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2014 12-22 - open 3 d printing and fabrication technology (cd)

3D printing - Innovator summer school Dar Es Salaam

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2014 12-22 - open 3 d printing and fabrication technology (cd)

  1. 1. Open 3D Printing Carmelo De Maria Open Source for Biomedical Engineering - OS4BME
  2. 2. 3D world A picture says than 1000 words ... ... a model tells the whole story
  3. 3. Built 3D object • Two approaches: o Subtractive o Additive
  4. 4. 3D printing ● 3D printing (or Additive Manufacturing)is a process of making a 3D solid object of virtually any shape from a digital model. ● 3D printing is achieved using an additive process, where successive layers of material are laid down in different shapes.
  5. 5. Computer Aided technologies (Cax)UN UNICO SISTEMA PRODUTTIVO INTEGRATO CIM - COMPUTER INTEGRATED MANUFACTURING CAD - COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN CAE - COMPUTER AIDED ENGINEERING CAM - COMPUTER AIDED MANUFACTURING CAPP - COMPUTER AIDED PROCESS PLANING • CAD – Design • CAE – Engineering • CAM – Manufacturing • CAPP – Process Planning • CIM – Computer Integrated Manufacturing
  6. 6. A possible classification
  7. 7. Available technologies ● Solidification of liquid materials ● Photo-polymerization process
  8. 8. ● Generation from the solid phase: ● incipiently or completely melted solid materials, powder, or powder mixtures: – Extrusion (FDM), – Ballistic and – Sintering processes Available technologies
  9. 9. ● Generation from the solid phase: ● incipiently or completely melted solid materials, powder, or powder mixtures: – Extrusion (FDM), – Ballistic and – Sintering processes Available technologies
  10. 10. ● Generation from the solid phase: ● Conglutination of granules or powders by additional binders – 3D inkjet printer Available technologies
  11. 11. • Features of RP Systems: o Process type - Stereo lithography, Laminating, Fused deposition modelling, Sintering of powder, Solid ground curing, etc. o Work space(mm) - depends on the models o Material - photopolymer resin, coated paper, ABS, wax, metal alloy, etc. Rapid Prototyping
  12. 12. Rapid Prototyping Machine Cost Material Application Fused Deposition Modeler 1600 (FDM) $10/hr ABS or Casting Wax Strong Parts Casting Patterns Laminated Object Manufacturing (LOM) $18/hr Paper (wood-like) Larger Parts Concept Models Sanders Model Maker 2 (Jet) $3.30/hr Wax Casting Pattern Selective Laser Sintering 2000 (SLS) $44/hr Polycarbonate TrueForm SandForm light: 100%; margin: 0">Casting Patterns Concept Models Stereolithography 250 (SLA) $33/hr Epoxy Resin (Translucent) Thin walls Durable Models Z402 3-D Modeller (Jet) $27.50/hr Starch/Wax Concept Models
  13. 13. • Features of RP Systems Layer thickness(mm) Accuracy (mm) SLA 0.05 - 0.3 0.01 - 0.2 LOM 0.1 - 1 0.1 - 0.2 FDM ≈0.05 0.130 - 0.260 SLS ≈0.08 0.03 - 0.4 SGC 0.01 - 0.15 0.05 - 0.5 Rapid Prototyping
  14. 14. Comparison chart Technology SLA SLS FDM Wax Inkjet 3D printer LOM Max Part Size (cm) 30x30x50 34x34x60 30x30x50 30x15x21 30x30x40 65x55x40 Speed Average Average to fair Poor Poor Excellent Good Accuracy Very good Good Fair Excellent Fair Fair Surface finish Very good Fair Fair Excellent Fair Fair to poor Strenghts Market leader, large part size, accuragy, wide product Market leader, accuracy, materials, large part size Lab on desktop, price, materials Accuracy, finish, lab on desktop Speed, lab on desktop, price, color Large part size, good for large castings, material cost Weaknesses Post processing, messy liquids Size and weight, system price, surface finish Speed Speed limited, materials, part size Limited materials, fragile parts, finsh Part stability, smoke, finish and accuracy
  15. 15. Which Process Should You Pick? Do you need a prototype (not just a model)? SLS, FDM (for robustness, strength). Do you need a mold for a small batch? SLA (for smooth, hard surface). Does part need multiple colors? 3D Color-Printing. Does part have convoluted internal spaces? 3D-Print, SLS, SLA (easy support removal).
  16. 16. Holoow Sphere Hollow sphere with drain/vent 2 Nested, perforated shperes 3D hilbert pipe Preassembled gear mechanism LOM ★ ★ ★ ★★★ ★ SLA ★ ★★★ ★★★★ ★★★★★ ★★★ FDM ★ ★ ★★★★ ★★★★ ★★★ 3D-P ★ ★★★★★ ★ ★★★★★ ★ ★★★★ ★★★★★ SLS ★ ★★★★★ ★ ★★★★★ ★ ★★★★★ Informal Process Ratings Matrix
  17. 17. Asking for a quote • http://www.redeyeondemand.com • http://www.redeyeondemand.com
  18. 18. MEDICAL APPLICATION OF RAPID PROTOTYPING
  19. 19. Invisalign Orthodontic Aligners An aligner for orthodontic use manufactured using a combination of rapid tooling and thermoforming. Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology, Fifth Edition, by Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid. ISBN 0-13-148965-8. © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
