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Gerund and infinitive

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Gerund and infinitive

  2. 2. GERUND Gerunds and infinitives can function as: NOUNS (subjects, objects, subject complements)As subjects, they take a singular verb. Only Gerunds can be object of the preposition eRITZ>>2012 2
  3. 3. GERUNDFormulaVerb 1 + ing → as a noun eRITZ>>2012 3
  4. 4. GERUNDTo form gerunds, usethe base form + ing(don’t forget the rules for spelling of ing form of verbs)I enjoy learning EnglishTo form negative gerunds, usenot + gerundNot speaking English well is my biggestproblem in this country. eRITZ>>2012 4
  5. 5. Function............. as a SubjectSmoking cost a lot of moneyDancing is fun as an ObjectI don’t like writting a letterHe enjoys working with children eRITZ>>2012 5
  6. 6. Function............. as a ComplementMy favorite occupation is reading novel stories as a certain VerbI dislike reading newspaper eRITZ>>2012 6
  7. 7. Function............. After prepositions ( on, at, after, before etc )After reading the book, she turn off the light eRITZ>>2012 7
  8. 8. Function By + gerund You get good grades by studying hard. go + gerund Recreational activities: camping, dancing, sightseeing, swimming, skiing, fishing, jogging, I will go fishing with you tomorrow eRITZ>>2012 8
  9. 9. The different........PRESENT CONTINUOUS or GERUNDPresent ContinuousI am studiying Englih now → as a verbGerundMy hobby is swimming → as a noun eRITZ>>2012 9
  10. 10. Verbs that take only Gerunds Appreciate  Keep Avoid  Mention Delay  Mind Deny  Miss Discuss  Postpone Dislike  Quit Enjoy  Recall Excuse  Recommend Finish  Resent understand  suggest eRITZ>>2012 10
  11. 11. Common prepositioncombinations followed by gerunds Be excited about, complain about, talk about, think about, worry about Apologize for, blame for, famous for Believe in, interested in, succeed in Take care of, instead of, be accused of Insist on, count on, concentrate on Keep from, prevent from, profit from In addition to, look forward to, be us to eRITZ>>2012 11
  12. 12. Some expressions are used withgerunds Be busy, can’t help, have fun, it’s no use, it’s not worth eRITZ>>2012 12
  13. 13. INFINITIVES eRITZ>>2012 13
  14. 14. INFINITIVEFormula.....To + Verb → as adjective / adverb eRITZ>>2012 14
  15. 15. INFINITIVE To form infinitives use to + base form of the verb I want to dance To form negative infinitives use Not + infinitive He decided not to go to the party eRITZ>>2012 15
  16. 16. Function as a SubjectTo play football in the yard, when it’s cloudy is very dangerous.To live in the United States is my dream as an ObjectWhen it’s cloudy, is very dangerous to play football. eRITZ>>2012 16
  17. 17. Function There are two verbsI refused to accept your help. After adjectiveI lazy to study English. eRITZ>>2012 17
  18. 18. Function After pronounAndy asked indah to marry him. After NounSusan will go to shopping mall to buy a new bag. eRITZ>>2012 18
  19. 19. Verbs that take infinitivesVerb + infinitives – agree, appear, decidehope, intend, learn, offer, plan, seem, tend, wait, can affordVerb + Noun phrase + infinitive – cause, convince, force, invite, order, persuade, remind, tell, trust, warn, advise, encourageVerbs that come directly after the infinitive or have a noun phrase – ask, beg, choose, expect, need, want, would like, promise eRITZ>>2012 19
  20. 20. Adjectives followed by infinitives Afraid, amazed, anxious, ashamed, caref ul, delighted, eager, fortunate, glad, happ y, lucky, pleased, ready, sad, sorry, eRITZ>>2012 20
  21. 21. Infinitive with too and enoughtoo + adjective or adverb + infinitiveShe is too young to vote.Adjective or adverb + enough +infinitiveThey are old enough to vote. eRITZ>>2012 21
  22. 22. The different.... GerundDeddy is used to like criying when he get bad score. InvinitiveDeddy is used to like cry when he get bad score. eRITZ>>2012 22
  23. 23. The different....Gerunds often follow verbs that indicate thatan action is happening or has happened.The action expressed by the verb comes at thesame time or after the action expressed by thegerund.We enjoy going to concerts.(you can only enjoy things you are doing or have done –not things you haven’t done yet.) eRITZ>>2012 23
  24. 24. The different....Iinfinitives often follow verbs that indicate thatan action will or could happen.The action expressed by the verb comes beforethe action expressed by the infinitive.We hope to go to the concert.(You can hope for things that could happennot things that have already happened) eRITZ>>2012 24
  25. 25. Thank you.... For your atention Sekayu 2012 eRITZ>>2012 25

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