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Chapter 20 ppt

Politics of the 20s

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Chapter 20 ppt

  1. 1. Politics of the Roaring Twenties US History
  2. 2. Timeline: What’s Going On? • United States: • 1920 – Warren G. Harding is elected President (He died in 1923) • 1927 – Henry Ford introduces the Model A. automobile. • World: • 1921 - Chinese Communist party is founded in Shanghai. • 1922 - Mussolini is appointed prime minister of Italy.
  3. 3. Section 1: Americans Struggle With Postwar Issues • Main Idea: A desire for normalcy after the war and a fear of communism and “foreigners” led to postwar isolationism. • Why it Matters Now: Americans today continue to debate political isolationism and immigration policy. • Key Terms: • Nativism • Isolationism • Communism • Anarchists • Quota System • Key Names: • Sacco and Vanzetti • John L. Lewis
  4. 4. Postwar Trends: • WW I had left America exhausted. • Soldiers returning from war face unemployment • The economy was badly bruised ($ for the war) • Cost of living had doubled • Americans started to become fearful of outsiders (jobs, safety)
  5. 5. Nativism and Isolationism: • Nativism – Prejudice against foreign-born people • Isolationism – Policy of pulling away from involvement in world affairs. • Why do you think these two things caught on in America after the war?
  6. 6. Fear of Communism: • People were fearful that Communists were trying to take over America. • Communism – An economic and political system based on a single- party government ruled by a dictatorship. • A Communist Party formed in the US – 70,000 people joined. • Bombs were mailed to government offices and buildings. • This time period became known as the “Red Scare”
  7. 7. Palmer Raids: • Government officials began hunting down suspected communists, socialists, and anarchists. • Anarchist – People who oppose any form of government. • In the Palmer Raids, private homes and businesses were raided and hundreds were deported. • These raids failed to turn up anything big and were seen as a failure.
  8. 8. Sacco and Vanzetti: A Famous Case • In 1920, two Italian immigrants (and anarchists) were accused of murdering two factory guards • Witnesses said the criminals looked Italian • Sacco and Vanzetti were executed with no solid evidence • This is another example of the strong power of nativism.
  9. 9. The Klan Rises Again: • By 1924, KKK membership reached 4.5 million – all white male and native born. • The Klan believed in keeping black “in their place” and driving foreign born people out of America. • They were a radical and violent group • D.W. Griffith’s film – A Birth of a Nation was critically acclaimed in 1915. • Link to article on the film Click the picture for a link to the FULL video:
  10. 10. Limiting Immigration: • “Keep America for Americans” became the new slogan. • Less unskilled labor jobs were needed. • American resentment towards immigration had reached an all time high.
  11. 11. The Quota System: • From 1919-1921, the number of immigrants had grown almost 600% (from 141,000 to 805,000 people) • Congress decided that things needed to slow down. • They passed The Emergency Quota Act of 1921 – This system established the maximum number of people who could enter the US from each foreign country. • It worked – but the law prohibited Japanese immigrants and limited other particular groups (Roman Catholics and Jews) • This angered many groups
  12. 12. A Time Of Labor Unrest: • 1919 saw more than 3,000 labor strikes – 4 million workers walked off the job. • Even the Boston Police went on strike (union issues) • 300,000 steel workers also walked off their jobs. • Coal Miners went on strike as well • John L. Lewis led a protest and got them a 27% raise! • America was losing faith in it’s economy and presidency.
  13. 13. Section 2: The Harding Presidency • Main Idea: The Harding administration appealed to America’s desire for calm and peace after the war, but resulted in scandal. • Why it Matters Now: The government must guard against scandal and corruption to merit public trust. • Key Terms: • Fordney-McCumber Tariff • Ohio Gang • Teapot Dome Scandal • Key Names: • Warren G. Harding • Charles Evans Hughes • Albert B. Fall
  14. 14. Warren G. Harding: • Warren G. Harding took the presidency in 1921. • The public wanted things to go back to “normal” • Harding provided words of peace and calm • His judgment was not that great though. (we’ll soon find out)
