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Gamification: How Effective Is It?

We presented this deck at the ESOMAR Congress 2011 conference in Amsterdam where it was nominated for "Best Methodological Paper".

The meat of this deck is a collection of case studies showing the efficacy of gamification in various BUSINESS contexts. It took us ages to contact and collate these various examples, so hopefully having them all in one place will save you time.

A big thank you very much to the various folks who helped us put this piece of research together!

If you have any questions, comments, requests, or are interested in the original paper that this deck is based on, please feel free to drop us a line :)

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Gamification: How Effective Is It?

  1. Goal?<br />Evaluate the effectiveness of gamification and explore potential applications in business & market research<br />How?<br /><ul><li>Literature review
  2. Expert interviews
  3. Experiment
  4. Case studies from market leaders</li></ul>Note:<br />This deck only covers gamification in business. It does not touch on serious games, entertainment, education, politics, etc.<br />Background<br />
  5. Jesse Schell<br />Chief Executive Officer and Creative Director of Schell Games<br />Sebastian Deterding<br />Gamification guru and PhD researcher<br />Michael Wu<br />Principal Scientist of Analytics at Lithium Technologies <br />Danny Day<br />CEO of QCF Design (IGF award-winning developers of Desktop Dungeons)<br />Kevin Spier andDan Maier <br />of Bunchball gamification service<br />Bo Nielsen<br />Associate Director, TNS<br />Jon Puleston<br />Senior Director of GMI Interactive<br />Francesco D’Orazio<br />Research Director and Head of Social Media of Face Group<br />Phil Groman<br />Head of Innovations for Afroes<br />Rolfe Swinton<br />Director of Lumi Mobile<br />Interviewees<br />
  6. What it’s not<br />Examples<br />What it is<br />How Does <br />It Work?<br />How Effective Is It?<br />Conclusions<br />Where Can<br />It Go Wrong?<br />
  7. LEVEL 1<br />What it’s not<br />
  8. LEVEL 1: What it’s not<br />Video games<br />“Badgification” /<br />“Pointsification” <br />
  9. LEVEL 2<br />What it is<br />
  10. LEVEL 2: What is it?<br />Definition<br />“<br />The integration of the mechanics that make games funand absorbing into non-game platforms and experiences in order to improve engagement and participation<br />~ The Authors<br />”<br />
  11. LEVEL 3<br />Examples<br />
  12. LEVEL 3: Examples<br />Farmville<br />
  13. LEVEL 3: Examples<br />Foursquare<br />
  14. LEVEL 3: Examples<br />Klout<br />
  15. LEVEL 4: <br />How Does It Work?<br />
  16. LEVEL 4: How Does It Work?<br />Hijacking the brain<br />Experience systems<br />Rapid, frequent feedback<br />Rewards for effort<br />Uncertainty<br />Short- and long-term goals<br />Other people<br />
  17. LEVEL 4: How Does It Work?<br />Example mechanics<br />Appointment dynamic<br />Achievement<br />Community collaboration<br />
  18. LEVEL 4: How Does It Work?<br />Can anything be gamified?<br />“<br />Do people not do something because they are not able to? - then increase ease of use. <br />Do people not do it because they have no free time? - then work on that. <br />Only if motivation is the issue cangamification be a [legitimate] way [of influencing behaviour]<br />~ Sebastian Deterding, researcher<br />”<br />
  19. BOSS BATTLE!<br />Where Can It Go Wrong?<br />
  20. “<br />If your idea is to create a bribery system to get [users] to try something, it can backfire. When the bribes go away, people are less inclined naturally to do the thing you want, even if it's fun<br />~ Jesse Schell, CEO Schell Games<br />“<br />”<br />“<br />In my experience game mechanics have massive potential in the research industry but low-grade gamification is only going to distort social interaction and skew research outputs.<br />~ Francesco "D’Orazio, <br />Research Director for Face Group<br />”<br />
  21. Rewards are not equivalent to achievement<br />Limited participation bandwidth<br />Unintended consequences / <br />Gaming the system<br />Undermining intrinsic values and…<br />…interfering with social norms<br />
  22. Congratulations!<br />You defeated the Pitfall Boss<br />
  23. BONUS LEVEL: <br />How Effective Is It?<br />Marketing amplification<br />Community curation<br />Market research<br />
  24. Community curation<br />BONUS LEVEL: <br />How Effective Is It?<br />
  25. User participation<br />Community interaction<br />Ave. no. user posts <br />Non-gamified (control)<br />Non-gamified (control)<br />n=37<br />n=25<br />n=30<br />Gamified (experiment)<br />Gamified (experiment)<br />n=68<br />n=30<br />Evly experiment<br />BONUS LEVEL: How effective is it?<br />Source: Findlay & Alberts, 2011<br />
  26. Awards<br />Nominations<br />Number of employees<br />16<br />“<br />Questions (2010)<br />Answers (2010)<br />The effect of gamification is <br />pretty astounding <br />and has even surprised us in what it’s able to do in the case of giffgaff”<br />~ Michael Wu (Principle Scientist of Analytics at Lithium Technologies)<br />100,000<br />10,000<br />Average response time<br />95% answered in…<br />3mins(24/7)<br />60mins (24/7)<br />”<br />giffgaff<br />BONUS LEVEL: How effective is it?<br />Source: Lithium Technologies<br />