  20. 20. Surgery
  21. 21. Surgery
  22. 22. Surgery
  23. 23. Surgery
  24. 24. Tissue Engineering • Living cells are extracted from patients and seeded onto a carrier (scaffold) which accomodates and guides the growth of new cells in 3D within laboratory environment.
  25. 25. Tissue Engineering • STL Data produced from Micro-CT scan data • Multiple specimens of identical structure can be made, reducing samples variations.
  26. 26. IS IT A GOOD CHOICE TO 3DPRINT EVERY OBJECT?
  27. 27. Design for manufacture
  28. 28. Limitations of RP Methods • ACCURACY o Stair Stepping: Since rapid prototyping builds object in layers, there is inevitably a "stairstepping" effect produced because the layers have a finite thickness.
  29. 29. Limitations of RP Methods • ACCURACY o Precision: tolerances are still not quite at the level of CNC, Because of intervening energy exchanges and/or complex chemistry one cannot say with any certainty that one method of RP is always more accurate than another, or that a particular method always produces a certain tolerance.
  30. 30. Limitations of RP Methods • FINISH o The finish and appearance of a part are related to accuracy, but also depend on the method of RP employed. o Technologies based on powders have a sandy or diffuse appearance, sheet- based methods might be considered poorer in finish because the stairstepping is more pronounced.
  31. 31. Limitations of RP Methods • Secondary Operations o Post Curing (Stereolithography) o Inflintration, for fragile parts (3DP, MJM, SLS) o Final machining of metal parts o Removing of the support structures
  32. 32. Support structure (red material), water- soluble, fused deposition modeling (FDM). Support structure, stereolithography. Limitations of RP Methods
  33. 33. Limitations of RP Methods • System costs o from $30,000 to $800,000 o training, housing and maintenance (a laser for a stereolithography system costs more than $20,000) • Material o High cost o Available choices are limited.
  34. 34. Subtractive technologies ● Laser cutter ● CNC milling machines
  35. 35. Open Subtractive technologies www.buildyourcnc.com http://labs.nortd.com/lasersaur/ ● Laser cutter ● CNC milling machines
  36. 36. NC Machining & Rapid Prototyping • Numeric control machines requires a skilled operator to set up the maching specifying: o tools, o speeds, o raw materials. • NC Machining allows: o a wide range of materials o better accuracy o to reveal manufacturing limits in a given design.
  37. 37. Additive Fabrication vs Subtractive Fabrication • AF can not become complete replacement for the SF (Milling, Turning, EDM etc.) • AF technologies are instead complementary for: o complex or intricate geometric forms, o simultaneous fabrication of multiple parts into a single assembly, o multiple materials or composite materials in the same part. • Thus, AF is the enabling technology for controlled material composition as well as for geometric control.
  38. 38. Environmental and health issues IS 3D PRINTING ENVIRONMENTAL FRIENDLY? IS FDM A SAFE TECHNOLOGY?
  39. 39. OPEN 3D PRINTING The Rep Rap Project
  40. 40. Open 3D printing: the RepRap project ● RepRap is first general-purpose self-replicating manufacturing machine. ● RepRap takes the form of a free desktop 3D printer capable of printing plastic objects. ● Since many parts of RepRap are made from plastic and RepRap prints those parts, RepRap self-replicates by making a kit of itself - a kit that anyone can assemble given time and materials.
  41. 41. The RepRap Project
  42. 42. The RepRap Project
  43. 43. The RepRap Project
  44. 44. The RepRap Project
  45. 45. Fused deposition modelling
  46. 46. Materials  FFF = Fused Filament Fabrication  Filament: fine diameter plastic that exits from an extruder (some may refer to the plastic feed stock as filament as well)  Typically, the diameter of the filament varies between 1 mm and 3mm  The standard extruder produces filament using high pressure and heat to force molten plastic thru a very tiny hole.
  47. 47. Materials  “Standard” materials:  Poly-Lactic-Acid (PLA) (soft and hard)  Acrylonitril-Butadiene-Stiren (ABS)  “Experimental” materials:  Nylon  Polycarbonate (PC)  Poly vinyl alcohol (PVA)
  48. 48. Open questions • WHICH ARE THE INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY IMPLICATIONS OF LOW-COST 3D PRINTING? • IS THE OPEN SOURCE 3-D PRINTING AN ENABLING TECHNOLOGY FOR SELF-DIRECTED SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT?

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  • abujafri

    Jun. 14, 2018

3D printing - Innovator summer school Dar Es Salaam

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