transformations.
  48. 48.  They can learn the grammar rules, sentence structure.  They engage in more social conversations with peers at this stage.
  49. 49.  They have almost normal speech with good command over syntax, semantics and also have ability of defining words or correcting their own grammatical mistakes because they involve conscious awareness of the properties of language.  By the age of 5 most children have a vocabulary of over 1.500 words.
  50. 50. REFERENCES: 1.Shaffer, D.R.(2001). Developmental Psychology (6th ed.). USA, Wadsworth. 2.Fromkin, V., Rodman, R., Hyams, N.(2007). An Introduction To Language (8th Ed.). USA. 3.Rahimpour, M. ‘’Developmental Stages Of Child Language’’. Journal Of Faculty Of Letters And Humanity. Vol.47, No.190, Pp.57-70 http://www.ling.upenn.edu/courses/ling001/acquisition.html http://aggslanguage.wordpress.com/chomsky/ http://linguistlist.org/ask-ling/lang-acq.cfm http://iteslj.org/Articles/McGlothlin-ChildLearn.html http://gelisimveogrenme.files.wordpress.com/2010/02/piagetye-gc3b6re- dil-gelic59fiminin-evreleri.pdf

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