  15. 15. Harding Struggles For Peace: • After the war, countries around the world were hurting economically. • Harding decided to call the nations to meet in Washington D.C. to figure out what needed to be done. • Charles Evans Hughes (Sec. of State) – suggested that the five largest naval powers scrap their warships. (US, Great Britain, Japan, France, Italy) • They agreed to disarm (for now)
  16. 16. High Tariffs and Reparations: • France and Britain owed $10 billion to America for the war. • Germany owed France and Britain for the damages • In 1922, the US adopted the Fordney-McCumber Tariff – raised taxes on US imports to 60%! • American investors loaned Germany $2.5 billion to pay back France and Britain. (Dawes Plan) • Then France and Britain paid the US (with interest) • Follow this? – The US was making money on the financial problems of others. Charles Dawes
  17. 17. Harding’s Cabinet: • Harding surrounded himself with good people (Charles Evans Hughes, Herbert Hoover, Andrew Mellon) • He also had some not so good ones. • The Ohio Gang – The President’s poker playing cronies that liked to cheat/bribe others (including the tax payers) out of money.
  18. 18. The Teapot Dome Scandal: • The government owned oil- rich land in Teapot Dome, Wyoming. • Teapot Dome Scandal – Albert B. Fall (US Navy Secretary) leased the land to private oil companies in return for a “cut” of the action. • He received more than $400,000 in loans, bonds, and cash. • He became the first American to be convicted of a felony while holding a cabinet post.
  19. 19. Harding Dies: • “I have no trouble with my enemies…But my friends...they’re the ones that keep me walking the floor at night.” • On August 2, 1923, Harding died suddenly from either a heart attack or a stroke. • Calvin Coolidge assumed the presidency and the next year was elected.
  20. 20. Section 3: The Business Of America • Main Idea: Consumer goods fueled the business boom of the 1920’s as America’s standard of living soared. • Why it Matters Now: Business, technological, and social developments of the 1920’s launched the era of modern consumerism. • Key Terms: • Urban Sprawl • Installment Plan • Key Names: • Calvin Coolidge
  21. 21. American Industries Flourish: • Calvin Coolidge focused hard on improving the American business. • He aimed to keep taxes down and business profits up. • We wanted to keep the government influence (in business) to a minimum and allow private companies to flourish. • Wages (and productivity) started to rise because of new technology.
  22. 22. The Impact Of The Automobile: (Part1) • The automobile allowed rural families to travel to cities for shopping and entertainment. • Paved roads were created everywhere • Route 66 was created to connect Chicago with California. • Gasoline stations, repair shops, and shopping centers popped up all over the place
  23. 23. The Impact Of The Automobile: (Part12) • People moved further away from their jobs – urban sprawl • The automobile was considered a status symbol as well • About 1/5 people had a car • Automobile factories sprung up in places like Detroit and Akron.
  24. 24. The Young Airplane Industry: • The US Post Office started the first mail carrying service. (by plane) • The first cargo and commercial airlines also began during this time. • Passengers started enjoying the speed of being able to travel by air. ($$)
  25. 25. America’s Standard Of Living Soars: • 1920-1929 was a very prosperous time for America. • Americans owned around 40% of the world’s wealth. • The average American income rose more than 35% (from $522-$705) • People started spending there money freely.
  26. 26. Electrical Conveniences: • Gasoline powered most everything prior to this time period. • Now, electricity started to become much more efficient. • Electricity was able to be transmitted over long distances. • Privileged homes had electric irons, refrigerators, stoves, and toasters
  27. 27. A Superficial Prosperity: • During the 1920’s most Americans believed this prosperity would go on forever. • National income was up • Most companies were making a fortune • The Stock Market was reaching unprecedented levels
  28. 28. Producing Great Quantities Of Goods: • As productivity increased, businesses expanded. • Companies merged, chain stores opened, farms produced excess crops. • Problems: • 1. Excess crops drove food prices down • 2. A huge income gap was being created between managers and workers
  29. 29. Buying Goods On Credit: • Big companies allowed consumers to buy things without paying for them in full. • They borrowed money from the banks at very low interest rates. • Installment Plans – buying goods over an extended period , without having to put down much money at the time of purchase.

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