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Sponges&Cnidarians 08


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Sponges&Cnidarians 08

  1. 1. Sponges, Cnidarians & Ctenophores
  2. 6. This is a “loofah sponge”… … which is most certainly NOT A SPONGE!
  3. 7. A “loofah” is a type of gourd.
  4. 9. PORIFERA=> <ul><li>“ sponges” </li></ul><ul><li>1st multicellular life? </li></ul><ul><li>over 10000 known species </li></ul><ul><li>sessile/asymmetry </li></ul><ul><li>teacup-sized sponge can filter 5000L of water in a day ! </li></ul>
  5. 10. PORIFERA=> <ul><li>3 types of “skeleton”: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>spongin (flexible protein) </li></ul></ul>
  6. 11. spongin fibers
  7. 12. PORIFERA=> <ul><li>3 types of “skeleton”: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>spongin (flexible protein) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CaCO 3 - shallow marine “spicules” </li></ul></ul>
  8. 14. PORIFERA=> <ul><li>3 types of “skeleton”: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>spongin (flexible protein) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CaCO 3 - shallow marine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SiO 2 - deep marine </li></ul></ul><ul><li>some have all three </li></ul><ul><li>ANATOMY & REPRODUCTION: </li></ul>
  9. 18. sponge larva
  10. 19. gemmule
  11. 24. encrusting sponge
  12. 25. encrusting sponge
  13. 41. The CNIDARIANS
  14. 43. CNIDARIA=> <ul><li>More than 9000 species </li></ul><ul><li>Includes sea anemones, jellyfish, corals, hydras, </li></ul><ul><li>More highly organized than sponges, but still very simple animals </li></ul>
  15. 44. CNIDARIA=> <ul><li>Amazing predators for their simplicity </li></ul><ul><li>hollow chamber called the: GASTROVASCULAR CAVITY -digestion & food distribution </li></ul><ul><li>nervous system is called a: “nerve net” </li></ul>
  16. 45. CNIDARIA=> <ul><li>have RADIAL SYMMETRY </li></ul><ul><li>all have CNIDOCYTES: “stinging cells” </li></ul><ul><li>3 major functional types: </li></ul>
  17. 46. especially common type
  18. 56. CNIDARIA=> <ul><li>have TWO main “body plans”: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the POLYP and MEDUSA </li></ul></ul><ul><li>POLYP is sessile and asexual </li></ul><ul><li>MEDUSA is sexual and free-swimming </li></ul>
  19. 62. <ul><li>Describe two possible benefits to an algae that resides inside a cnidarian. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe two possible benefits to an animal which has algae living within its tissue... </li></ul>
  20. 63. Hydrozoa Scyphozoa Anthozoa Cubozoa
  21. 64. HYDROZOA=> <ul><li>includes over 3,700 species </li></ul><ul><li>polyp phase dominant </li></ul><ul><li>Most members are colonial </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Different polyps have different functions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>includes Hydra, Obelia and the Portuguese man O’ war </li></ul>
  22. 69. branching hydroid
  23. 78. SCYPHOZOA=> <ul><li>translates to “cup animals” </li></ul><ul><li>medusa is dominant </li></ul><ul><li>The “jellyfish” - more than 200 sp. </li></ul><ul><li>Most are found floating in the open sea </li></ul>
  24. 86. West coast Sea nettle
  25. 89. ANTHOZOA=> <ul><li>translates as: “flower animals” </li></ul><ul><li>never a medusoid stage </li></ul><ul><li>includes sea anemones, soft corals, and true “stony” corals </li></ul>
  26. 97. zooxanthellae
  27. 98. CaCO 3 skeletons
  28. 106. CUBOZOA=> <ul><li>the “box jellies” </li></ul><ul><li>have a square shape when viewed from above </li></ul><ul><li>possess four evenly-spaced tentacles (or groups of tentacles) </li></ul><ul><li>found mostly in tropical oceans </li></ul><ul><li>have a primitive version of an “eye” </li></ul><ul><li>~ 20 species </li></ul>
  29. 108. The Sea Wasp: Chironex Fleckeri
  30. 109. CTENOPHORA=> <ul><li>translates as: “comb holder” </li></ul><ul><li>the “comb jellies” </li></ul><ul><li>no stinging cells –have colloblasts instead (sticky) </li></ul><ul><li>move via cilia </li></ul>