What we will learn today• Recognize what modals are• Identify the variety of uses ofmodals in expressing meaning• Use modals in writing
What are modal verbs?• Helping verbs used together with baseform of main verbs• Express different types of meanings
Examples of modalsWouldCouldWillShallMayMightMustCanShould
Where are modals put in asentence?I shall be leaving when everything is done.
Where are modals put in asentence?I shall be leaving when everything is done.Shall Be Leaving
Where are modals put in asentence?will punishcan swim
Base form verbs are used aftermodalswill punishcan swim
Base form verbs are used aftermodalswill punishcan swimI shall be leaving.
Base form verbs are used aftermodalswill punishcan swimI shall be leaving.He could walk yesterday
Modals have tensesNormally…Present Tense Past TenseCan CouldWill WouldShall ShouldMay Might
Modals have tensesBut look at these sentences…She may be at home.She might be in school.
Modals have tensesBut look at these sentences…I shall take part in the competitionnext month.I should be doing my homeworkinstead of playing games.
Meaning of modals• Possibility --- How likely / Predictions• Obligation --- Is supposed to• Necessity/Insistence ---- Need to/ Have to• Ability ---- Is able to
Possibility• Indicate something is likely tohappen.• Different degrees of likelihoodVeryUnlikelyVeryLikelyMustWillShallCanMayCouldMight
Possibility• Indicate something is likely tohappen or to predict• Different degrees of likelihoodVeryUnlikelyVeryLikelyMustWillShallCanMayCouldMightCannot
Obligation• Used to indicate that an action isrequired because someone isresponsible.Should: Not used as past tense of ‘shall’Must: Used to give orders that someone isobliged to follow.
Necessity/Insistence• To indicate something that isneeded by someone or insisted onby someone.Need to: When voicing out what is needed/insisted on.Must: To insist on something to be done.
Ability• To indicate if something can orcannot be done.Can CannotCould is used to express ability in the past.(Not to express likelihood in which it can usedin present/past tense)
Group Activity• Work in your usual groups of fours and labelyourselves 1 to 4.• Listen to all instructions carefully beforemoving off to collect materials/get intogroups.• You will be practising how to use modals toshow obligation, ability, necessity/insistenceand possibility.
Instructions• Each group collect a set of materials whichcomprises 1 activity sheet and 1 pack of markers.• The activity will require the group to role play andthink of what 4 different characters will say inunique situations to show obligation, ability,necessity/insistence and possibility.• Each member will present 1 role at the end ofgroup discussion.• Discussion can only begin when the online timerstarts ticking--- 10 minutes discussion time will begiven!
Four RolesMr. Judge: He is always right and alwayshas advice for everyone.Superman: He has superpowers thatenables him to do just aboutanything and everything!Bossy Betty: She is always demanding theothers to give in to her andkeeps insisting on her ways.Old Mr. Think-A-Lot: He is always thinkingof things that mighthappen.OBLIGATIONABILITYNECESSITY/INSISTENCEPOSSIBILITY
In a classroomMr. Judge who isalways right wouldsay “Superman who hassuperpowers wouldsay “Bossy Betty whodemands a lot wouldsayOld Mr. Think-a-lotwould say “___________________________You should pay attention inclass so you must not talk to yourfriends.I can remember how the humancirculatory system work becauseI paid attention!I must talk to my friends in classeven if it makes the teacherunhappy. I need to be heard!I will never be able to finishall that work by tomorrow.I could work faster if theywould stop making noise.OBLIGATION ABILITYNECESSITY/INSISTENCEPOSSIBILITY
MOST IMPORTANTLY• Ensure the volume of your group’s discussiondoes not affect the others.• Include everyone in the discussion and respecteach other’s views.• Sound out to the teacher when the group hastrouble agreeing to how things should be done.• Basic discipline please!