  27. Page views (in millions)<br />Ave. no. monthly visits<br />Ave. time spent on site (mins)<br />Merchandise sales<br />Pre-gamification<br />Post-gamification<br />Pre-gamification<br />Post-gamification<br />Pre-gamification<br />Post-gamification<br />Pre sales<br />Post sales<br />+47%<br />Club Psych<br />BONUS LEVEL: How effective is it?<br />Source: Bunchball<br />
  28. Actions before logging out<br />% posting to blog<br />Pre-gamification<br />Post-gamification<br />Pre-gamification<br />Post-gamification<br />Purchases per active user<br />DevHub<br />BONUS LEVEL: How effective is it?<br />Source: TechCrunch<br />
  29. Marketing amplification<br />BONUS LEVEL: <br />How Effective Is It?<br />
  30. 85%<br />…of users played more <br />than once<br />50%<br />…returned the following month<br />60%<br />…increase in revenue via game from one month to next<br />Playboy<br />BONUS LEVEL: How effective is it?<br />Source: Bunchball<br />
  31. Identified types of abuse<br />Mentioned Childline<br />n=20<br />n=20<br />Pre-game<br />Pre-game<br />Ave. awareness score<br />(composite measure)<br />Post-game<br />Post-game<br />Pre-game<br />Post-game<br />Champ Chase<br />BONUS LEVEL: How effective is it?<br />Source: Afroes<br />
  32. Market research<br />BONUS LEVEL: <br />How Effective Is It?<br />
  33. Completion rate<br />Ave. happiness (out of 10)<br />UK (non-gamified)<br />USA (gamified)<br />UK<br />(non-gamified)<br />USA<br />(gamified)<br />Consumption diary<br />BONUS LEVEL: How effective is it?<br />Source: Lumi Mobile<br />
  34. Length watching Oscars<br />+42%<br />Non-players<br />Players<br />Non-players<br />Players<br />Enjoyment of Oscars<br />+50%<br />Disney & Oscars<br />BONUS LEVEL: How effective is it?<br />Source: Lumi Mobile<br />
  35. “<br />“<br />Noticed more details in the show than normally<br />”<br />Really liked the chat, where people discussed the show<br />”<br />“<br />“<br />Fun to be a part of this new kind of test<br />”<br />It was like being a part of <br />a community<br />”<br />“<br />Found it funny to rate the TV-show and see the results<br />”<br />Benefits:<br /><ul><li>Increased engagement
  36. Improved data quality</li></ul>Unintended consequences:<br /><ul><li>Drinking game
  37. Returning & asking for more questions, and…
  38. … to continue chatting</li></ul>Eurovision<br />BONUS LEVEL: How effective is it?<br />Source: TNS<br />
  39. Framing<br />Visualising<br />Which of these do you have in your room?<br />Which of these do you have in your room?<br />Survey question<br />Steak au pouivre<br />Pesto Pasta<br />fish and chips<br />garlic chicken<br />‘Last meal’ game<br />“Scotch broth soup as a starter served with garlic bread. Medium grilled gammon steak with a lightly fried egg on top with chips and side salad. A glass of red wine. A sticky toffee pudding, followed by cheese and biscuits.”<br />Rapid and frequent feedback<br />TV<br />Fish<br />MP3 player<br />Books<br />Radio<br />Magazines<br />Console<br />Camera<br />Skateboard<br />Stereo<br />DVDs<br />CDs<br />Hampster<br />Clothes<br />Piggy bank<br />Rocket<br />Question design<br />BONUS LEVEL: How effective is it?<br />Source: GMI Interactive<br />
  41. FINAL BOSS BATTLE:<br />Market Research Considerations<br />To make surveys more engaging: <br /><ul><li>visual design
  42. reframing language of questions
  43. rapid & clear feedback
  44. build in novelty/uncertainty
  45. build in status (MROCs)
  46. incorporate social elements</li></ul>Market research industry has been slowin making surveys more engaging<br />
  47. FINAL BOSS BATTLE:<br />Market Research Considerations<br />Gamification can benefit our industry…<br />“<br />“A double shift in focus and framing: <br />(1) from usability(reducing friction) to motivation(increasing drive), <br />(2) from extrinsic motivation (incentives) to intrinsic motivation (competence, autonomy, relatedness needs). <br />At best, it is a set of lenses and design patterns to improve intrinsic motivation.” <br />~ Sebastian Deterding , researcher<br />…if we can step outside our comfort zones<br />“<br />“In order to truly turn something into a game, it often needs to change so much in order to facilitate player agency that few people are willing to begin the process” <br />~ Danny Day, QCF Design (developers of Desktop Dungeons)<br />”<br />”<br />
  48. FINAL BOSS BATTLE:<br />Conclusions<br />
  49. FINAL BOSS BATTLE:<br />Is it a fad?<br />“<br />“<br />“In some ways it is a fad - adding points and badges in tacky ways, looking at ‘gamification’ as an easy way to make boring things seem interesting - that is a fad. <br />However, the idea of designing business processes so that those who engage in them find them more intrinsically rewarding - that is a long term trend”. <br />~ Jesse Schell , CEO Schell Games<br />“In three years, we will talk about what is at the core of it - design for motivation - not about the one strategy to get there: getting inspiration from games.” <br />~ Sebastian Deterding, researcher<br />”<br />”<br />
  50. FINAL BOSS BATTLE:<br />Conclusions<br />Gamification seems to work…<br />Gamification can benefit research…<br />…but it’s no <br />“magic elixir”<br />…in subtleand fundamental ways…<br />…if we keep an <br />open mindset<br />
  51. CONGRATS!!! <br />You defeated the Final Boss<br />